Katherine G Birmingham, Meghan J O'Melia, Samantha Bordy, David Reyes Aguilar, Bassel El-Reyas, Gregory Lesinski, Susan N Thomas
A lymph node sinus-on-a-chip adhesion microfluidic platform that recapitulates the hydrodynamic microenvironment of the lymph node subcapsular sinus was engineered. This device was used to interrogate the effects of lymph node remodeling on cellular adhesion in fluid flow relevant to lymphatic metastasis. Wall shear stress levels analytically estimated and modeled after quiescent and diseased/inflamed lymph nodes were experimentally recapitulated using a flow-based microfluidic perfusion system to assess the effects of physiological flow fields on human metastatic cancer cell adhesion...
November 20, 2020: IScience
Naoaki Sakata, Gumpei Yoshimatsu, Tomoko Tanaka, Teppei Yamada, Ryo Kawakami, Shohta Kodama
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a candidate transplantation site for islets. However, the mechanism of islet engraftment in WAT has not been fully investigated. In this study, we attempted to clarify the therapeutic effect and mechanism of islet transplantation into visceral WAT. METHODS: Two hundred mouse islets were transplanted into epididymal WAT of syngeneic diabetic mice by wrapping islets with the tissue (fat-covered group). Mice that received intraperitoneal and renal subcapsular islet transplantations were used as negative and positive control groups, respectively...
December 2020: Transplantation
Hannah Garrigan, Cristos Ifantides, Gumpili Sai Prashanthi, Anthony Vipin Das
Purpose : To use electronic medical record data to study the altitude, UV exposure, and biogeographical distribution of senile cataract in India. Methods : This is a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of patients over 40 years old with an ophthalmologist-confirmed diagnosis of senile cataract (cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, or a combination) in either or both eyes. Electronic medical record data entered between August 2010 to December 2019 were extracted from a large multi-tiered ophthalmology network in India...
November 19, 2020: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Simon Nusinovici, Liang Zhang, Xiaoran Chai, Lei Zhou, Yih Chung Tham, Caroline Vasseneix, Shivani Majithia, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Tien Yin Wong, Ching Yu Cheng
AIMS: To use machine learning (ML) to determine the relative contributions of modifiable and non-modifiable clinical, metabolic, genetic, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the risk of major eye diseases. METHODS: We conducted analyses in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study (n=10 033 participants) and determined a range of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of common eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), non-diabetic-related retinopathy (NDR); early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD); nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract; and primary open-angle (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG)...
November 18, 2020: British Journal of Ophthalmology
María Del Mar Díaz Alcázar, Alicia Martín-Lagos Maldonado, Elena Ruiz-Escolano
We present the case of a 79-year-old man who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after cholangitis. The papilla was rigid and the biliary tract was dilated with the sharpening of the distal bile duct, without an obvious cause. We placed a plastic stent and purulent bile flowed. Biopsies of the papilla were taken on suspicion of tumour infiltration. The next day, the patient had pain in the right upper quadrant. In the abdominal computed tomography, we found a subcapsular hepatic collection suggestive of a hematoma...
November 19, 2020: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Kepa Balparda, Claudia Marcela Vanegas-Ramirez, Johny Márquez-Tróchez, Tatiana Herrera-Chalarca
Background: Phakic Intraocular Lens (P-IOL) implantation is a safe, easy, predictable intervention designed to manage moderate to high refractive errors. Complications are relatively uncommon and include mainly cataract and intraocular pressure spikes. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS) is a rather unusual sterile anterior segment inflammation after uneventful intraocular surgery, extremely rarely reported after P-IOL implantation. Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) is also very rarely described after P-IOL...
2020: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Marcello Napolitano, Stéphanie Franchi-Abella, Maria Beatrice Damasio, Thomas A Augdal, Fred Efraim Avni, Costanza Bruno, Kassa Darge, Damjana Ključevšek, Annemieke S Littooij, Luisa Lobo, Hans-Joachim Mentzel, Michael Riccabona, Samuel Stafrace, Seema Toso, Magdalena Maria Woźniak, Gianni Di Leo, Francesco Sardanelli, Lil-Sofie Ording Müller, Philippe Petit
We present a practical approach to imaging in suspected biliary atresia, an inflammatory cholangiopathy of infancy resulting in progressive fibrosis and obliteration of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Left untreated or with failure of the Kasai procedure, biliary atresia progresses towards biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver failure and death by age 3. Differentiation of biliary atresia from other nonsurgical causes of neonatal cholestasis is challenging because there is no single method for diagnosing biliary atresia, and clinical, laboratory and imaging features of this disease overlap with those of other causes of neonatal cholestasis...
November 17, 2020: Pediatric Radiology
Abdul Razik, Sundeep Malla, Ankur Goyal, Shivanand Gamanagatti, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Chandan Jyoti Das, Raju Sharma, Arun Kumar Gupta
The radiological appearance of common primary hepatic tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is widely recognized. Hepatic masses with unusual histology are occasionally encountered, but seldom suspected on imaging. However, many possess characteristic imaging findings, which when assessed along with the clinical and demographic background and serum tumor markers, may enable a prospective diagnosis. This review attempts to familiarize the reader with the clinicopathological characteristics, imaging manifestations, and differential diagnosis of these unusual liver tumors in adults...
November 2, 2020: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Ankur Goyal, Naren Hemachandran, Atin Kumar, Raju Sharma, Shamim Ahmed Shamim, Virinder Kumar Bansal, Chandan Jyoti Das, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal, Amit Kumar Dinda, V Seenu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the various quantitative parameters of Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and shear wave elastography (SWE) of graft kidneys in the early postoperative period and to explore their utility in the diagnosis of parenchymal causes of graft dysfunction. METHODS: In this ethically approved study, consecutive patients who underwent renal transplantation from March 2017 to August 2018 were recruited, and those with urologic or vascular complications and those who denied consent were excluded...
November 12, 2020: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Victoria Luño, Marina Servián, Felisa Martínez, María Borobia, Noelia González, Lydia Gil
Pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography (PwD) is a method used to rapidly and noninvasively assess blood flow dynamics of the canine prostate. Modifications in gland vascularization can affect seminal plasma production and consequently sperm quality. The aim of this study was to determine the normal blood flow parameters of the prostate artery in beagle dogs and to analyze the correlations between vascular flow and semen quality characteristics. PwD was performed on five beagle dogs (5-6 years) measuring vascular features in four different locations of the prostatic artery (cranial, subcapsular, parenchymal and caudal); the measured features were peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI)...
November 9, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Sawangpong Jandee, Pattira Boonsri
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that becomes more recognized as multi-systemic disorders, characterized by three histological hallmarks of IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic tissue infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. This disease has been reported in virtually every organ system, but the hepatic manifestations remain poorly defined. Moreover, IgG4-RD can mimic many malignancies, inflammatory disorders and infectious diseases. This report revealed IgG4-related liver disease with atypical presentation presenting with multiple liver abscesses and linear tracts mimicking parasitic infection...
September 2020: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Kichang Han, Jin Hyoung Kim, Seul Gi Yang, Seong Ho Park, Hyun-Kyung Choi, Seng-Yong Chun, Pyo Nyun Kim, Jihong Park, Myeongjee Lee
Background Local tumor progression (LTP) is associated with poorer survival in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for colorectal liver metastasis (CLM). An algorithmic strategy to predict LTP may help in selection of patients who would benefit most from RFA for CLM. Purpose To estimate local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS) following RFA of CLM and develop an algorithmic strategy based on clinical variables. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, between March 2000 and December 2014, patients who underwent percutaneous RFA for CLM were randomly split into development (60%) and internal validation (40%) data sets...
November 10, 2020: Radiology
Shoko Ariyoshi, Masahiro Tanabe, Katsuyoshi Ito
PURPOSE: To examine the frequency and patterns of renal parenchymal retention of iodinated contrast agent during follow-up computed tomography (CT) performed one day after undergoing contrast-enhanced CT and to evaluate the association with the renal function before and after contrast-enhanced CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 55 patients who underwent follow-up CT the day after contrast-enhanced CT had been performed. Two radiologists categorized the retention patterns on a scale of 0-6 (0: no retention, 1: diffuse parenchymal, 2: diffuse cortical, 3: subcapsular tiny nodular, 4: cortical wedge-shaped, 5: medullary focal, 6: renal pelvic)...
November 2020: European Journal of Radiology
Mohamed Tharwat
This review article is written to describe the results of ultrasonography of the kidneys in healthy camels as well as camels with some renal disorders. In the dromedary camel, the physiology of the kidney is of interest in view of the specialization of the camel to hot dry deserts and to prolonged periods without water. It plays an important role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal disorders. Examples of kidney affections in dromedary camels are renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis, and hydatidosis...
2020: Veterinary Medicine International
Kok-Min Seow, Yi-Wen Chang, Kuo-Hu Chen, Chi-Chang Juan, Chen-Yu Huang, Li-Te Lin, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Yi-Jen Chen, Wen-Ling Lee, Peng-Hui Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy, characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and multiple small subcapsular cystic follicles in the ovary during ultrasonography, and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is frequently associated with insulin resistance (IR) accompanied by compensatory hyperinsulinemia and, therefore, presents an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The pathophysiology of PCOS is unclear, and many hypotheses have been proposed. Among these hypotheses, IR and hyperandrogenism may be the two key factors...
October 31, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Germana de Nucci, Cristina Della Corte, Raffaella Reati, Nicola Imperatore, Ilaria Arena, Alberto Larghi, Gianpiero Manes
Background  The percutaneous approach allows for effective and safe treatment of liver lesions. But in case of subcapsular or left segments location, this approach seems to be less effective or unsafe. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) is a new technique used to treat pancreatic and neuroendocrine tumors in patients unfit for surgery. Methods  Hereby, we describe the case of a 70-year-old patient with cirrhosis with a large subcapsular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in II-III-IVb segments, in which surgery or percutaneous therapies were not feasible, treated with EUS-RFA...
November 2020: Endoscopy International Open
Jorge Mandelblum, Naomi Fischer, Asaf Achiron, Mordechai Goldberg, Raimo Tuuminen, Eran Zunz, Oriel Spierer
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a simplified pre-operative nuclear classification score (SPONCS) was valid, both for clinical trials and real-world settings. METHODS: Cataract classification was based on posterior nuclear color: 0 (clear), 1 (subcapsular/posterior cataract with clear nucleus), 2 (mild "green nucleus" with plus sign for yellow reflection of the posterior cortex), 3 (medium "yellow nucleus" with plus sign for brown/red posterior cortex reflection), 4 (advanced with 4 being "red/brown nucleus" and 4+ white nucleus), and 5 (hypermature/Morgagnian nucleus)...
October 29, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Eltaib Saad, Lauren O'Connell, Anne M Browne, W Khan, R Waldron, K Barry, Iqbal Z Khan
We report on a 59-year-old female with symptomatic cholelithiasis on a background of morbid obesity who underwent an elective LC with an uncomplicated intraoperative course; however, she experienced a refractory hypotension within one hour postoperatively with an acute haemoglobin drop requiring fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion. A triphasic computed tomography scan revealed a large intrahepatic subcapsular haematoma (ISH) measuring 21 cm × 3.1 cm × 17 cm surrounding the lateral surface of the right hepatic lobe without active bleeding...
2020: Case Reports in Surgery
Isaac Levy, Eva Szarek, Andrea Gutierrez Maria, Matthew Starrost, Maria De La Luz Sierra, Fabio R Faucz, Constantine A Stratakis
Phosphodiesterases catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides and maintain physiologic levels of intracellular concentrations of cyclic adenosine and guanosine mono-phosphate (cAMP and cGMP, respectively). Increased cAMP signaling has been associated with adrenocortical tumors and Cushing syndrome. Genetic defects in phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) may lead to increased cAMP signaling and are found to predispose to the development of adrenocortical, prostate, and testicular tumors. A previously reported Pde11a knockout (Pde11a-/- ) mouse line was studied and found to express PDE11A mRNA and protein still, albeit at reduced levels; functional studies in various tissues showed increased cAMP levels and reduced PDE11A activity...
October 27, 2020: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Rukhsana Aslam, Ali Hussain, Kang Cheng, Vinod Kumar, Ashwani Malhotra, Sanjeev Gupta, Pravin C Singhal
To determine the role of the transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in podocyte renewal, we studied BALB/C mice with or without adriamycin-induced acute kidney injury. MSCs were transplanted ectopically under the capsule of the left kidney or into the peritoneal cavity after the onset of kidney injury to test testing their local or systemic paracrine effects, respectively. Adriamycin produced increases in urine protein: creatinine ratios, blood urea nitrogen, and blood pressure, which improved after both renal subcapsular and intraperitoneal MSCs transplants...
October 30, 2020: Histology and Histopathology
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