Training monitoring, Athlete

Mark Evans, Fionn T McSwiney, Aidan J Brady, Brendan Egan
PURPOSE: Preexercise ingestion of exogenous ketones alters the metabolic response to exercise, but effects on exercise performance have been equivocal. METHODS: On two occasions in a double-blind, randomized crossover design, eight endurance-trained runners performed 1 h of submaximal exercise at approximately 65% V˙O2max immediately followed by a 10-km self-paced time trial (TT) on a motorized treadmill. An 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution was consumed before and during exercise, either alone (CHO + PLA), or with 573 mg·kg of a ketone monoester supplement (CHO + KME)...
December 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Chin-Shan Ho, Chun-Hao Chang, Kuo-Chuan Lin, Chi-Chang Huang, Yi-Ju Hsu
Background: Using wearable inertial sensors to accurately estimate energy expenditure (EE) during an athletic training process is important. Due to the characteristics of inertial sensors, however, the positions in which they are worn can produce signals of different natures. To understand and solve this issue, this study used the heart rate reserve (HRR) as a compensation factor to modify the traditional empirical equation of the accelerometer EE sensor and examine the possibility of improving the estimation of energy expenditure for sensors worn in different positions...
2019: PeerJ
T M Rossi, A Moore, T L O'Sullivan, A L Greer
BACKGROUND: Infectious respiratory disease is common in young horses and can impact athletic performance and long-term health. Significant variation in the duration of clinical disease has been observed, even in the absence of secondary complications. The determination of factors associated with disease chronicity may facilitate clinical decision-making and the development of improved biosecurity protocols. OBJECTIVE: To investigate contact network characteristics, and demographic variables associated with time to clinical recovery from Equine Rhinitis A virus respiratory disease...
November 11, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
Blair T Crewther, Neill Potts, Liam P Kilduff, Scott Drawer, Christian J Cook
OBJECTIVES: Research has linked physiological (e.g., hormonal, affective, fatigue) outcomes to performance indicators in rugby competition, but no work has integrated and contextualised these factors within a test-match environment. We addressed this gap by monitoring 29 athletes from a training squad across eight international rugby matches. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. METHODS: Pre-match (8-9am) measures of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, sleep duration, pulse rate, muscle soreness, stress, mood, and motivation were taken...
October 19, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Charles R Pedlar, John Newell, Nathan A Lewis
Blood test data were traditionally confined to the clinic for diagnostic purposes, but are now becoming more routinely used in many professional and elite high-performance settings as a physiological profiling and monitoring tool. A wealth of information based on robust research evidence can be gleaned from blood tests, including: the identification of iron, vitamin or energy deficiency; the identification of oxidative stress and inflammation; and the status of red blood cell populations. Serial blood test data can be used to monitor athletes and make inferences about the efficacy of training interventions, nutritional strategies or indeed the capacity to tolerate training load...
November 6, 2019: Sports Medicine
Alan Griffin, Ian C Kenny, Thomas M Comyns, Mark Lyons
BACKGROUND: There has been a recent increase in research examining training load as a method of mitigating injury risk due to its known detrimental effects on player welfare and team performance. The acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) takes into account the current training load (acute) and the training load that an athlete has been prepared for (chronic). The ACWR can be calculated using; (1) the rolling average model (RA) and (2) the exponentially weighted moving average model (EWMA)...
November 5, 2019: Sports Medicine
Esther Phielix, Paul Begovatz, Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Esther Kornips, Gert Schaart, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen, Michael Roden
BACKGROUNDInsulin resistance results from impaired skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation, linked to augmented lipid availability. Despite greater intramuscular lipids, athletes are highly insulin sensitive, which could result from higher rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis or glucose transport/phosphorylation and oxidation. Thus, we examined the time course of muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations during low and high systemic lipid availability.METHODSEight endurance-trained and 9 sedentary humans (VO2 peak: 56 ± 2 vs...
November 1, 2019: JCI Insight
Joseph O C Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U Newton, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: Criticisms of the acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR) have been that the mathematical coupling inherent in the traditional calculation of the ACWR results in a spurious correlation. The purposes of this commentary are (1) to examine how mathematical coupling causes spurious correlations and (2) to use a case study from actual monitoring data to determine how mathematical coupling affects the ACWR. METHODS: Training and competition workload (TL) data were obtained from international-level open-skill (basketball) and closed-skill (weightlifting) athletes before their respective qualifying tournaments for the 2016 Olympic Games...
October 30, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Guilherme Tucher, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, Nuno Domingos Garrido, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes
Our aim was to analyze physiological, kinematical and performance changes induced by swimming training in regional age-group athletes. Subjects (15.7 ± 2.2 years old) performed a 4 x 50-m front-crawl test at maximal velocity (10 s rest interval) in weeks 2, 4, 9 and 12 of a 15-week macrocycle. Descriptive statistics were used and the percentage of change and smallest worthwhile change (moderate, 0.6-1.2, and large, > 1.2) were measured. Lactate concentration in the third, seventh and twelfth minute of recovery decreased significantly between weeks 2-9 (14...
October 2019: Journal of Human Kinetics
Tomasz Kowalik, Jacek J Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Witold Słomko, Joanna Słomko, Anna Srokowska, Andrzej Lewandowski, Paweł Zalewski
Introduction: Professional athlete training is significantly different from recreational physical activity, and sustained, repetitive exposure to over-strenuous and intensive training may result in critical changes of most systems and organs in a sportsman's body. Aim: The assessment of the influence of multiannual strength-endurance training on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) among the rowers of Polish national team. Materials and Methods: 20 rowers, aged 20-30, seniors of Polish national team were qualified into the study...
2019: BioMed Research International
Noelle M Selkow
CONTEXT: When using an ice bag, previous researchers recommended cooling times based on the amount of subcutaneous tissue. Unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of these recommendations or whether they can be applied to other muscles. OBJECTIVE: To examine if muscles of the lower extremity cool similarly based on recommended cooling times. DESIGN: Crossover study. SETTING: Athletic training laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy participants volunteered (8 men, 6 women; age = 21...
October 28, 2019: Journal of Athletic Training
James Hudson, Matthew Cole, James P Morton, Claire Stewart, Graeme L Close
INTRODUCTION: Preparation for competitive contact sport has been extensively researched. There are, however, limited data to guide players as to how the demands of their sport affect the energy requirements of recovery. We aimed to provide novel data on changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) in contact sport athletes and relate these to the physical demands of training and competition. METHODS: 22 Elite professional Premiership Rugby Union players were recruited to the study...
October 23, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Neeru A Jayanthi, Eric G Post, Torrance C Laury, Peter D Fabricant
Sport specialization is a training method now commonly used by young athletes who hope to achieve elite-level success. This may be defined as (1) choosing a main sport, (2) quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport, and (3) year-round training (greater than 8 months per year). A number of sports medicine organizations have published recommendations based on the limited evidence available on this topic. The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review of the currently available evidence and sports medicine organizational recommendations regarding sport specialization and its effects on health to guide athletic trainers and sports medicine providers...
October 2019: Journal of Athletic Training
C Pasquarella, M Pompili, F Valeriani, M Morgado, G M Milicia, L Veronesi, A Odone, R Zoni, E Saccani, G Savino, Y Persi, M Pinelli, G Liguori, F Gallè, V Di Onofrio, P Fallace, V Romano Spica
INTRODUCTION: Doping is an important public health problem widespread not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes and the general population. In Italy the introduction of doping prevention within the Essential Levels of Care (LEA) with the DPCM 12/1/2017 represents a crucial step towards the implementation of education and health promotion interventions. In this context, the Departments of Prevention (DP) of the Local Health Authorities (LHA) have to play a fundamental role, becoming the cultural and operational reference on this issue...
November 2019: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Samuel Ryan, Emidio Pacecca, Jye Tebble, Joel Hocking, Thomas Kempton, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To examine the measurement reliability and sensitivity of common athlete monitoring tools in professional Australian Football players. METHODS: Test-retest reliability (noise) and weekly variation (signal) data were collected from 42 professional Australian footballers from 1 club during a competition season. Perceptual wellness was measured via questionnaires completed before main training sessions (48, 72, and 96 h postmatch), with players providing a rating (1-5 Likert scale) regarding their muscle soreness, sleep quality, fatigue level, stress, and motivation...
October 14, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sérgio Matos, Filipe Manuel Clemente, António Brandão, Joel Pereira, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
The present study aimed to analyze the relationship between variables related to the internal and external loads of training and competition races as well as to athletes' perceptions of well-being measured throughout the course of a 4-week mesocycle. It also aimed to analyze the intra- and inter-week variations in terms of training load and well-being. The study included the participation of 47 male recreational athletes competing in the national championships of trail running in Portugal (age: 34.85 ± 8.88 years; height: 1...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Boulbaba Ben Amor, Anuj Srivastava, Pavan Turaga, Grisha Coleman
Rapid advances in cost-effective and non-invasive depth sensors, and the development of reliable and real-time 3D skeletal data estimation algorithms, have opened up a new application area in computer vision - statistical analysis of human kinematic data for fast, automated assessment of body movements. These assessments can play important roles in sports, medical diagnosis, physical therapy, elderly monitoring and related applications. This paper develops a comprehensive geometric framework for quantification and statistical evaluation of kinematic features...
October 10, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Serkan Örücü, Murat Selek
Monitoring of training performance and physical activity has become indispensable these days for athletes. Wireless technologies have started to be widely used in the monitoring of muscle activation, in the sport performance of athletes, and in the examination of training efficiency. The monitorability of performance simultaneously in the process of training is especially a necessity for athletes at the beginner level to carry out healthy training in sports like weightlifting and bodybuilding. For this purpose, a new system consisting of 4 channel wireless wearable SEMG circuit and analysis software has been proposed to detect dynamic muscle contractions and to be used in real-time training performance monitoring and analysis...
2019: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Dan Weaving, Clive Beggs, Nicholas Dalton-Barron, Ben Jones, Grant Abt
PURPOSE: To discuss the use of principal-component analysis (PCA) as a dimension-reduction and visualization tool to assist in decision making and communication when analyzing complex multivariate data sets associated with the training of athletes. CONCLUSIONS: Using PCA, it is possible to transform a data matrix into a set of orthogonal composite variables called principal components (PCs), with each PC being a linear weighted combination of the observed variables and with all PCs uncorrelated to each other...
September 18, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Selena R Pasadyn, Mohamad Soudan, Marc Gillinov, Penny Houghtaling, Dermot Phelan, Nicole Gillinov, Barbara Bittel, Milind Y Desai
Endurance athletes, particularly competitive runners, are using wrist worn devices with the heart rate (HR) feature to guide their training. However, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of these at high levels of exertion. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy of the HR monitor feature in four watches at six different treadmill speeds. This prospective study recruited 50 healthy, athletic adults (68% male, mean age of 29, and mean BMI of 23 kg/m2 ). All subjects wore a three lead ECG and Polar H7 chest strap monitor and two different randomly assigned wrist worn HR monitors...
August 2019: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
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