keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33831089/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-prevalence-among-patients-attending-at-felege-hiwot-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-bahir-dar-ethiopia
#1
Degu Ashagrie, Chalachew Genet, Bayeh Abera
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin resistance coagulase negative staphylococci (VRCoNS) are common pathogens causing difficult to treat health care associated infections (HAI). Hence, the World Health Organization listed VRE as one of the high priority pathogens for new antibiotic discovery and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Despite this, data on the prevalence of VRE and VRCoNS in Ethiopia is scarce. Thus, the present study determined prevalence of VRE and VRCoNS among patients attending Felege-Hiwot comprehensive specialized hospital, Ethiopia...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33829377/three-challenging-cases-of-infections-by-multidrug-resistant-serratia-marcescens-in-patients-admitted-to-intensive-care-units
#2
Kesia Esther da Silva, Luana Rossato, Sérgio Jorge, Natasha Rodrigues de Oliveira, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Vinícius Farias Campos, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Odir Antonio Dellagostin, Simone Simionatto
The occurrence of multidrug-resistant Serratia marcescens strains represents a serious public health threat. The purpose here is to report three cases of carbapenem-resistant S. marcescens infections with unfavorable clinical outcomes and provide a molecular description of the antibiotic resistance determinants at a genomic level. We performed bacterial identification by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, except for tigecycline, for which they were determined using Etest strips...
April 8, 2021: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33827686/microbiota-associated-risk-factors-for-asymptomatic-gut-colonisation-with-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-a-dutch-nursing-home
#3
Quinten R Ducarmon, Elisabeth M Terveer, Sam Nooij, Michelle N Bloem, Karuna E W Vendrik, Monique A A Caljouw, Ingrid M J G Sanders, Sofie M van Dorp, Man C Wong, Romy D Zwittink, Ed J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents have increased rates of intestinal colonisation with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We assessed the colonisation and spread of MDROs among this population, determined clinical risk factors for MDRO colonisation and investigated the role of the gut microbiota in providing colonisation resistance against MDROs. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a Dutch nursing home. Demographical, epidemiological and clinical data were collected at four time points with 2-month intervals (October 2016-April 2017)...
April 7, 2021: Genome Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33827559/dexamethasone-induces-an-imbalanced-fetal-placental-maternal-bile-acid-circulation-involvement-of-placental-transporters
#4
Wen Huang, Jin Zhou, Juanjuan Guo, Wen Hu, Guanghui Chen, Bin Li, Yajie Wen, Yimin Jiang, Kaili Fu, Huichang Bi, Yuanzhen Zhang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: The use of prenatal dexamethasone remains controversial. Our recent studies found that prenatal dexamethasone exposure can induce maternal intrahepatic cholestasis and have a lasting adverse influence on bile acid (BA) metabolism in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on fetal-placental-maternal BA circulation during the intrauterine period, as well as its placental mechanism. METHODS: Clinical data and human placentas were collected and analyzed...
April 7, 2021: BMC Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33823721/a-dangerous-causative-microorganism-of-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Mehmet Mutlu, Şebnem Kader, Yakup Aslan
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( S. maltophilia ) is an important aerobic, non-fermentative, Gram-negative, multidrug resistant organism. Although this microorganism is frequently reported as a causative agent of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit, a few cases were reported about as a causative microorganism of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). We report two cases with EONS caused by S. maltophilia and also, we reviewed the EONS reported caused by S. maltophilia .
April 6, 2021: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33818149/molecular-characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacterales-in-thirteen-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Hail Al-Abdely, Raed AlHababi, Hebah Mahmoud Dada, Hala Roushdy, Mishaal Mohammed Alanazi, Ali Abdullah Alessa, Niveen Mohamed Gad, Abdullah Mohammed Alasmari, Enas Elsabaee Radwan, Hussain Al-Dughmani, Bothina Koura, Mahmoud Mohammed Bader, Hany Mohammed Al Deen, Ahmed Bueid, Khalid Mohammed Elgaher, Majed F Alghoribi, Ahmed M Albarrag, Ali Mohammed Somily
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems are the antibiotics of last-resort for the treatment of bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. The emergence of resistance is a critical and worrisome problem for clinicians and patients. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are spreading globally, are associated with an increased frequency of reported outbreaks in many regions, and are becoming endemic in many others. OBJECTIVES: Determine the molecular epidemiology of CRE isolates from various regions of Saudi Arabia to identify the genes encoding resistance and their clones for a better understanding of the epidemio-logical origin and national spread...
March 2021: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33815324/design-and-high-expression-of-non-glycosylated-lysostaphins-in-pichia-pastoris-and-their-pharmacodynamic-study
#7
Wenluan Shen, Na Yang, Da Teng, Ya Hao, Xuanxuan Ma, Ruoyu Mao, Jianhua Wang
Lysostaphin is an effective antimicrobial agent to Staphylococcus , especially for the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA). In this study, the seven lysostaphin derived mutants (rLys) were designed to overcome the barrier of glycosylation during expression in Pichia pastoris . Among them, 127A and 127A232Q had highest antimicrobial activity (MIC values 0.07-0.3 μM) to S. aureus than others and the commercial lysostaphins (1-15.8 times). There was no glycosylation during the expression in 5-L fermenter level, with the high yield of 1315 mg/L (127A) and 1141 mg/L (127A232Q), respectively...
2021: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33812724/haitian-variant-vibrio-cholerae-o1-ogawa-caused-cholera-outbreaks-in-odisha
#8
Bibhuti Bhusan Pal, Anima Mohanty, Bhagyalaxmi Biswal, Smruti Ranjan Nayak, Basanta Kumar Das, Prangya Paramita Lenka
PURPOSE: Diarrheal disorders particularly cholera cause a significant threat resulting in high morbidity and mortality in the coastal and tribal areas of Odisha. Two sequential diarrheal outbreaks reported in 2016 from Balasore and Rayagada districts of Odisha were investigated to find out the causative organisms, antibiogram profile and molecular analysis of the isolated pathogens. METHOD: Bacteriological analysis and antibiogram profiles of the pathogens were carried out as per the standard procedure followed...
March 31, 2021: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33812052/identification-of-novel-pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-agonists-by-in-silico-and-biological-activity-analyses-and-reversal-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-pxr-downregulation
#9
Rajan T Reddy, Toru Nyunoya
Cigarette smoke (CS) contains many toxins that collectively harm nearly every organ in the body, and smoking is a key risk factor for many chronic diseases. Aside from its toxic actions, CS may alter expression of the drug- and steroid-binding pregnane X receptor (PXR), which when activated upregulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, glutathione transferases (GSTs), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), an adaptive metabolic array that mediates clearance of CS component toxins. We sought to identify new PXR agonists that may be useful for restoring PXR activity in conditions wherein it is suppressed, and their mechanisms of PXR binding and activation...
March 30, 2021: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33808761/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-implications-for-treating-acute-leukemias-a-subgroup-of-hematological-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Kristin Ølfarnes Storhaug, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Bent Are Hansen, Håkon Reikvam, Øystein Wendelbo
Acute leukemias (AL) are a group of aggressive malignant diseases associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Patients with AL are highly susceptible to infectious diseases due to the disease itself, factors attributed to treatment, and specific individual risk factors. Enterobacteriaceae presence (e.g., Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli) is a frequent cause of bloodstream infections in AL patients. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is an emerging health problem worldwide; however, the incidence of CRE varies greatly between different regions...
March 19, 2021: Antibiotics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33806009/modifications-of-plasma-membrane-organization-in-cancer-cells-for-targeted-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Anna Choromańska, Agnieszka Chwiłkowska, Julita Kulbacka, Dagmara Baczyńska, Nina Rembiałkowska, Anna Szewczyk, Olga Michel, Agnieszka Gajewska-Naryniecka, Dawid Przystupski, Jolanta Saczko
Modifications of the composition or organization of the cancer cell membrane seem to be a promising targeted therapy. This approach can significantly enhance drug uptake or intensify the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics. There are several methods enabling lipid bilayer modifications, e.g., pharmacological, physical, and mechanical. It is crucial to keep in mind the significance of drug resistance phenomenon, ion channel and specific receptor impact, and lipid bilayer organization in planning the cell membrane-targeted treatment...
March 25, 2021: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33803559/an-actinobacterial-isolate-streptomyces-sp-yx44-produces-broad-spectrum-antibiotics-that-strongly-inhibit-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Tien-Lin Chang, Tzu-Wen Huang, Ying-Xuan Wang, Chang-Pan Liu, Ralph Kirby, Chien-Ming Chu, Chih-Hung Huang
The need for new antibiotics is increasing due to their overuse, and antibiotic resistance has become one of the major threats worldwide to public health, food safety, and clinical treatment. In this study, we describe an actinobacterial isolate, YX44, which belongs to the genus Streptomyces . This Streptomyces was isolated from a drinking pipe located in Osaka, Japan, and has the ability to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and various fungi. YX44 fermentation broth shows strong activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus , as well as also inhibiting clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...
March 18, 2021: Microorganisms
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33801939/nanomotion-detection-based-rapid-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing
#13
REVIEW
Sandor Kasas, Anton Malovichko, Maria Ines Villalba, María Elena Vela, Osvaldo Yantorno, Ronnie G Willaert
Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) could play a major role in fighting multidrug-resistant bacteria. Recently, it was discovered that all living organisms oscillate in the range of nanometers and that these oscillations, referred to as nanomotion, stop as soon the organism dies. This finding led to the development of rapid AST techniques based on the monitoring of these oscillations upon exposure to antibiotics. In this review, we explain the working principle of this novel technique, compare the method with current ASTs, explore its application and give some advice about its implementation...
March 10, 2021: Antibiotics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33801872/toxin-activating-stapled-peptides-discovered-by-structural-analysis-were-identified-as-new-therapeutic-candidates-that-trigger-antibacterial-activity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-mycobacterium-smegmatis-model
#14
Sung-Min Kang, Heejo Moon, Sang-Woo Han, Byeong Wook Kim, Do-Hee Kim, Byeong Moon Kim, Bong-Jin Lee
The structure-function relationships of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have prompted the development of novel and effective antimicrobial agents that selectively target this organism. The artificial activation of toxins by peptide inhibitors can lead to the growth arrest and eventual death of bacterial cells. Optimizing candidate peptides by hydrocarbon α-helix stapling based on structural information from the VapBC TA system and in vitro systematic validation led to V26-SP-8 , a VapC26 activator of M...
March 10, 2021: Microorganisms
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33799176/inhibitors-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-as-antimycobacterial-compounds-an-up-to-date-review
#15
REVIEW
Ghada Bouz, Jan Zitko
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are crucial for the correct assembly of amino acids to cognate tRNA to maintain the fidelity of proteosynthesis. AaRSs have become a hot target in antimicrobial research. Three aaRS inhibitors are already in clinical practice; antibacterial mupirocin inhibits the synthetic site of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, antifungal tavaborole inhibits the editing site of leucyl-tRNA synthetase, and antiprotozoal halofuginone inhibits proline-tRNA synthetase. According to the World Health Organization, tuberculosis globally remains the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent...
March 6, 2021: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33796600/a-multicenter-evaluation-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-treatment-outcomes-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#16
Delaney E Hart, Jason C Gallagher, Laura A Puzniak, Elizabeth B Hirsch
Background: Real-world data assessing outcomes of immunocompromised patients treated with ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) are limited. This study evaluated treatment and clinical outcomes of immunocompromised patients receiving C/T for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Methods: This was a 14-center retrospective cohort study of adult immunocompromised inpatients treated for ≥24 hours with C/T for MDR P. aeruginosa infections. Patients were defined as immunocompromised if they had a history of previous solid organ transplant (SOT), disease that increased susceptibility to infection, or received immunosuppressive therapies...
March 2021: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33793412/diabetic-foot-ulcers-and-osteomyelitis-use-of-biodegradable-calcium-sulfate-beads-impregnated-with-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#17
Prashant Patil, Rajeev Singh, Apurva Agarwal, Rajiv Wadhwa, Aran Bal, Sanjay Vaidya
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March 2021: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33789157/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-military-hospital-associated-bacteria-from-war-injuries-in-the-eastern-ukraine-conflict-between-2014-and-2020
#18
Kondratiuk Viacheslav, Brendan T Jones, Kovalchuk Valentine, Kovalenko Iryna, Ganiuk Vitaliy, Kondratiuk Olena, Frantsishko Alla
BACKGROUND: Infections from the recent conflict in Ukraine have been poorly investigated. AIM: To describe the phenotypic and genotypic mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in pathogens associated with war injuries in the Ukraine conflict. METHODS: This report describes a retrospective multicentre microbiological survey conducted in four Ukrainian military hospitals between 2014 and 2020. The phenotypes of 813 organisms obtained from 1,061 tests of 162 patients were analysed...
March 28, 2021: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33782042/characterization-of-novel-fluorescent-bile-salt-derivatives-for-studying-human-bile-salt-and-organic-anion-transporters
#19
Michele Leuenberger, Stephanie Häusler, Vera Höhn, Adriana Euler, Bruno Stieger, Martin Lochner
Bile salts such as cholate, glycocholate, taurocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate are taken up from the portal blood into hepatocytes via transporters such as the Na+ -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). These bile salts are later secreted into bile across the canalicular membrane, which is facilitated by the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Apart from bile salt transport, some of these proteins (e.g. OATPs) are also key transporters for drug uptake into hepatocytes...
March 29, 2021: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33779849/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-among-intensive-care-units-patients-at-ain-shams-university-hospitals-in-egypt-a-retrospective-study
#20
Noha Alaa Eldin Fahim
BACKGROUND: The nightmare of the rising numbers of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) requires the implementation of effective stewardship programs. However, this should be preceeded by making available  evidence-based knowledge regarding the local antimicrobial resistance pattern, which is fundamental. The aim of the current study is to determine the prevalence of MDRO among different Ain Shams University Hospitals (ASUHs) intensive care units (ICUs) and detect the resistance profile of the common pathogens...
March 29, 2021: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
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