neural precursor cell

Brayden March, Sam Faulkner, Phillip Jobling, Allison Steigler, Alison Blatt, Jim Denham, Hubert Hondermarck
Prostate cancer progression has been shown to be dependent on the development of autonomic nerves into the tumour microenvironment. Sympathetic nerves activate adrenergic neurosignalling that is necessary in early stages of tumour progression and for initiating an angiogenic switch, whereas parasympathetic nerves activate cholinergic neurosignalling resulting in tumour dissemination and metastasis. The innervation of prostate cancer seems to be initiated by neurotrophic growth factors, such as the precursor to nerve growth factor secreted by tumour cells, and the contribution of brain-derived neural progenitor cells has also been reported...
January 14, 2020: Nature Reviews. Urology
Thanasup Gonmanee, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai, Kutkao Vongsavan, Tassanee Faisaikarm, Anupong Songsaad, Kenneth L White, Charoensri Thonabulsombat
Sensorineural hearing loss is a common disability found worldwide which is associated with a degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). It is a challenge to restore SGN due to the permanent degeneration and viability of SGN is requisite for patients to receive an advantage from hearing aid devices. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are self-renewing stem cells that originate from the neural crest during development. These stem cells have a high potential for neuronal differentiation...
January 12, 2020: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Qi Zhou, Lei Zhu, Weiwen Qiu, Yue Liu, Fang Yang, Wenzhi Chen, Renshi Xu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, the brain stem, and the motor cortex. So far, there is still a lack of effective drugs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) takes part in redox reactions and the NAD-dependent signaling pathway. The NAD+ decline is related with many neurological diseases, leading to the accumulation of neurotoxic protein in the central nervous system. Moreover, the NAD+ supplementation is shown to promote neural stem cells/neuronal precursor cells (NSCs/NPCs) pool maintenance...
2020: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Qing Zhu, Nianping Zhang, Nan Hu, Rongrong Jiang, Huicong Lu, Aiguo Xuan, Dahong Long, Yan Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age‑related neurodegenerative disorder. It is featured by the progressive accumulation of β‑amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. This can eventually lead to a decrease of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have revealed that different types of stem or progenitor cells can mitigate cognition impairment in different Alzheimer's disease mouse models...
January 8, 2020: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jun-Hyeok Park, Soo-Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Ju Cho, So-Young Lee, Kwang-Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are crucially involved in controlling signal transductions, and reverse ubiquitination by removing the ubiquitin from protein substrates. The Hippo signaling has an important role in tissue growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Since disruption of the Hippo signaling is associated with a number of diseases, it is imperative to investigate the molecular mechanism of the Hippo signaling. METHODS: DUB screening was performed using the kidney of the mouse unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) model to identify the cellular mechanism of the DUB-regulated Hippo signaling...
January 10, 2020: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Gang Liu, Xiu Ming Li, Shan Tian, Rong Rong Lu, Ying Chen, Hong Yu Xie, Ke Wei Yu, Jing Jun Zhang, Jun Fa Wu, Yu Lian Zhu, Yi Wu
The effect of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of neural lesions is so far not satisfactory. Magnetic stimulation is a feasible exogenous interference to improve transplantation outcome. However, the effect of magnetic stimulation on the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neuron has not been studied. In this experiment, an in vitro neuron differentiation system from human iPSCs were established and confirmed. Three magnetic stimuli (high frequency [HF], low frequency [LF], intermittent theta-burst stimulation [iTBS]) were applied twice a day during the differentiation process...
January 9, 2020: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tianqi Tu, Jianhua Peng, Yong Jiang
Acute brain injury(ABI), including stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality, results in a great loss of productive life and serious health problem worldwide. To improve patients' survival and ameliorate their outcome, effective clinical treatment strategies and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Novel therapeutic strategies, especially about stem cell therapy and various targets to enhance the therapeutic effects of stem cell therapy, are emerging all the time...
January 9, 2020: Stem Cells and Development
Hideaki Tomita, Francisca Cornejo, Begoña Aranda-Pino, Cameron L Woodard, Constanza C Rioseco, Benjamin G Neel, Alejandra R Alvarez, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller, Gonzalo I Cancino
PTPRD is a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is genetically associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we asked whether Ptprd mutations cause aberrant neural development by perturbing neurogenesis in the murine cortex. We show that loss of Ptprd causes increases in neurogenic transit-amplifying intermediate progenitor cells and cortical neurons and perturbations in neuronal localization. These effects are intrinsic to neural precursor cells since acute Ptprd knockdown causes similar perturbations...
January 7, 2020: Cell Reports
Yanyu Jiang, Wei Cheng, Lihui Li, Lisha Zhou, Yupei Liang, Wenjuan Zhang, Wenlian Chen, Shiwen Wang, Hu Zhao, Guoan Chen, Wenjun Zhou, Guang Ji, Yanmei Zhang, Robert M Hoffman, Mingsong Wang, Lijun Jia
Protein neddylation, a process of conjugating neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8) to substrates, plays a tumor-promoting role in lung carcinogenesis. Our previous study showed MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (E1), significantly inhibits the growth of multiple cancer cells. However, resistance can develop to MLN4924 by mutation. Therefore, it is important to further understand how NEDD8 acts in lung cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated NEDD8 is overactivated in lung cancers and confers a worse patient overall survival...
January 6, 2020: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Luciane A Chimetto Tonon, Gustavo P R de Azevedo, Afif F Monteiro, Darlon I Bernardi, Juliana R Gubiani, Laura P Ióca, Hannah K Mattsson, Ana Paula B Moreira, Alexandre F Gomes, Osmindo R Pires Junior, Carolina da S G Pedrosa, Leticia R Q Souza, Stevens K Rehen, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson, Roberto G S Berlinck
While tetrodotoxin (TTX) is commonly found in pufferfish tissues, it is unclear if bacterial symbionts isolated from pufferfish tissues can produce TTX. In this investigation, UPLC qTOF-MS/MS analysis of tissue extracts obtained from Sphoeroides spengleri and Canthigaster figuereidoi identified TTX in their composition, indicating their consumption is unsafe. UPLC qTOF-MS/MS analysis coupled with Molecular Networking indicated new TTX analogs (methyl-TTX, TTX-acetate, hydroxypropyl-TTX and glycerol-TTX). Bacterial extracts from sixteen strains revealed a compound with a [M+H]+ ion at m/z 320...
March 2020: Chemosphere
Natalie Groves, Imogen O'Keeffe, Wendy Lee, Alexandra Toft, Daniel Blackmore, Saurabh Bandhavkar, Elizabeth J Coulson, Perry F Bartlett, Dhanisha J Jhaveri
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling plays a major role in the regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain. While the majority of studies suggest that this is due to its effect on the survival and differentiation of newborn neurons, it remains unclear whether this signaling directly regulates neural precursor cell (NPC) activity and which of its two receptors, TrkB or the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR ) mediates this effect. Here, we examined both the RNA and protein expression of these receptors and found that TrkB but not p75NTR receptors are expressed by hippocampal NPCs in the adult mouse brain...
December 30, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
Christopher G Hart, Scott M Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Pandian Nagakannan, James A Thliveris, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a cascade of secondary injury mechanisms that induce profound changes in glia and neurons resulting in their activation, injury or cell death. The resultant imbalanced microenvironment of acute SCI also negatively impacts regenerative processes in the injured spinal cord. Thus, it is imperative to uncover endogenous mechanisms that drive these acute injury events. Here, we demonstrate that the active form of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is robustly and transiently upregulated in acute SCI in rats...
December 24, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Vivianne E Morrison, Victoria N Smith, Jeffrey K Huang
Myelination of the central nervous system (CNS) relies on the production and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). During the first month of postnatal life, OPCs that populate the corpus callosum (CC) arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subcallosal subventricular zone (SVZ), and then differentiate to generate myelinating OLs. However, the signals that regulate these processes are not fully understood. In this study, we show that endogenous expression of the retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) is required for OPC generation and differentiation in the postnatal subcortical white matter...
December 18, 2019: ENeuro
Marco Bacigaluppi, Giacomo Sferruzza, Erica Butti, Linda Ottoboni, Gianvito Martino
Neurogenesis persists in the adult brain of mammals in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The complex interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic signals provided by cells in the niche but also from distant sources regulate the fate of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in these sites. This fine regulation is perturbed in ageing and in pathological conditions leading to a different NPCs behavior tailored to the specific physio-pathological feature...
December 21, 2019: Brain Research
Pieter Vancamp, Jean-David Gothié, Cristina Luongo, Anthony Sébillot, Karine Le Blay, Lucile Butruille, Maurice Pagnin, Samantha J Richardson, Barbara A Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
Choroid plexus epithelial cells produce and secrete transthyretin (TTR). TTR binds and distributes thyroid hormone (TH) to brain cells via the cerebrospinal fluid. The adult murine subventricular zone (SVZ) is in close proximity to the choroid plexus. In the SVZ, TH determines neural stem cell (NSC) fate towards a neuronal or a glial cell. We investigated whether the loss of TTR also disrupted NSC fate choice. Our results show a decreased neurogenic versus oligodendrogenic balance in the lateroventral SVZ of Ttr knockout mice...
December 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hyunhyo Seo, Kyungmin Lee
AIM: cAMP signal transduction cascade activation is important in regulating neurogenesis in adult rodents by increasing the proliferation of newborn cells. Although the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) both contain large populations of neural stem/precursor cells; it remains unclear whether an alternative target of cAMP, the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2), is involved in adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and SGZ. Here, we investigated the cell-specific expression of Epac2 protein in the V-SVZ and SGZ of the adult mouse brain...
December 23, 2019: Molecular Brain
Xiaodan Liu, Jingwen Shen, Leiming Xie, Zelin Wei, Chouin Wong, Yiyao Li, Xinhe Zheng, Pilong Li, Yan Song
Compacted heterochromatin blocks are prevalent in differentiated cells and present a barrier to cellular reprogramming. It remains obscure how heterochromatin remodeling is orchestrated during cell differentiation. Here we find that the evolutionarily conserved homeodomain transcription factor Prospero (Pros)/Prox1 ensures neuronal differentiation by driving heterochromatin domain condensation and expansion. Intriguingly, in mitotically dividing Drosophila neural precursors, Pros is retained at H3K9me3+ pericentromeric heterochromatin regions of chromosomes via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS)...
December 11, 2019: Developmental Cell
Lingfeng Wan, Tao Liu, Zhipeng Hong, You Pan, Steven T Sizemore, Junran Zhang, Zhefu Ma
BACKGROUND: A role for neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4 (NEDD4) in tumorigenesis has been suggested. However, information is lacking on its role in breast tumor biology. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of NEDD4 in the promotion of the growth and progression of breast cancer (BC) and to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of NEDD4. METHODS: The impact of NEDD4 expression in BC cell growth was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays...
December 19, 2019: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Qi Zhou, Menghua Li, Yu Zhu, Zhenzhen Xu, Yi Lu, Renshi Xu
Vimentin-containing cells (VCCs) are potential neural precursor cells in central nervous systems, Thus, we studied the alteration of VCCs proliferation, differentiation and migration in the cerebrum during different stages of Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. It aims to search potential ways regulating the proliferation, differentiation and migration of endogenous VCCs, to enhance their neural repair function and to cure or prevent from the development of ALS. We observed and analyzed the proliferation, differentiation and migration of VCCs in different anatomic regions and cell types of cerebrum at different stages including the pre-onset (60-70 days), onset (90-100 days) and progression (120-130 days) of wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Haiyan Shi, Xiaoli Li, Junling Yang, Yahong Zhao, Chengbin Xue, Yaxian Wang, Qianru He, Mi Shen, Qi Zhang, Yumin Yang, Fei Ding
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that neural crest-derived cells (NCCs) present important functions in peripheral nerve regeneration to correct the insufficiency of autogenous Schwann cells. Postmigratory NCCs have been successfully isolated from adult rat bone marrow in our previous work. In this study, we aim to provide neural crest-derived Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) for repair of nerve defects in adult rats, and partially reveal the mechanisms involved in neuroregeneration of cell therapy...
December 18, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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