Obesity, nutrition, diabetes,

Emmanuella Magriplis, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Ioannis Kyrou, Costas Tsioufis, Anastasia-Vasiliki Mitsopoulou, Dimitra Karageorgou, Ioannis Dimakopoulos, Ioanna Bakogianni, Michalis Chourdakis, Renata Micha, George Michas, Triantafyllia Ntouroupi, Sophia-Maria Tsaniklidou, Kostantina Argyri, Antonis Zampelas
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study's aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = 3775 (40.8% males)), from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), which took place from September 2013 to May 2015. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using validated questionnaires, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed for the two main metropolitan areas (N = 1040; 41...
March 23, 2020: Nutrients
Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Richard P Troiano, David R Bassett, Barry I Graubard, Susan A Carlson, Eric J Shiroma, Janet E Fulton, Charles E Matthews
Importance: It is unclear whether the number of steps per day and the intensity of stepping are associated with lower mortality. Objective: Describe the dose-response relationship between step count and intensity and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Representative sample of US adults aged at least 40 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who wore an accelerometer for up to 7 days ( from 2003-2006). Mortality was ascertained through December 2015...
March 24, 2020: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Eun Jung Rhee
Korea is currently an aged society and is on the cusp of becoming a superaged society in a few years. The health burden of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, may be linked to increased population-level cardiovascular risk. In 2018, the prevalence of obesity in Korea was 35.7% (men, 45.4%; women, 26.5%) according to the Obesity Fact Sheet 2019, based on National Health Insurance Corporation medical checkup data...
March 2020: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bo-Dou Zhang, Jia-Xin Cheng, Chao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Dan Bai, Wen-Yuan Liu, Wei Li, Kazuo Koike, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng, Jie Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sauropus androgynus L. Merr is an underexploited perennial shrub traditionally used as a medicinal plant in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The plant is regarded as not just a green vegetable for diet but a traditional herb for certain aliments. For instance, it has traditionally been used to relieve fever, to treat ulcers and diabetes, to promote lactation and eyesight, as well as reducing obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper aims to review the botany, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activities of S...
March 20, 2020: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mukul Prasad, Elijah W Chen, Sue-Anne Toh, Nicholas R J Gascoigne
Obesity-induced insulin resistance is one of the largest noncommunicable disease epidemics that we are facing at the moment. Changes in lifestyle and greater availability of low nutritional value, high caloric food has led to the highest rates of obesity in history. Obesity impacts the immune system and obesity-associated inflammation contributes to metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Both the adaptive and the innate immune system play a role in the regulation of glycemic control, and there is a need to understand how metabolic imbalances drive disease pathogenesis...
March 23, 2020: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
David Hill, Sandra K Szlapinski
Normal pregnancy is associated with increased insulin resistance as a metabolic adaptation to the nutritional demands of the placenta and fetus, and this is amplified in obese mothers. Insulin resistance is normally compensated for by an adaptive increase in pancreatic β-cell mass together with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. Placentally-derived hormones and growth factors are central to the altered pancreatic morphology and function. A failure of β-cells to undergo adaptive change after first trimester has been linked with gestational diabetes...
March 20, 2020: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Kyong Sil Park, Seon Young Hwang
Objectives.: To investigate lifestyle-related predictors of prediabetes and diabetes in young adults aged 20-39 years using data from the 2014-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods.: This study is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis using the KNHANES data. Participants were classified into normal group (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dl and/or HbA1c < 5.7%), prediabetes group (fasting glucose 100-125 mg/dl and/or HbA1c 5...
March 19, 2020: Epidemiology and Health
Michelle S Williams, Bettina M Beech, Derek M Griffith, Roland J Jr Thorpe
PURPOSE: Hypertension is a significant, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). African American women who are diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer have a significantly higher risk of premature death due to CVD. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypertension and race/ethnicity among breast cancer survivors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2014. METHODS: Non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic White women who were diagnosed with breast cancer were identified...
March 17, 2020: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Rachel M Harris, Angela M C Rose, Nita G Forouhi, Nigel Unwin
The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits were last described in 2005. A representative population-based sample ( n  = 363, aged 25-64 years) provided two nonconsecutive 24-hr dietary recalls in this cross-sectional study. Mean daily nutrient intakes were compared with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Subgroup differences by age, sex, and educational level were examined using logistic regression. High sugar intakes exist for both sexes with 24% (95% CIs 18...
March 2020: Food Science & Nutrition
Mainul Haque, Judy McKimm, Massimo Sartelli, Nandeeta Samad, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Muhamad Abu Bakar
The provision of healthy and safe food is vital for human health, and the addition of unnecessary sugars in foodstuffs is an important global issue, leading to multiple long- and short-term health issues and spiraling costs for individuals and governments alike. The negative effect of excess sugar consumption contributes to adverse health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and poor oral health in both high and low resource settings. A key plank of governmental and health promotion bodies' nutritional guidance is to raise public awareness of "hidden" sugars, salt, and fats, such as found in processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and guide individuals to reduce their consumption...
March 3, 2020: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
W Xu, X Y Xing, Q He, D Dai, R Li, J Q Xu, Y J Chen, Z R Liu
Objective: Based on the data of chronic diseases and nutrition surveillance among Chinese adults in 2015, dyslipidemia and related factors were analyzed. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling was used to select participants who were aged 18 and over, with questionnaire survey and related measurements conducted. Prevalence rates of dyslipidemia among participants by different characteristics and influencing factors were analyzed, using the method of complex weighting and post-weighted stratification...
February 10, 2020: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Q M Huang, H R Jiang, L S Wang, B Zhang, H J Wang, Z H Wang
Objective: To analyze the prevalence, co-prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic (CM) risk factors in women aged 15-49 years in China, and describe the influence of social economic factors on them. Methods: The project data of Nutritional Status and Health Transition of Chinese Residents in 2015 were used. The changes in epidemiological characteristics of central obesity, elevated blood pressure, FPG and TG, decreased HDL-C and co-prevalence of the risk factors in women aged 15-49 years were analyzed. According to the definition of the metabolic syndrome released by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, five cardio-metabolic risk factors appeared as central obesity, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL-C, increased blood pressure and increased plasma glucose...
February 10, 2020: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Soyoung Park, Alice Jang, Sebastien G Bouret
The steady increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated type II diabetes mellitus is a major health concern, particularly among children. Maternal obesity represents a risk factor that contributes to metabolic perturbations in the offspring. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a critical mechanism involved in leptin resistance and type 2 diabetes in adult individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of maternal obesity to investigate the importance of early life ER stress in the nutritional programming of this metabolic disease...
March 2020: PLoS Biology
Lu Zhang, Chris E Shannon, Terry M Bakewell, Marcel Fourcaudot, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Luke Norton
Objective: The angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) family represents a promising therapeutic target for dyslipidemia, which is a feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to determine the metabolic role of ANGPTL8 and to investigate its nutritional, hormonal and molecular regulation in key metabolic tissues. Methods: The regulation of Angptl8 gene expression by insulin and glucose was quantified using a combination of in vivo insulin clamp experiments in mice and in vitro experiments in primary and cultured hepatocytes and adipocytes...
March 10, 2020: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ernst Mayerhofer, Franz Ratzinger, Nina Elvira Kienreich, Annika Stiel, Nadine Witzeneder, Eva Schrefl, Georg Greiner, Christoph Wegscheider, Irene Graf, Klaus Schmetterer, Rodrig Marculescu, Thomas Szekeres, Thomas Perkmann, Martina Fondi, Oswald Wagner, Harald Esterbauer, Matthias Mayerhofer, Stefana Holocher-Ertl, Claudia Wojnarowski, Gregor Hoermann
Childhood obesity is an increasing health care problem associated with insulin resistance and low-level systemic inflammation, which can ultimately lead to diabetes. Evidence for efficacy of therapeutic intervention programs on the early development of obesity associated sequelae is moderate. This paper investigates the effect of a multidisciplinary short-term intervention program on insulin resistance and metaflammation in childhood obesity. Two hundred and 36 overweight or obese children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 were included in a prospective 5 months intervention study, which included sports, psychotherapy, and nutritional counseling...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Adefisayo O Odeniyi, Nicholas Embleton, Lem Ngongalah, Wanwuri Akor, Judith Rankin
Breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition for the healthy growth of infants and is associated with reduced risks of infectious diseases, child and adult obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Migration has been shown to influence breastfeeding especially among migrants from low-and-middle-income countries. This mixed-methods systematic review aimed to identify, synthesise, and appraise the international literature on the breastfeeding knowledge and experiences of African immigrant mothers residing in high-income countries...
March 5, 2020: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Budi Haryanto
Children's bodies are in dynamic stages of development that make them more susceptible to harm from exposure to environmental agents. Children's physical, physiological and behavioral traits can lead to increased exposure to toxic chemicals or pathogens. In addition, the social determinants of health interact with this exposure and create an increasing risk for further disparities among children. In Indonesia, the fourth most populated country in the world, children are under threat of exposure to contaminated water, air, food and soil, which can cause gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, birth defects and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 5, 2020: Reviews on Environmental Health
Maria Sortênia Alves Guimarães, Kíllya de Paiva Santos, Joice da Silva Castro, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Objectives : To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with general and central adiposity in older adults in Palmas (TO). Methods : Cross-sectional study with older adults (≥60 years) of both sexes enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program in Palmas (TO). Sociodemographic aspects, health conditions, and functionality were evaluated as independent variables and Body Mass Index (BMI) for general adiposity and Waist Circumference (WC) for central adiposity as dependent variables. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed...
March 3, 2020: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Nicole Mercado Fischer, Vincent A Pallazola, Helen Xun, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Erin D Michos
The rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality reduction in the United States has plateaued recently, despite the development of novel preventive pharmacotherapies, increased access to care, and healthcare spending. This is largely due to American's poor dietary patterns and practices causing increasing trends in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. For decades, dietary guidelines on 'healthy diets' to reduce CVD risk, grounded in epidemiological research, have been nationally distributed to Americans...
March 3, 2020: Vascular Medicine
Ellen E Blaak
Lifestyle intervention may be effective in reducing type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence and cardiometabolic risk. A more personalised nutritional approach based on an individual or subgroup-based metabolic profile may optimise intervention outcome. Whole body insulin resistance (IR) reflects defective insulin action in tissues such as muscle, liver, adipose tissue, gut and brain, which may precede the development of cardiometabolic diseases. IR may develop in different organs but the severity may vary between organs...
March 3, 2020: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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