Alicja Bukowska, Lorenz Schild, Philipp Bornfleth, Daniela Peter, Cornelia Wiese-Rischke, Andreas Gardemann, Berend Isermann, Thorsten Walles, Andreas Goette
There is growing evidence for the contribution of the activated coagulation factor X (FXa) in the development of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate effects of exogenous FXa on mitochondrial and metabolic function as well as the induction of inflammatory molecules in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Effects of FXa on epithelial cells were investigated in A549 cell line. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induction of inflammatory molecules were examined by immunoblot and gene expression analysis...
December 23, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Gregory J Grosicki, Ryan P Durk, James R Bagley
The human gut microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem with prolific health connotations. Physical activity is emerging as a potent regulator of human microbiome composition. This study examined changes in the gut microbiome of a world-class ultramarathon runner before and after competing in the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 163 km mountain footrace. Anthropometrics and body composition were assessed and the ultramarathoner's submaximal and maximal performance profiles were evaluated. Gut microbiome analyses were performed at four time-points: 21 weeks and 2 weeks before and 2 hours and 10 days after WSER...
December 2019: Physiological Reports
Alex Bach, Marta Terré, Maria Vidal
The dairy industry has focused on maximizing milk yield, as it is believed that this maximizes profit mainly through dilution of maintenance costs. Efficiency of milk production has received, until recently, considerably less attention. The most common method to determine biological efficiency of milk production is feed efficiency (FE), which is defined as the amount of milk produced relative to the amount of nutrients consumed. Economic efficiency is best measured as income over feed cost or gross margin obtained from feed investments...
December 11, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Sven Fikenzer, Kati Fikenzer, Ulrich Laufs, Roberto Falz, Antina Schulze, Martin Busse
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers are still frequently used in cardiovascular diseases but may negatively influence the exercise capacity. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of beta-blockade on physical performance and plasma level of catecholamine during different forms of exercise. METHODS: Ten prehypertensive athletes (age: 25.1±2.5 years, BMI: 24.4±2.4 kg/m2) performed repeated incremental exercise and steady-state-tests without and with the cardio-selective beta-blocker bisoprolol (5mg/day)...
December 5, 2019: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Mackenzie L Bergstrom, Urs Kalbitzer, Fernando A Campos, Amanda D Melin, Melissa Emery Thompson, Linda M Fedigan
A key goal in behavioral ecology is to investigate the factors influencing the access to food resources and energetic condition of females, which are strong predictors of their reproductive success. We aimed to investigate how ecological factors, social factors, and reproductive state are associated with energetic condition in a wild neotropical primate using non-invasive measures. We first assessed and compared urinary C-peptide levels (uCP), the presence of urinary ketones (uKet), and behaviorally assessed energy balance (bEB) in female white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus imitator) living in Santa Rosa, Costa Rica...
November 21, 2019: Hormones and Behavior
Gordon R Ultsch, Matthew D Regan
The critical O2 tension ( P crit ) is the lowest P O2  at which an animal can maintain some benchmark rate of O2 uptake ( Ṁ O2 ). This P O2  has long served as a comparator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes and aquatic invertebrates, but its usefulness in this role, particularly when applied to fishes, has recently been questioned. We believe that P crit remains a useful comparator of hypoxia tolerance provided it is determined using the proper methods and hypoxia tolerance is clearly defined. Here, we review the available methods for each of the three steps of P crit determination: (1) measuring the most appropriate benchmark Ṁ O2  state for P crit determination ( Ṁ O2 ,std , the Ṁ O2  required to support standard metabolic rate); (2) reducing water P O2 ; and (3) calculating P crit from the Ṁ O2  versus P O2  curve...
November 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
José Ramón Lillo-Beviá, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Victor Cerezuela-Espejo, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Jesús G Pallarés
Lillo-Beviá, JR, Courel-Ibáñez, J, Cerezuela-Espejo, V, Morán-Navarro, R, Martínez-Cava, A, and Pallarés, JG. Is the functional threshold power a valid metric to estimate the maximal lactate steady state in cyclists? J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The aims of this study were to determine (a) the repeatability of a 20-minute time-trial (TT20), (b) the location of the TT20 in relation to the main physiological events of the aerobic-anaerobic transition, and (c) the predictive power of a list of correction factors and linear/multiple regression analysis applied to the TT20 result to estimate the individual maximal lactate steady state (MLSS)...
November 7, 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield, Juan M Murias
PURPOSE: To (1) compare the power output (PO) for both the 20-minute functional threshold power (FTP20) field test and the calculated 95% (FTP95%) with PO at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and (2) evaluate the sensitivity of FTP95% and MLSS to training-induced changes. METHODS: Eighteen participants (12 males: 37 [6] y and 6 females: 28 [6] y) performed a ramp-incremental cycling test to exhaustion, 2 to 3 constant-load MLSS trials, and an FTP20 test. A total of 10 participants returned to repeat the test series after 7 months of training...
November 4, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Anmol T Mattu, Danilo Iannetta, Martin J MacInnis, Patricia K Doyle-Baker, Juan M Murias
To examine whether the menstrual or monophasic oral contraceptive cycle phases affect submaximal (oxygen uptake ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover> </mml:math> O2 ) kinetics, maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS)) and maximal ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover> </mml:math> O2max , time-to-exhaustion (TTE)) responses to exercise in healthy, active women...
March 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Todd A Astorino, Sarah Sherrick, Monique Mariscal, Vianney Camarillo Jimenez, Kelli Stetson, Daniel Courtney
The present study examined the effect of meal intake on physiological and psychological indices during self-selected high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Seventeen active men and women (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 yr) completed ramp cycle ergometry to determine maximal oxygen uptake and peak power output. On two subsequent days, they performed a session of self-selected HIIE consisting of ten 1 min bouts separated by 1 min recovery in the fed or fasted state, whose order was randomized. Meal intake consisted of a banana and a Zone™ bar containing 315 kcal, which were ingested 2 h pre-exercise, and the fasted state required no food for > 12 h pre-exercise...
September 2019: Biology of Sport
Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield, Ahmad Qahtani, Martin J MacInnis, Juan M Murias
It is typically assumed that in the context of double-leg cycling, dominant (DOMLEG ) and non-dominant (NDOMLEG ) legs have similar aerobic capacity and that both contribute equally to the whole-body physiological responses. However, there is a paucity of studies that have systematically investigated maximal and submaximal aerobic performance and characterized the profiles of local muscle deoxygenation in relation to leg-dominance. Using counterweighted single-leg cycling, this study explored whether peak O2 consumption (V̇O2peak ), maximal lactate steady-state (MLSSp ), and profiles of local deoxygenation [HHb] would be different in the DOMLEG compared with the NDOMLEG ...
October 16, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Danilo Iannetta, Rafael de Almeida Azevedo, Daniel A Keir, Juan M Murias
The dissociation between constant-work rate V̇O2 and ramp-V̇O2 at a given work rate might be mitigated during slow increasing ramp-protocols. This study characterized the V̇O2 dynamics in response to five different ramp-protocols and constant-work rate trials at the maximal metabolic steady-state (MMSS), to characterize i ) the V̇O2 gain (G) in the moderate, heavy, and severe domains, ii ) the mean response time of V̇O2 (MRT), iii ) the work rates at lactate threshold (LT) and respiratory compensation-point (RCP)...
October 3, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Morten Kristoffersen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Bent R Rønnestad, Hilde Gundersen
Purpose: To compare the effects of short-sprint training (SST) and heavy-strength training (HST) following a 4-week strength-training period on sprint and endurance capacities in well-trained cyclists. Methods: Twenty-eight competitive cyclists (age 29 ± 6 years) with maximal oxygen uptake () of 61.1 ± 5.9 mL⋅min-1 ⋅kg-1 participated. After a 4-weeks preparation strength-training period, the participants were randomized to add either HST or SST to their usual endurance training for the subsequent 6 weeks...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Monèm Jemni, Yaodong Gu, Qiuli Hu, Michel Marina, Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi, Wassim Moalla, Bessem Mkaouer, Ferman Konukman
The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses between a vibration induced cycling step protocol (Vib) and normal cycling (without vibration, no-Vib). Eighteen moderate trained males (age 24.1 ± 4.3 years; weight 76.5 ± 10.5 kg; height 178.0 ± 6.4 cm) have participated in this study. They randomly performed two gradual maximal exercise tests on two separate days using a new bike that automatically induces vibration cycling and the Corival cycle ergometer. The choice of two different bikes was made because of the impossibility to recreate the same power output without altering the cycling cadence on the vibration Bike...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Ursula Ferreira Julio, David H St-Pierre, Alícia Tavares da Silva Gomes, Renan Santos Caldeira, Fabio Santos Lira, Monica Yuri Takito, Emerson Franchini
The present study sought to clarify the impact of exercise intensity and timing on energy intake and appetite-related blood variables. Fourteen inactive overweight men were included in the study. Firstly, maximal aerobic power (MAP) was measured. Then, participants randomly performed 5 experimental sessions consisting of 30 min of steady-state exercise (SSE) at 50% of MAP, high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) with 30s repetitions at MAP and 30s of passive recovery or no exercise (CTRL). Sessions were performed 1h (SSE1h and HIIE1h ) or 2...
December 1, 2019: Appetite
Ibai Garcia-Tabar, Ermanno Rampinini, Esteban M Gorostiaga
Purpose : The association between an overlooked classical Lactate Threshold (LT), named "Minimum Lactate Equivalent" (LEmin ), with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) has been recently described with good MLSS prediction results in endurance-trained runners. This study aimed to determine the applicability of LEmin to predict MLSS in lower aerobic-conditioned individuals compared to well-established blood lactate-related thresholds (BLTs). Method : Fifteen soccer players [velocity at MLSS (MLSSV ) 13...
December 2019: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Danilo Iannetta, Erin Calaine Inglis, Anmol T Mattu, Federico Y Fontana, Silvia Pogliaghi, Daniel A Keir, Juan M Murias
Common methods to prescribe exercise intensity are based on fixed percentages of maximum rate of oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), peak work rate (WRpeak), maximal HR (HRmax). However, it is unknown how these methods compare to the current models to partition the exercise intensity spectrum. PURPOSE: Thus, the aim of this study was to compare contemporary gold-standard approaches for exercise prescription based on fixed percentages of maximum values to the well-established, but underutilized, "domain" schema of exercise intensity...
February 2020: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Niki M Zacharias, Natalia Baran, Sriram S Shanmugavelandy, Jaehyuk Lee, Juliana Velez Lujan, Prasanta Dutta, Steven W Millward, Tianyu Cai, Christopher G Wood, David Piwnica-Worms, Marina Konopleva, Pratip K Bhattacharya
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic disease characterized by glutamine-dependent metabolism. A novel glutaminase (GLS) inhibitor, CB-839, is currently under evaluation for treatment of hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Our purpose was to measure cellular changes in AML associated with CB-839 treatment and to test the ability of hyperpolarized pyruvate for interrogating these changes to OCI-AML3 cells. Our results show that treatment with CB-839 interfered with the citric acid cycle, reduced the NADH/NAD+ ratio and ATP levels, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and reduced the basal and maximal respiratory capacities (OCR)...
August 6, 2019: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Tobias Schmidt, Sarah Wulff, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Ruediger Reer
The study assessed if the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) may be determined by HRV in overweight and obese individuals. Fourteen obese (OB) and 14 overweight (OW) participants performed an incremental exercise test and several constant-load tests on a bicycle ergometer to determine the MLSS. HRV was analysed by using time domain and non-linear parameters of the Poincaré plot. Various HRV thresholds (HRVt) were detected and compared with the MLSS. Overall, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated moderate to strong agreements between the power at the MLSS and the power at HRVt, with all HRVt overestimating the MLSS (range: - 14...
April 2019: Sports Medicine International Open
Andrew M Jones, Mark Burnley, Matthew I Black, David C Poole, Anni Vanhatalo
The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and the critical power (CP) are two widely used indices of the highest oxidative metabolic rate that can be sustained during continuous exercise and are often considered to be synonymous. However, while perhaps having similarities in principle, methodological differences in the assessment of these parameters typically result in MLSS occurring at a somewhat lower power output or running speed and exercise at CP being sustainable for no more than approximately 20-30 min...
May 2019: Physiological Reports
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