neural precursor cell

Julia K Vogel, Matthias Weider, Lisa A Engler, Simone Hillgärtner, Christian Schmitt, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Michael Wegner
The high-mobility-group (HMG)-domain protein Sox9 is one of few transcription factors implicated in gliogenesis in the vertebrate central nervous system. To further study the role of Sox9 in early spinal cord development, we generated a mouse that allows expression of Sox9 in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Using this mouse, we show that premature Sox9 expression in neural precursor cells disrupted the neuroepithelium of the ventricular zone. Sox9 also compromised development and survival of neuronal precursors and neurons...
November 14, 2019: Glia
Pei Pei, Xiyue Cheng, Juan Yu, Jinying Shen, Xue Li, Jianxin Wu, Shan Wang, Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations resulting in failure of the neural tube closure during early embryonic development. Although it is known that maternal folate deficiency increases the risk of NTDs, the mechanism remains elusive. RESULTS: Herein, we report that histone H2A monoubiquitination (H2AK119ub1) plays a role in neural tube closure. We found that the folate antagonist methotrexate induced H2AK119ub1 in mouse embryonic stem cells...
November 13, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Fiore Manganelli, Silvia Parisi, Maria Nolano, Francesco Miceli, Stefano Tozza, Chiara Pisciotta, Rosa Iodice, Vincenzo Provitera, Rita Cicatiello, Stephan Zuchner, Maurizio Taglialatela, Tommaso Russo, Lucio Santoro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The development of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offered interesting insights in modeling the pathogenesis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and thus we decided to explore the phenotypes of iPSCs derived from a single CMT patient carrying a mutant ATP1A1 allele (p.Pro600Ala). iPSCs clones generated from CMT and control fibroblasts, were induced to differentiate into neural precursors and then into post-mitotic neurons. Control iPSCs differentiated into neuronal precursors and then into post-mitotic neurons within 6-8 days...
November 9, 2019: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Yuan Li, Xiang Mao, Xianyi Zhou, Yuting Su, Xiangyu Zhou, Kaituo Shi, Shasha Zhao
BACKGROUND: Neural differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is an excellent model for elucidating the key mechanisms involved in neurogenesis, and also provides an unlimited source of progenitors for cell-based nerve regeneration. However, the existing protocols such as small molecule substances, 3D matrix, co-culture technique and transgenic method, are complicated and difficult to operate, thus are limited by laboratory conditions. Looking for an easy-to-operate protocol with easily gained material and high induction efficiency has always been a hot issue in neuroscience research...
November 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Anne-Laure Thomas, Jordan S Taylor, Nhan Huynh, Genia Dubrovsky, Jean-Paul Chadarevian, Angela Chen, Samuel Baker, James C Y Dunn
BACKGROUND: Hirschprung's disease is characterized by aganglionic bowel and often requires surgical resection. Cell-based therapies have been investigated as potential alternatives to restore functioning neurons. Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) differentiate into neural and glial cells in vitro and generate ganglion-like structures in rodents. In this report, we aimed to translate this approach into a large animal model of aganglionosis using autologous transplantation of SKPs. METHODS: Juvenile pigs underwent skin procurement from the shoulder and simultaneous chemical denervation of an isolated colonic segment...
October 24, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lukas Tamayo-Orrego, Frédéric Charron
Medulloblastoma, the most common of the malignant pediatric brain tumors, is a group of four molecularly and clinically distinct cancers with different cells of origin. One of these medulloblastoma groups displays activation of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling and originates from granule cell precursors of the developing cerebellum. Ongoing basic and clinical research efforts are tailored to discover targeted and safer therapies, which rely on the identification of the basic mechanisms regulating tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2019: F1000Research
Daniel Jirak, Natalia Ziolkowska, Karolina Turnovcova, Kristyna Karova, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Nataliya Romanyuk
There is currently no treatment for restoring lost neurological function after stroke. A growing number of studies have highlighted the potential of stem cells. However, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect have yet to be explored in sufficient detail. In this study, we transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors (iPSC-NPs) in rat temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) we monitored the effect of cells and assessed lesion volume and metabolite changes in the brain...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Ivan Pavičić, Mirta Milić, Igor M Pongrac, Lada Brkić Ahmed, Tanja Matijević Glavan, Krunoslav Ilić, Emilija Zapletal, Marija Ćurlin, Dinko Mitrečić, Ivana Vinković Vrček
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent one of the most abundant biocidal nanomaterials contained in more than 30% of nano-enabled consumer products and 75% of nanomedical products. The cumulative exposure of the general population may therefore reach critical and potentially hazardous levels. Due to data gaps on AgNP effects in humans, it is urgent to further evaluate their possible toxicity, particularly in vulnerable systems like the nervous one. As AgNPs may cross the blood brain and placental barriers, this study evaluated the in vitro effect of different AgNPs on neuronal precursor cells...
November 3, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Seon-Ae Jeon, Dong Wook Kim, Je-Yoel Cho
E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the role of neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) in regulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis in human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSCs). Cell proliferation was increased in low doses of H2 O2 (10-4 to 10-2 μM), whereas sublethal concentrations of H2 O2 (>200 μM) induced apoptosis. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay identified that recruitment of NF-κB onto the promoter region of NEDD4 mediated H2 O2 -induced NEDD4 expression...
November 5, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
John T Brosnan, Margaret E Brosnan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this report is to examine critical relationships between amino acid and formate metabolism with particular reference to the production of formate, and to review novel functions of formate. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to well established mechanisms in one-carbon metabolism, formate may play an important role in early pregnancy by preventing the onset of neural tube defects in sensitive strains of mice, including mice with deficiencies in MTHFD1L, the glycine cleavage system and the mitochondrial folate transporter...
November 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Francisco M Vega, Ana Colmenero-Repiso, María A Gómez-Muñoz, Ismael Rodríguez-Prieto, Diana Aguilar-Morante, Gema Ramírez, Catalina Márquez, Rosa Cabello, Ricardo Pardal
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a paediatric tumour originated from sympathoadrenal precursors and characterized by its heterogeneity and poor outcome in advanced stages. Intra-tumoral cellular heterogeneity has emerged as an important feature in neuroblastoma, with a potential major impact on tumour aggressiveness and response to therapy. CD44 is an adhesion protein involved in tumour progression, metastasis and stemness in different cancers; however, there has been controversies about the significance of CD44 expression in neuroblastoma and its relationship with tumour progression...
November 2, 2019: EBioMedicine
Ricardo Vallejo, David C Platt, Jonathan A Rink, Marjorie A Jones, Courtney A Kelley, Ashim Gupta, Cynthia L Cass, Kirk Eichenberg, Alejandro Vallejo, William J Smith, Ramsin Benyamin, David L Cedeño
Glial cells comprise the majority of cells in the central nervous system and exhibit diverse functions including the development of persistent neuropathic pain. While earlier theories have proposed that the applied electric field specifically affects neurons, it has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) of neural tissue modulates gene expression of the glial cells. This study examines the effect of ES on the expression of eight genes related to oxidative stress and neuroprotection in cultured rodent glioma cells...
October 31, 2019: Brain Sciences
Michael J Corley, Nauru Vargas-Maya, Alina P S Pang, Annette Lum-Jones, Dongmei Li, Vedbar Khadka, Razvan Sultana, D Caroline Blanchard, Alika K Maunakea
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are hypothesized to originate in utero from perturbations in neural stem cell niche regions of the developing brain. Dynamic epigenetic processes including DNA methylation are integral to coordinating typical brain development. However, the extent and consequences of alterations to DNA methylation states in neural stem cell compartments in ASD are unknown. Here, we report significant DNA methylation defects in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles from postmortem brain of 17 autism diagnosed compared to 17 age- and gender-matched typically developing individuals...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
Jaini Flora Arokianathan, Koduvayur A Ramya, Asuma Janeena, Abhijit P Deshpande, Niraikulam Ayyadurai, Ambrose Leemarose, Ganesh Shanmugam
Supramolecular gel material built from low-molecular-weight (LMW) gelators finds potential applications in various fields, especially in drug delivery, cell encapsulation and delivery, and tissue engineering. The majority of the LMW gelators in these applications are based on functionalized peptides/amino acids consisting of proteinogenic amino acids which are proteolytically unstable. Herein, we have developed a new LMW gelator containing non-proteinogenic amino acid namely 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap), a key precursor in the synthesis of many antibiotics namely viomycin and capreomycin, by functionalizing with fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl at both amino terminals of Dap [Fm-Dap(Fm)]...
October 16, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xingwang Jiang, Shangxin Zhang, Zihuan Yin, Yi Sheng, Qiang Yan, Ruochuan Sun, Mingdian Lu, Zhen Zhang, Yongxiang Li
NEDD4L (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-like) protein is a member of ubiquitin ligases Nedd4 family. Although studies have shown that Nedd4L may act as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC), its clinical significance and the diagnostic value in GC is not well defined. HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor family of transcription factors) is actively involved in the metabolism of many tumors, although the relationship between its expression levels and clinical significance in GC still need to be established...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Ji Hoon Jung, Eun Ah Shin, Ju-Ha Kim, Deok Yong Sim, Hyemin Lee, Ji Eon Park, Hyo-Jung Lee, Sung-Hoon Kim
The underlying interaction between melatonin (MLT) and daily fruit intake still remains unclear to date, despite multibiological effects of MLT. Herein, the apoptotic mechanism by co-treatment of MLT and pterostilbene (Ptero) contained mainly in grape and blueberries was elucidated in colorectal cancers (CRCs). MLT and Ptero co-treatment (MLT+Ptero) showed synergistic cytotoxicity compared with MLT or Ptero alone, reduced the number of colonies and Ki67 expression, and also increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling- (TUNEL) positive cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in CRCs...
October 29, 2019: Cancers
George Edwards Iii, Nazaret Gamez, Enrique Armijo, Carlos Kramm, Rodrigo Morales, Kathleen Taylor-Presse, Paul E Schulz, Claudio Soto, Ines Moreno-Gonzalez
: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor control due to a wide loss of dopaminergic neurons along the nigro-striatal pathway. Some of the mechanisms that contribute to this cell death are inflammation, oxidative stress, and misfolded alpha-synuclein-induced toxicity. Current treatments are effective at managing the early motor symptoms of the disease, but they become ineffective over time and lead to adverse effects. Previous research using intracerebral stem cell therapy for treatment of PD has provided promising results; however, this method is very invasive and is often associated with unacceptable side effects...
October 30, 2019: Cells
Sharmistha Naskar, Viswanathan Kumaran, Yogananda S Markandeya, Bhupesh Mehta, Bikramjit Basu
A number of bioengineering strategies, using biophysical stimulation, are being explored to guide the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMScs) into different lineages. In this context, we have limited understanding on the transdifferentiation of matured cells to another functional-cell type, when grown with stem cells, in a constrained cellular microenvironment under biophysical stimulation. While addressing such aspects, the present work reports the influence of the electric field (EF) stimulation on the phenotypic and functionality modulation of the coculture of murine myoblasts (C2C12) with hMScs [hMSc:C2C12=1:10] in a custom designed polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based microfluidic device with in-built metal electrodes...
October 9, 2019: Biomaterials
Mariko Komabayashi-Suzuki, Emiko Yamanishi, Chisato Watanabe, Megumi Okamura, Hidenori Tabata, Ryota Iwai, Itsuki Ajioka, Jun Matsushita, Hiroyasu Kidoya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Tadashi Okamoto, Kazuo Kinoshita, Masamitsu Ichihashi, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Masatsugu Ema, Ken-Ichi Mizutani
To facilitate efficient oxygen and nutrient delivery, blood vessels in the brain form three-dimensional patterns. However, little is known about how blood vessels develop stereographically in the neocortex and how they control the expansion and differentiation of neural progenitors during neocortical development. We show that highly vascularized and avascular regions are strictly controlled in a spatially and temporally restricted manner and are associated with distinct cell populations. Dividing basal progenitors and oligodendrocyte precursors preferentially contact honeycomb vessels, but dividing apical progenitors are localized in avascular regions without Flt1-positive endothelial cells but directly contact with sprouting neovascular tip cells...
October 29, 2019: Cell Reports
Brandon A Kemp, Nancy L Howell, John J Gildea, Shetal H Padia
Intrarenal ghrelin infusion activates ghrelin receptors in the kidney collecting duct (CD) to increase α epithelial sodium (Na+ ) channel ( α ENa C)-dependent Na+ reabsorption in vivo , but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Seventy-two hours following uninephrectomy, 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received the following renal interstitial (RI) infusions for 1 hour after a 1-hour control: vehicle (n = 10), ghrelin (3 μg/minute; n = 8), ghrelin + phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY-294002 (0...
November 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
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