neural precursor cell

Carlos Ayala-Grosso, Rosalinda Pieruzzini, Leslie Vargas-Saturno, José E Cardier
INTRODUCTION: The olfactory neuro-epithelium has an intrinsic capability of renewal during lifetime provided by the existence of globose and horizontal olfactory precursor cells. Additionally, mesenchymal stromal olfactory cells also support the homeostasis of the olfactory mucosa cell population. Under in vitro culture conditions with Dulbecco modified eagle/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, tissue biopsies from upper turbinate have generated an adherent population of cells expressing mainly mesenchymal stromal phenotypic markers...
March 1, 2020: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
AmanPreet Badhwar, Arsalan S Haqqani
Introduction: Brain cells secrete extracellular microvesicles (EVs) that cross the blood-brain barrier. Involved in cell-to-cell communication, EVs contain surface markers and a biologically active cargo of molecules specific to their tissue (and cell) of origin, reflecting the tissue or cell's physiological state. Isolation of brain-secreted EVs (BEVs) from blood provides a minimally invasive way to sample components of brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is considered a form of "liquid biopsy...
2020: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Samuele Laudani, Valentina La Cognata, Rosario Iemmolo, Gabriele Bonaventura, Giusy Villaggio, Salvatore Saccone, Maria Luisa Barcellona, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Fulvia Sinatra
Extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an essential component of the cellular niche. In this conditioned microenvironment, the proliferation rates and differentiation states of stem cells are regulated by several factors. In contrast, in in vitro experimental models, cell growth, or induction procedures toward specific cell lines usually occur in contact with plastic, glass, or biogel supports. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a decellularized ECM, derived from bone marrow stem cells, on the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extracted from dental pulp (Dental Pulp Stem Cells - DPSCs)...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Vasileios Alexandros Karakousis, Danai Liouliou, Aikaterini Loula, Nikoleta Kagianni, Eva-Maria Dietrich, Soultana Meditskou, Antonia Sioga, Theodora Papamitsou
Background and objectives: Bisphosphonates represent selective inhibitors of excess osteoblastic bone resorption that characterizes all osteopathies, targeting osteoclasts and their precursors. Their long-term administration in postmenopausal women suffering from osteoporosis has resulted in neural adverse effects. The current study focuses on the research of possible alterations in the femoral nerve, caused by bisphosphonates. We hypothesized that bisphosphonates, taken orally (per os), may produce degenerative changes to the femoral nerve, affecting lower-limb posture and walking neuronal commands...
March 19, 2020: Medicina
Josefa Beck, Michael Kressel
FERM domain-containing protein 6 (FRMD6) is a member of the FERM protein superfamily, which is evolutionary highly conserved and has recently been identified as an upstream regulator of the conserved growth-promoting Hippo signaling pathway. In clinical studies, the FRMD6 gene is correlated with high significance to Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment implicating a wider role of this protein in the nervous system. Scare data are available on the localization of endogenous FRMD6 in neural tissues. Using a FRMD6-directed antiserum, we detected specific immunoreactivity in varicose nerve fibers in the rat central and peripheral nervous system...
March 21, 2020: Cell and Tissue Research
Sang Su Kwak, Kevin J Washicosky, Emma Brand, Djuna von Maydell, Jenna Aronson, Susan Kim, Diane E Capen, Murat Cetinbas, Ruslan Sadreyev, Shen Ning, Enjana Bylykbashi, Weiming Xia, Steven L Wagner, Se Hoon Choi, Rudolph E Tanzi, Doo Yeon Kim
The relationship between amyloid-β (Aβ) species and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not fully understood. Here, we provide direct evidence that Aβ42/40 ratio, not total Aβ level, plays a critical role in inducing neurofibrillary tangles (NTFs) in human neurons. Using 3D-differentiated clonal human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) expressing varying levels of amyloid β precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) with AD mutations, we show that pathogenic tau accumulation and aggregation are tightly correlated with Aβ42/40 ratio...
March 13, 2020: Nature Communications
Afroza Sharmin, Nihad Adnan, Amranul Haque, Yasumasa Mashimo, Masayasu Mie, Eiry Kobatake
There is growing interest in the functional roles of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating the fate of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). An artificially bioengineered ECM provides an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying self-renewal and differentiation of PSCs, without multiple unknown and variable factors associated with natural substrates. Here, we have engineered multifunctional fusion proteins that are based on peptides from laminin, including p20, RGD, and elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), where laminin peptides work as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and ELP to promote anchorage...
March 13, 2020: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Gloria E Hoffman
The scientific community has searched for years for ways of examining neuronal tissue to track neural activity with reliable anatomical markers for stimulated neuronal activity. Existing studies that focused on hypothalamic systems offer a few options but do not always compare approaches or validate them for dependence on cell firing, leaving the reader uncertain of the benefits and limitations of each method. Thus, in this article, potential markers will be presented and, where possible, placed into perspective in terms of when and how these methods pertain to hypothalamic function...
March 12, 2020: Comprehensive Physiology
Veronica A Revkova, Ekaterina A Grebenik, Vladimir A Kalsin, Tatyana S Demina, Kseniia N Bardakova, Boris S Shavkuta, Pavel A Melnikov, Ekaterina M Samoilova, Mikhail A Konoplyannikov, Yuri M Efremov, Chao Zhang, Tatiana A Akopova, Alexandr V Troitsky, Peter S Timashev, Vladimir P Baklaushev
We evaluated the applicability of chitosan-g-oligo(L,L-lactide) copolymer (CLC) hydrogel for central nervous system (CNS) tissue engineering. The biomechanical properties of the CLC hydrogel were characterized and its biocompatibility was assessing with neural progenitor cells obtained from two different sources: H9-derived neural stem cells (H9D-NSC) and directly reprogrammed neural precursor cells (drNPC). Our study found that the optically transparent CLC hydrogel possessed biomechanical characteristics suitable for culturing human neural stem/precursor cells and was non-cytotoxic...
March 11, 2020: Tissue Engineering. Part A
E Rapizzi, S Benvenuti, C Deledda, S Martinelli, E Sarchielli, B Fibbi, P Luciani, B Mazzanti, M Pantaleo, G Marroncini, G B Vannelli, M Maggi, M Mannelli, M Luconi, A Peri
PURPOSE: Nowadays, no human neuroendocrine cell models derived from the neural crest are available. In this study, we present non-transformed long-term primary Neural Crest Cells (NCCs) isolated from the trunk region of the neural crest at VIII-XII gestational weeks of human foetuses obtained from voluntary legal abortion. METHODS AND RESULTS: In NCC, quantitative real-time RT PCR demonstrated the expression of neural crest specifier genes, such as Snail1, Snail2/SLUG, Sox10, FoxD3, c-Myc, and p75NTR...
March 10, 2020: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Polina Klimovich, Kseniya Rubina, Veronika Sysoeva, Ekaterina Semina
Neurotrophiс factors play a key role in the development, differentiation, and survival of neurons and nerve regeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of certain neurotrophic factors (NGF, BDNF, and GDNF) on axon growth and migration of Nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive cells using a 3D model of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture in Matrigel. Our method generally represents a convenient model for assessing the effects of soluble factors and therapeutic agents on axon growth and nerve regeneration in R&D studies...
March 3, 2020: Biomedicines
Franciane Mouradian Emidio Teixeira, Anna Julia Pietrobon, Luana de Mendonça Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva Oliveira, Maria Notomi Sato
During pregnancy, the organization of complex tolerance mechanisms occurs to assure non-rejection of the semiallogeneic fetus. Pregnancy is a period of vulnerability to some viral infections, mainly during the first and second trimesters, that may cause congenital damage to the fetus. Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has gained great notoriety due to the occurrence of congenital ZIKV syndrome, characterized by fetal microcephaly, which results from the ability of ZIKV to infect placental cells and neural precursors in the fetus...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Desingu Ayyappa Raja, Yogaspoorthi Subramaniam, Ayush Aggarwal, Vishvabandhu Gotherwal, Aswini Babu, Jyoti Tanwar, Rajender K Motiani, Sridhar Sivasubbu, Rajesh S Gokhale, Vivek T Natarajan
In the neural crest lineage, progressive fate restriction and stem cell assignment are crucial for both development and regeneration. Whereas fate commitment events have distinct transcriptional footprints, fate biasing is often transitory and metastable, and is thought to be moulded by epigenetic programmes. Therefore, the molecular basis of specification is difficult to define. In this study, we established a role for a histone variant, H2a.z.2 , in specification of the melanocyte lineage from multipotent neural crest cells...
March 12, 2020: Development
Haiyan He, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen, Huaxing Huang, Xiaohua Wang, Jinliang Chen
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2) is a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase family. It has been shown to mediate numerous pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of synaptic plasticity and Wnt-associated signaling, via promoting the ubiquitination of its substrates, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazo-lepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), and Dishevelled2 (Dvl2)...
February 18, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Dominik Barisic, Marita Erb, Marie Follo, Dahlia Al-Mudaris, Bernd Rolauffs, Melanie L Hart
BACKGROUND: Many studies have elegantly shown that murine and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs) contribute to muscle regeneration and improve muscle function. Yet, the ability of transplanted human bmMSCs to manifest myogenic potential shows conflicting results. While human adipose- and umbilical cord-derived MSCs can be differentiated into a skeletal muscle phenotype using horse serum (HS), bmMSCs have only been shown to differentiate towards the skeletal muscle lineage using a complex mixture of cytokines followed by transfection with notch intracellular domain...
February 22, 2020: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Di Zhao, Siyu Chen, Takeo Horie, Yimeng Gao, Hongcun Bao, Xiao Liu
In embryos of distantly related bilaterian phyla, their lateral neural borders give rise to the peripheral nervous system elements, including various mechanosensory cells derived from migratory precursors, such as hair cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vertebrates, bipolar tail neuron (BTN) in Ciona, chordotonal organ in Drosophila, and AVM/PVM in Caenorhabditis elegans. Developmental genetics studies had revealed a couple of transcription factors (TFs) regulating differentiation of mechanosensory cells shared by vertebrates and arthropods...
February 20, 2020: Evolution & Development
Sen Li, Furong Xian, Xiao Guan, Kai Huang, Wenwen Yu, Dandan Liu
A high fat diet (HFD) is considered to be a risk factor for the development of dementia because it increases oxidative stress in the brain; thus, diets rich in antioxidants, such as polyphenols, may protect against oxidative damage. In this study, we explored the antioxidant activity and neural protective function of millet on high fat diet-induced oxidative stress in rat brains. Our results suggested that the intake of millet could alleviate oxidative stress in the hippocampus and downregulate the expression of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genes amyloid precursor protein (App), tau, and γ-secretase...
February 20, 2020: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Eloina Corradi, Irene Dalla Costa, Antoneta Gavoci, Archana Iyer, Michela Roccuzzo, Tegan A Otto, Eleonora Oliani, Simone Bridi, Stephanie Strohbuecker, Gabriela Santos-Rodriguez, Donatella Valdembri, Guido Serini, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Marie-Laure Baudet
Various species of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are enriched in specific subcellular compartments, but the mechanisms orchestrating their localization and their local functions remain largely unknown. We investigated both aspects using the elongating retinal ganglion cell axon and its tip, the growth cone, as models. We reveal that specific endogenous precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are actively trafficked to distal axons by hitchhiking primarily on late endosomes/lysosomes. Upon exposure to the axon guidance cue semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), pre-miRNAs are processed specifically within axons into newly generated miRNAs, one of which, in turn, silences the basal translation of tubulin beta 3 class III (TUBB3), but not amyloid beta precursor protein (APP)...
February 19, 2020: EMBO Journal
Ben Newland, Fanny Ehret, Franziska Hoppe, Dimitri Eigel, Dagmar Pette, Heike Newland, Petra B Welzel, Gerd Kempermann, Carsten Werner
Neural precursor cells have been much studied to further our understanding of the far-reaching and controversial question of adult neurogenesis. Currently, differentiation of primary neural precursor cells from the mouse dentate gyrus via 2-dimentional in vitro culture yields low numbers of neurons, a major hindrance to the field of study. 3-dimentional "neurosphere" culture allows better 3D cell-cell contact, but control over cell differentiation is poor because nutrition and oxygen restrictions at the core of the sphere causes spontaneous differentiation, predominantly to glial cells, not neurons...
2020: MethodsX
Roberta Marisca, Tobias Hoche, Eneritz Agirre, Laura Jane Hoodless, Wenke Barkey, Franziska Auer, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco, Tim Czopka
Recent reports have revealed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are heterogeneous. It remains unclear whether such heterogeneity reflects different subtypes of cells with distinct functions or instead reflects transiently acquired states of cells with the same function. By integrating lineage formation of individual OPC clones, single-cell transcriptomics, calcium imaging and neural activity manipulation, we show that OPCs in the zebrafish spinal cord can be divided into two functionally distinct groups...
February 17, 2020: Nature Neuroscience
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