polycomb repressor complex

Debora Salerno, Letizia Chiodo, Vincenzo Alfano, Oceane Floriot, Grazia Cottone, Alexia Paturel, Matteo Pallocca, Marie-Laure Plissonnier, Safaa Jeddari, Laura Belloni, Mirjam Zeisel, Massimo Levrero, Francesca Guerrieri
OBJECTIVE: The HBV HBx regulatory protein is required for transcription from the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome and affects the epigenetic control of both viral and host cellular chromatin. DESIGN: We explored, in relevant cellular models of HBV replication, the functional consequences of HBx interaction with DLEU2, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in the liver and increased in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in the regulation of host target genes and the HBV cccDNA...
February 29, 2020: Gut
Priya Gupta, Shweta Roy, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Arabidopsis LONG-CHAIN BASE KINASE 1 (LCBK1) interacts with MEDEA, a component of PCR2 complex that negatively regulates immunity. LCBK1 phosphorylates phytosphingosine and thereby promotes stomatal immunity against bacterial pathogens. Arabidopsis polycomb-group repressor complex2 (PRC2) protein MEDEA (MEA) suppresses both pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). MEA represses the expression of RPS2 and thereby attenuates AvrRpt2 effector-mediated ETI. However, the mechanism of MEA-mediated PTI diminution was not known...
February 25, 2020: Plant Molecular Biology
Eswar Shankar, Daniel Franco, Omair Iqbal, Victoria El-Hayek, Sanjay Gupta
Development of resistance to anti-androgen therapy limits the usefulness of second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonists including enzalutamide and abiraterone in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Recent genomic studies reveal that AR-regulated genes contribute to CRPC emergence. Several reasons for the development of resistance towards anti-androgens have been hypothesized, including intracellular testosterone production, androgen overexpression, somatic mutations of AR resulting in a gain of function, constitutive activation of AR splice variants, imbalance in AR regulators, and bypass of AR in CRPC progression...
February 19, 2020: Medical Hypotheses
Rachel K Lex, Zhicheng Ji, Kristin N Falkenstein, Weiqiang Zhou, Joanna L Henry, Hongkai Ji, Steven A Vokes
Transcriptional repression needs to be rapidly reversible during embryonic development. This extends to the Hedgehog pathway, which primarily serves to counter GLI repression by processing GLI proteins into transcriptional activators. In investigating the mechanisms underlying GLI repression, we find that a subset of GLI binding regions, termed HH-responsive enhancers, specifically loses acetylation in the absence of HH signaling. These regions are highly enriched around HH target genes and primarily drive HH-specific transcriptional activity in the mouse limb bud...
January 28, 2020: ELife
V Loubiere, G L Papadopoulos, Q Szabo, A-M Martinez, G Cavalli
Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 have been historically described as transcriptional repressors, but recent reports suggest that PRC1 might also support activation, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that stage-specific PRC1 binding at a subset of active promoters and enhancers during Drosophila development coincides with the formation of three-dimensional (3D) loops, an increase in expression during development and repression in PRC1 mutants. Dissection of the dachshund locus indicates that PRC1-anchored loops are versatile architectural platforms that persist when surrounding genes are transcriptionally active and fine-tune their expression...
January 2020: Science Advances
Jakob Hofvander, Vickie Y Jo, Christopher D M Fletcher, Florian Puls, Uta Flucke, Jenny Nilsson, Linda Magnusson, Fredrik Mertens
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a soft tissue tumor frequently displaying gene fusions, most of which affect the PHF1 gene. PHF1 encodes plant homeodomain finger protein 1, which is involved in various processes regulating gene transcription, including those orchestrated by the polycomb repressor complex 2. Here, a series of 37 OFMTs, including 18 typical, 9 atypical, and 10 malignant variants, was analyzed with regard to transcriptomic features, gene fusion and copy number status, and/or single-nucleotide variants...
January 13, 2020: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2020: Journal of Urology
Nenavath Gopal Naik, Thomas Hong Nguyen, Lauren Roberts, Luke Todd Fischer, Katherine Glickman, Gavin Golas, Bernadett Papp, Zsolt Toth
Establishment of viral latency is not only essential for lifelong Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but it is also a prerequisite of viral tumorigenesis. The latent viral DNA has a complex chromatin structure, which is established in a stepwise manner regulated by host epigenetic factors during de novo infection. However, despite the importance of viral latency in KSHV pathogenesis, we still have limited information about the repertoire of epigenetic factors that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of KSHV latency...
January 10, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Yi Ding, Jie Yang, Yawen Ma, Tengteng Yao, Xingyu Chen, Shengfang Ge, Lihua Wang, Xianqun Fan
BACKGROUND: The MYCN amplification is a defining hallmark of high-risk neuroblastoma. Due to irregular oncogenes orchestration, tumor cells exhibit distinct fatty acid metabolic features from non-tumor cells. However, the function of MYCN in neuroblastoma fatty acid metabolism reprogramming remains unknown. METHODS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to find the potential target fatty acid metabolites of MYCN. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and clinical bioinformatics analysis was used to find the related target genes...
December 19, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Puneet Paul, Balpreet K Dhatt, Michael Miller, Jing J Folsom, Zhen Wang, Inga Krassovskaya, Kan Liu, Jaspreet Sandhu, Huihui Yu, Chi Zhang, Toshihiro Obata, Paul Staswick, Harkamal Walia
MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are subdivided into type-I and II based on phylogenetic analysis. The type II's regulate floral organ identity and flowering time, but type I's are relatively less characterized. Here, we report functional characterization of two type-I MADS-box TFs in rice (Oryza sativa), MADS78 and MADS79. Transcript abundance of both these genes in developing seed peaked at 48 hours after fertilization (HAF) and was suppressed by 96 HAF, corresponding to syncytial and cellularized stages of endosperm development, respectively...
December 9, 2019: Plant Physiology
Elena Alexandrova, Giorgio Giurato, Pasquale Saggese, Giovanni Pecoraro, Jessica Lamberti, Maria Ravo, Francesca Rizzo, Domenico Rocco, Roberta Tarallo, Tuula A Nyman, Francesca Collina, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito, Gerardo Botti, Giovanni Nassa, Alessandro Weisz
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by poor response to therapy and low overall patient survival. Recently, Estrogen Receptor beta (ERβ) has been found to be expressed in a fraction of TNBCs where, due to its oncosuppressive actions on the genome, it represents a potential therapeutic target, provided a better understanding of its actions in these tumors becomes available. To this end, the cell lines Hs 578T, MDA-MB-468 and HCC1806, representing the claudin-low, basal-like 1 and 2 TNBC molecular subtypes respectively, were engineered to express ERβ under the control of a Tetracycline-inducible promoter and used to investigate the effects of this transcription factor on gene activity...
December 2, 2019: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Xingwen Wang, Yudong Wang, Li Li, Xuting Xue, Hui Xie, Huaxing Shi, Ying Hu
Hypoxia is a salient feature of the tumor microenvironment. HIF-1α is a master regulator of hypoxic adaption. The polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) molecule Ezh2 is known to play roles in essential cellular processes of cell fate decisions. However, how PRC2-mediated epigenetic dynamic changes take part in hypoxic adaption is not completely understood. Recently, we identified a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) named HITT (HIF-1α inhibitor at translation levels) that plays roles in modulating hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo...
February 2020: Oncogene
Ning Gao, Jingming Li, Yazhou Qin, Yingna Wang, Qianyang Kang, Cheng Pei
The opacity of the lens capsule after cataract surgery is caused by epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells. Snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) is a transcriptional repressor that recruits multiple chromatin enzymes including lysine‑specific histone demethylase 1A, histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1/2, polycomb repressive complex 2, euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2 and suppressor of variegation 3‑9 homolog 1 to the E‑cadherin promoter, thereby suppressing E‑cadherin expression...
November 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sebastian C B Bremer, Lena-Christin Conradi, Nicolae-Catalin Mechie, Ahmad Amanzada, Eirini Mavropoulou, Julia Kitz, Michael Ghadimi, Volker Ellenrieder, Philipp Ströbel, Elisabeth Hessmann, Jochen Gaedcke, Hanibal Bohnenberger
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the leading gastrointestinal malignancy. The development from premalignant intraepithelial lesions leading to invasive cancer is paradigmatic for the stepwise carcinogenesis of epithelial cancers, but the knowledge of the underlying mechanism of carcinogenesis and progression of CRC is still incomplete. The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis has led to new therapeutic approaches during the last years. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is one central epigenetic silencer of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) that is already in clinical use as a novel drug target and is associated with poorer prognosis in several cancer entities...
November 6, 2019: Digestion
Xiaolin Zeng, Zheng Gao, Chuan Jiang, Yupeng Yang, Renyi Liu, Yuehui He
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes repressive histone 3 lysine-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to mediate genome-wide transcriptional repression in plants and animals. PRC2 controls various developmental processes in plants and plays a critical role in the developmental transition to flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), first identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is a potent floral repressor in crucifers and some other plants that is subjected to complex regulation. Here, we show that HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9)-mediated H3K27 deacetylation is required for PRC2-mediated H3K27 trimethylation in Arabidopsis...
October 22, 2019: Plant Physiology
Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Hsu-Tung Lee, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Yu Zhao, Chung Y Hsu, Woei-Cherng Shyu
AIMS: Investigations of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia- and ischaemia-induced endogenous neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation have mainly focused on factors secreted in response to environmental cues. However, little is known about the intrinsic regulatory machinery underlying the self-renewing division of NPCs in the brain after stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Polycomb repressor complex 1-chromobox7 (CBX7) has emerged as a key regulator in several cellular processes including stem cell self-renewal and cancer cell proliferation...
October 19, 2019: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Delfina A Ré, Damian A Cambiagno, Agustin L Arce, Ariel H Tomassi, Marisol Giustozzi, Paula Casati, Federico D Ariel, Pablo A Manavella
CURLY LEAF (CLF) encodes the methyl-transferase sub-unit of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), which regulates the expression of target genes through H3K27 tri-methylation. We isolated a new CLF mutant allele (clf-78) using a genetic screening designed to identify micro RNAs (miRNA) deficient mutants. CLF mutant plants showed impaired miRNA activity caused by increased AGO1 ubiquitination and enhanced degradation in specific tissues. Such CLF-mediated AGO1 regulation was evidenced when plants were exposed to UV radiation, causing increased susceptibility of clf mutants to some UV-induced responses...
October 10, 2019: Molecular Plant
Alison Hirukawa, Salendra Singh, Jarey Wang, Jonathan P Rennhack, Matthew Swiatnicki, Virginie Sanguin-Gendreau, Dongmei Zuo, Kamilia Daldoul, Cynthia Lavoie, Morag Park, Eran R Andrechek, Thomas F Westbrook, Lyndsay N Harris, Vinay Varadan, Harvey W Smith, William J Muller
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB2/HER2, such as Trastuzumab, are the standard of care therapy for breast cancers driven by ERBB2 overexpression and activation. However, a substantial proportion of patients exhibit de novo resistance. Here, by comparing matched Trastuzumab-naive and post-treatment patient samples from a neoadjuvant trial, we link resistance with elevation of H3K27me3 , a repressive histone modification catalyzed by polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2)...
October 8, 2019: Cell Reports
Bin Li, Yuyuan Chen, Fei Wang, Jun Guo, Wen Fu, Min Li, Qichang Zheng, Yong Liu, Lingling Fan, Lei Li, Chuanrui Xu
Bmi1 is overexpressed in one-third of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and acts as an oncogene in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. The role of TGFβ signalling in HCC is not well defined as well. Here, we report that TGFβ2 is a target of Bmi1 in HCC and has a tumour-suppressing role. In Bmi1-knockout mouse livers and HCC cell lines, TGFβ2/SMAD cascade proteins were upregulated. TGFβ2 expression was inversely correlated with Bmi1 expression in human and mouse HCC tissues...
October 7, 2019: Oncogene
F-P Li, D-Q Ling, L-Y Gao
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies highlighted long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes and diseases. However, atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the detailed mechanism of atherosclerosis progression remained unclear. In this study, we mainly focused on the role of lncRNA Chaer in atherosclerosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of lncRNA Chaer in atherosclerosis patients and animal model...
September 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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