Ignacio Álvarez, Monica Diez-Fairen, Miquel Aguilar, Jose Manuel González, Montse Ysamat, Juan Pablo Tartari, Maria Carcel, Alvaro Alonso, Britta Brix, Philipp Arendt, Pau Pastor
Recently, some emerging cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have been proposed as biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) that can have an effect on disease progression. We analyze the accuracy of these CSF markers for diagnosis of AD in reference to brain Amyloid-PET. We also investigated whether they help in differentiating AD from other dementias and examine their influence in tracing the progression to dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-42, total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau, Aβ40 , Aβ38 , Beta-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE-1), neurogranin (ng), phosphorylated-heavy-chain neurofilament, and α-synuclein (α-syn) CSF levels were analyzed in 319 subjects, among whom 57 also underwent an Amyloid-PET scan...
November 24, 2020: European Journal of Neurology
Tahreem Ghazal Siddiqui, Timothy Whitfield, Sudhakar Janaki Praharaju, Dilman Sadiq, Hiba Kazmi, Aaron Ben-Joseph, Zuzana Walker
INTRODUCTION: Fifteen percent of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will progress to dementia within 2 years. There is increasing focus on the evaluation of biomarkers which point towards the underlying pathology. This enables better prediction of clinical outcomes. Early diagnosis of the dementia subtype is crucial for appropriate management and accurate prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare MRI measures in stable mild cognitive impairment patients (stable-MCI), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD), and prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB)...
November 23, 2020: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Vishal Rawji, Anna Latorre, Nikhil Sharma, John C Rothwell, Lorenzo Rocchi
Neurodegenerative diseases are a collection of disorders that result in the progressive degeneration and death of neurons. They are clinically heterogenous and can present as deficits in movement, cognition, executive function, memory, visuospatial awareness and language. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that allows for the assessment of cortical function in vivo . We review how TMS has been used for the investigation of three neurodegenerative diseases that differ in their neuroanatomical axes: (1) Motor cortex-corticospinal tract (motor neuron diseases), (2) Non-motor cortical areas (dementias), and (3) Subcortical structures (parkinsonisms)...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Jeongbin Park, Seung Wan Suh, Grace Eun Kim, Subin Lee, Jun Sung Kim, Hye Sung Kim, Seonjeong Byun, Jong Bin Bae, Jae Hyoung Kim, Sang Eun Kim, Ji Won Han, Ki Woong Kim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between pineal gland volume and symptoms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients without any feature of dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: We enrolled 296 community-dwelling probable AD patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for possible or probable dementia with Lewy bodies. Among them, 93 were amyloid beta (Aβ) positive on 18 F-florbetaben amyloid brain positron emission tomography...
November 21, 2020: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Lars Frings, Bernhard Heimbach, Philipp T Meyer, Sabine Hellwig
BACKGROUND: Variations in alertness and attention are common in Lewy body diseases (LBD) and among the core features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Dopamine transporter SPECT is an accurate biomarker of nigrostriatal degeneration (NSD) in LBD. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated performance on a computerized alertness test as a potential measure of attention in patients with NSD compared to patients without NSD. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with cognitive impairment plus at least one core feature of DLB referred for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging were prospectively recruited...
November 13, 2020: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Clark Funnell, Howard H Feldman, Ian R A Mackenzie, Mari L DeMarco
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-β and tau have been validated for the antemortem diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and are included in the AT(N) research framework for AD. Recently, an AT(N) CSF profile has been described for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), a disorder which is difficult to distinguish clinically from AD, particularly early in the disease course. Herein we describe a 71-year old male who presented with an atypical dementia syndrome including years of stability after an initial abrupt decline, marked visuospatial dysfunction, and relative sparing of memory...
October 2020: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
O S Levin, E V Bril, O S Zymnyakova, M A Anikina, A V Hasina, N V Fedorova
Palliative care is traditionally associated with cancer and pain relief: however, the range of diseases requiring palliative care is much wider and includes many neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD)). Provision of palliative care to patients with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as multisystem atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, dementia with Lewy bodies, etc. is «terra incognita» for many neurologists who are not acknowledged with palliative medicine as well as for specialists in palliative medicine, who are mainly trained in providing care to patients with oncological profile and do not know the intricacies of managing patients in the late stages of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases...
2020: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jason Longhurst, Jason Phan, Elbert Chen, Steven Jackson, Merrill R Landers
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if a pragmatic physical therapy (PT) program was associated with improved cognition, gait, and balance in individuals with cognitive impairment. This study investigated these associations for individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in order to better characterize outcomes to PT for each diagnostic group. Methods: Data before and after one month of physical therapy were extracted from patient records (67 with AD, 34 with VaD, 35 with DLB, and 37 with MCI)...
2020: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
Kenjirou Ogawa, Ayumi Ishii, Aimi Shindo, Kunihiro Hongo, Tomohiro Mizobata, Tetsuya Sogon, Yasushi Kawata
Neurological dementias such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia are thought to be caused in part by the formation and deposition of characteristic insoluble fibrils of polypeptides such as amyloid beta (Aβ), Tau, and/or α-synuclein (αSyn). In this context, it is critical to suppress and remove such aggregates in order to prevent and/or delay the progression of dementia in these ailments. In this report, we investigated the effects of spearmint extract (SME) and rosmarinic acid (RA; the major component of SME) on the amyloid fibril formation reactions of αSyn, Aβ, and Tau proteins in vitro...
November 13, 2020: Nutrients
Ross A Dunne, Dag Aarsland, John T O'Brien, Clive Ballard, Sube Banerjee, Nick C Fox, Jeremy D Isaacs, Benjamin R Underwood, Richard J Perry, Dennis Chan, Tom Dening, Alan J Thomas, Jeffrey Schryer, Anne-Marie Jones, Alison R Evans, Charles Alessi, Elizabeth J Coulthard, James Pickett, Peter Elton, Roy W Jones, Susan Mitchell, Nigel Hooper, Chris Kalafatis, Jill G C Rasmussen, Helen Martin, Jonathan M Schott, Alistair Burns
Given considerable variation in diagnostic and therapeutic practice, there is a need for national guidance on the use of neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers, cognitive testing, follow-up and diagnostic terminology in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI is a heterogenous clinical syndrome reflecting a change in cognitive function and deficits on neuropsychological testing but relatively intact activities of daily living. MCI is a risk state for further cognitive and functional decline with 5-15% of people developing dementia per year...
November 17, 2020: Age and Ageing
Rashmi Gamage, Ingrid Wagnon, Ilaria Rossetti, Ryan Childs, Garry Niedermayer, Rose Chesworth, Erika Gyengesi
Aging is a complex biological process that increases the risk of age-related cognitive degenerative diseases such as dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy Body Dementia (LBD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Even non-pathological aging of the brain can involve chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress, which disrupts the communication and balance between the brain and the immune system. There has been an increasingly strong connection found between chronic neuroinflammation and impaired memory, especially in AD...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ester Esteban de Antonio, Jorge López-Álvarez, Alberto Rábano, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Antonio Sánchez-Soblechero, Laura Amaya, Sofía Portela, Carlos Cátedra, Javier Olazarán
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive clinicopathological studies of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathological correlations of NPS in a sample of institutionalized people with dementia. METHODS: We studied 59 people who were consecutively admitted to a nursing home and donated their brain. Correlations between pathological variables and NPS upon admission (n = 59) and at one-year follow-up assessment (n = 46) were explored and confirmed using bivariate and multivariate statistical methods...
November 6, 2020: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yusaku Maeda, Keita Fukushima, Satomi Kyoutani, James P Butler, Masahiko Fujii, Hidetada Sasaki
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge caregivers, leading to caregiver burden and subsequent nursing home or inpatient placement in a psychiatric hospital for dementia. Favorable positive emotions should be an important goal for the treatment of negative emotions of BPSD. Arts are one of the most profound areas to stimulate favorable emotions. We have asked a professional actor, who was not involved in the daily care and regular rehabilitations, to give a dramatic performance by reading selected stories as if the patients with BPSD felt to be in the audiences of a theater...
2020: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Livia Livinț Popa, Hanna-Maria Dragoș, Ștefan Strilciuc, Cristina Pantelemon, Ioana Mureșanu, Constantin Dina, Vitalie Văcăraș, Dafin Mureșanu
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) has been documented as a helpful tool in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with common forms of dementia. The main objective of the study was to assess the role of QEEG in AD differential diagnosis with other forms of dementia: Lewy body dementia (LBD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycNET, for articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals from January 1, 1980 to April 23, 2019 using adapted search strategies containing keywords quantitative EEG and Alzheimer ...
November 8, 2020: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Alessio Simonetti, Cristina Pais, Melissa Jones, Maria Camilla Cipriani, Delfina Janiri, Laura Monti, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Rosa Liperoti, Gabriele Sani
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia, such as anxiety, depression, agitation, and apathy, are complex, stressful, and costly aspects of care, and are associated to poor health outcomes and caregiver burden. A steep worsening of such symptoms has been reported during Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, their causes, their impact on everyday life, and treatment strategies have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of behavioral and psychopathological alterations in subjects with dementia during COVID-19 pandemic and the associated management challenges...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Clara Y B Low, Jasinda H Lee, Frances T W Lim, Chingli Lee, Clive Ballard, Paul T Francis, Mitchell K P Lai, Michelle G K Tan
Cumulative data suggest the involvement of Fyn tyrosine kinase in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, our group has shown increased immunoreactivities of the FynT isoform in AD neocortex (with no change in the alternatively spliced FynB isoform) which associated with neurofibrillary degeneration and reactive astrogliosis. Since both the aforementioned neuropathological features are also variably found in Lewy Body dementias (LBD), we investigated potential perturbations of Fyn expression in the postmortem neocortex of patients with AD, as well as those diagnosed as having one of the two main subgroups of LBD: Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
October 31, 2020: Brain Pathology
Pablo Gracia, José D Camino, Laura Volpicelli-Daley, Nunilo Cremades
α-Synuclein amyloid aggregation is a defining molecular feature of Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy, but can also be found in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The process of α-synuclein aggregation can be initiated through alternative nucleation mechanisms and dominated by different secondary processes giving rise to multiple amyloid polymorphs and intermediate species. Some aggregated species have more inherent abilities to induce cellular stress and toxicity, while others seem to be more potent in propagating neurodegeneration...
October 28, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Knut Hestad, Knut Engedal, Peter Horndalsveen, Bjørn Heine Strand
The aim of the study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) differed among people with different dementia diagnoses, mild cognitive impairment, and subjective cognitive decline and whether BP differences were observed across age and sex. Our study population comprised clinical data from 6,236 patients (53.5% women) aged 45-97 years ( Mean = 73.9, SD = 9.6) referred to dementia assessment in 42 outpatient clinics across Norway during 2009-2019. Patients with the following diagnoses were included: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular dementia (VaD), mixed AD and VaD, and dementia in Parkinson's disease/Lewy body disease (PDD/LBD)...
2020: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nicola Spotorno, David G Coughlin, Christopher A Olm, David Wolk, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Leslie M Shaw, Nabila Dahodwala, James F Morley, John E Duda, Andres F Deik, Meredith A Spindler, Alice Chen-Plotkin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Corey T McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman, David J Irwin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) co-pathology on an in vivo structural measure of neurodegeneration in Lewy body disorders (LBD). METHODS: We studied 72 LBD patients (Parkinson disease (PD) = 2, PD-MCI = 25, PD with dementia = 10, dementia with Lewy bodies = 35) with either CSF analysis or neuropathological examination and structural MRI during life. The cohort was divided into those harboring significant AD co-pathology, either at autopsy (intermediate/high AD neuropathologic change) or with CSF signature indicating AD co-pathology (t-tau/Aβ1-42  > 0...
October 27, 2020: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Rie Omoya, Miho Miyajima, Katsuya Ohta, Yoko Suzuki, Ai Aoki, Mayo Fujiwara, Takafumi Watanabe, Noriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Suwa, Tokuhiro Kawara, Hidehiko Takahashi, Eisuke Matsushima, Takashi Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the differences in autonomic dysfunction between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease using a simple and convenient method, we investigated the heart rate response to orthostatic challenge. METHODS: Ninety-seven people participated in this cross-sectional study, and data from 26 DLB patients, 29 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 25 healthy elderly individuals were analysed. Participants underwent postural changes, including 5 min in a supine position, 1 min in a sitting position, and 3 min in an orthostatic position...
October 22, 2020: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
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