insect protein

Zhanqi Dong, Jiangqiong Long, Liang Huang, Zhigang Hu, Peng Chen, Nan Hu, Ning Zheng, Xuhua Huang, Cheng Lu, Minhui Pan
The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular parasitic fungus that causes devastating disease in sericulture. To date, no efficient biotechnological method to inhibit the proliferation of microspores has been established. Here, we developed a powerful genetic engineering technique involving microsporidia-inducible genome editing in transgenic silkworm that confers resistance to N. bombycis. This system includes an HSP70 promoter-induced expression of the Cas9 protein line and a target BmATAD3A gene line...
November 9, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lorenzo Mazza, Xiaopeng Xiao, Kashif Ur Rehman, Minmin Cai, Dingnan Zhang, Salvatore Fasulo, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng, Abdul Aziz Soomro, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Black soldier fly (BSF) is used for the management of organic waste, but research has hardly explored the effect of companion bacteria when chicken manure (CHM) is converted to insect biomass. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial species (FE01, FE02, FE03, FE04, FE05, FE06, FE07, FE08, FE09) from BSF eggs and one (BSF-CL) from the larval gut. These companion bacteria were inoculated into CHM along with BSF larvae (BSFL). Larval growth and manure conversion rates were determined. Results indicated that almost all bacteria individual bacteria in this study significantly promote BSFL growth...
November 7, 2019: Waste Management
Jie Zhang, Guanfeng Xu, Binbin Qiu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qili Feng, Qing Yang, Sichun Zheng
Elaborate regulation of tissue- and stage-specific expression of genes is prerequisite for insect development. The hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates metamorphosis by regulating the expression of a series of genes. However, how 20E orderly regulates the pupa-specific expression of genes remains unclear. In this study, we report a regulatory mechanism for the pupa-specific expression of chitin synthase A 2b (CHSA-2b) in Bombyx mori. We found that Broad-Complex Z4 (BR-C Z4) was up-regulated by 20E just before pupation, while transcription factor FoxJ and CHSA-2b were up-regulated during the pupal stage...
November 7, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Anochar Kaewwongwal, Changyou Liu, Prakit Somta, Jingbin Chen, Jing Tian, Xingxing Yuan, Xin Chen
Two bruchid species, azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) and cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F.), are the most important insect pests of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] after harvest. Improving bruchid resistance is a major goal for mungbean breeders. Bruchid resistance in mungbean is controlled by a single major locus, Br. The tightly linked VrPGIP1 and VrPGIP2, which encode polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), are the candidate genes at the Br locus associated with bruchid resistance...
November 8, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Brwa Rasool, Barbara Karpinska, Jesús Pascual, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi, Christine H Foyer
Redox processes regulate plant/insect responses but the precise roles of environmental triggers and specific molecular components remain poorly defined. Aphid fecundity and plant responses were therefore measured in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in either catalase 2 (cat2), different protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) subunits or glutathione (cad2, pad2, clt1) under either moderate (250 μmol m-2 s-1 ) or high (800 μmol m-2 s-1 ) light. Aphid fecundity was decreased in pp2a-b'γ, cat2 and the cat2 pp2a-b'γ double mutants relative to the wild type under moderate irradiance...
November 8, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jie Liu, Liucheng Wang, Guona Zhou, Suhong Gao, Tianhua Sun, Junxia Liu, Baojia Gao
Clostera anachoreta is one of the important Lepidoptera insect pests in forestry, especially in poplars woods in China, Europe, Japan, and India, and so forth, and also the target insect of Cry1Ac toxin and Bt plants. Six genes, HSC70, GNB2L/RACK1, PNLIP, BI1-like, arylphorin type 2, and PKM were found in this study, and they might be associated with the response to the Cry1Ac toxin, found by analyzing the transcriptome data. And the PI3K-Akt pathway was highly enriched in differentially expressed unigenes and linked to several crucial pathways, including the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, toll-like receptor pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway...
November 8, 2019: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Mac Kevin E Braza, Jerrica Dominique N Gazmen, Eizadora T Yu, Ricky B Nellas
Tyramine receptor (TyrR) is a biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with many important physiological functions in insect locomotion, reproduction, and pheromone response. Binding of specific ligands to the TyrR triggers conformational changes, relays the signal to G proteins, and initiates an appropriate cellular response. Here, we monitor the binding effect of agonist compounds, tyramine and amitraz, to a Sitophilus oryzae tyramine receptor (SoTyrR) homology model and their elicited conformational changes...
November 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
John H-O Pettersson, Mang Shi, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Jenny C Hesson
Mosquitoes harbor an extensive diversity of 'insect-specific' RNA viruses in addition to those important to human and animal health. However, because most studies of the mosquito virome have been conducted at lower latitudes, little is known about the diversity and evolutionary history of RNA viruses sampled from mosquitoes in northerly regions. Here, we compared the RNA virome of two common northern mosquito species, Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium , collected in south-central Sweden. Following bulk RNA-sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) of 12 libraries, comprising 120 specimens of Cx...
November 6, 2019: Viruses
Farah Aida Dahalan, Thomas S Churcher, Nikolai Windbichler, Mara K N Lawniczak
Mating causes dramatic changes in female physiology, behaviour, and immunity in many insects, inducing oogenesis, oviposition, and refractoriness to further mating. Females from the Anopheles gambiae species complex typically mate only once in their lifetime during which they receive sperm and seminal fluid proteins as well as a mating plug that contains the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. This hormone, which is also induced by blood-feeding, plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis for egg production...
November 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Elizabeth Dickinson, Mark Harrison, Marc Parker, Michael Dickinson, James Donarski, Adrian Charlton, Rosie Nolan, Aida Rafat, Florence Gschwend, Jason Hallett, Maureen Wakefield, Julie Wilson
Waste biomass from the palm oil industry is currently burned as a means of disposal and solutions are required to reduce the environmental impact. Whilst some waste biomass can be recycled to provide green energy such as biogas, this investigation aimed to optimise experimental conditions for recycling palm waste into substrate for insects, farmed as a sustainable high-protein animal feed. NMR spectroscopy and LC-HRMS were used to analyse the composition of palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under experimental conditions optimised to produce nutritious substrate rather than biogas...
2019: PloS One
Tomonari Nozaki, Kenji Matsuura
Endoreduplication or nuclear genome replication without cell division is widely observed in the metabolically active tissues of plants and animals. The fat body cells of adult female insects produce abundant yolk proteins and become polyploid, which is assumed to accelerate egg production. Recently, it was reported that in termites, endopolyploidy in the fat body occurs only in queens but not in the other females; however, the relationship between the fecundity and ploidy level in the fat body remains unclear...
October 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Hongfei Gao, Luke Wen, Wei Hua, Jing Tian, Yongjun Lin
The wide cultivation of genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crops has raised concerns on the risks to the eco-environment resulting from a release of Cry proteins. Therefore, it is vital to develop a method for the quantification of GM crops. Herein, A highly sensitive immunosensing platform has been developed for both colorimetric and chemiluminescent (CL) detection of Cry 1Ab using dual-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as signal amplification nanoprobes for the first time. In this work, anti-Cry 1Ab monoclonal antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are simultaneously functionalized on the surface of AuNPs with an exceptionally simple synthesis method...
November 6, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qi Qian, Hui Zhou, Ting Shu, Jingfang Mu, Yuan Fang, Jiuyue Xu, Tao Li, Jing Kong, Yang Qiu, Xi Zhou
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved antiviral immune defence in eukaryotes, and numerous viruses have been found to encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract antiviral RNAi. Alphaviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses that maintain their transmission and life cycles in both mosquitoes and mammals. However, there is little knowledge about how alphaviruses antagonize RNAi in both host organisms. In this study, we identified that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) capsid protein can efficiently suppress RNAi in both insect and mammalian cells by sequestrating dsRNA and siRNA...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Virology
Hao Yuan, Huihui Chang, Lina Zhao, Chao Yang, Yuan Huang
BACKGROUND: The sophisticated insect olfactory system plays an important role in recognizing external odors and enabling insects to adapt to environment. Foraging, host seeking, mating, ovipositing and other forms of chemical communication are based on olfaction, which requires the participation of multiple olfactory genes. The exclusive evolutionary trend of the olfactory system in Orthoptera insects is an excellent model for studying olfactory evolution, but limited olfaction research is available for these species...
November 6, 2019: BMC Genomics
Andreu Saura, Paula A Iribarren, Domingo Rojas-Barros, Jean M Bart, Diana López-Farfán, Eduardo Andrés-León, Isabel Vidal-Cobo, Cordula Boehm, Vanina E Alvarez, Mark C Field, Miguel Navarro
SUMOylation is a post-translational modification that positively regulates monoallelic expression of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The presence of a highly SUMOylated focus associated with the nuclear body, where the VSG gene is transcribed, further suggests an important role of SUMOylation in regulating VSG expression. Here, we show that SNF2PH, a SUMOylated plant homeodomain (PH)-transcription factor, is upregulated in the bloodstream form of the parasite and enriched at the active VSG telomere...
November 6, 2019: EMBO Reports
Shin-Ichiro Tachibana, Shinji Matsuzaki, Masako Tanaka, Masayuki Shiota, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Shin G Goto
In most insects dependent on food resources that deplete seasonally, mechanisms exist to protect against starvation. Insects overcome periods of food depletion using diapause-associated physiological mechanisms, such as increased energy resources in fat bodies and suppression of metabolism. Because autophagy supplies energy resources through the degradation of intracellular components, we hypothesized that it might be an additional strategy to combat starvation during overwintering. In this study, we measured the abundance of the proteins involved in the signaling pathway of autophagy during overwintering in adults of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), which must withstand the periodic depletion of its host plants from late fall to early spring...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dawn K Lei, Leslie C Grammer
Occupational immunologic lung disease is characterized by an immunologic response in the lung to an airborne agent inhaled in the work environment and can be subdivided into immunologically mediated occupational asthma (OA) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Irritant-induced OA, a separate nonimmunologic entity, can be due to chronic exposure to inhaled irritants or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). RADS is defined as an asthma-like syndrome that persists for >3 months and occurs within minutes to hours after a single exposure to a high concentration of a respiratory irritant...
November 1, 2019: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Dawn K Lei, Leslie C Grammer
Most allergens are proteins or glycoproteins that range in molecular weight from 5000 to 100,000 Da, although polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight substances may also be allergenic. Common allergens include pollens, fungal spores, house-dust mites, and animal epithelial materials but can also include drugs, biologic products, and insect venoms. The allergic response is dependent on the route of exposure. If the exposure is to an inhaled aeroallergen, then the allergic response will be respiratory in nature...
November 1, 2019: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Allan Ma, Bruce Motyka, Klaus Gutfreund, Yuenian Eric Shi, Rajan George
In chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections HBV-specific T cells are functionally impaired. Immunotherapy may restore HBV-specific T cell responses essential for sustained disease remission off-treatment and induction of a functional cure. Chimigen® Molecules are fusion proteins of antigen(s) with the Fc fragment of a xenotypic antibody designed to target specific receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Here we describe the production and pre-clinical evaluation of Chimigen® HBV (C-HBV), containing HBV PreS1 and PreS2 peptide fragments, HBV core and murine Fc, produced in insect cells...
November 5, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rajan George, Allan Ma, Bruce Motyka, Yuenian Eric Shi, Qiang Liu, Philip Griebel
Chimigen® HBV Immunotherapeutic Vaccine (C-HBV), a recombinant chimeric fusion protein comprising hepatitis B virus (HBV) S1 and S2 surface antigen fragments, Core antigen and a murine monoclonal antibody heavy chain fragment (Fc), was designed and produced in Sf9 insect cells. C-HBV targets the host immune system through specific receptors present on dendritic cells (DCs) which facilitates antigen internalization, processing and presentation on MHC class I and II to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses against HBV antigens...
November 5, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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