Christine Henke, Sven Haufe, Doreen Ziehl, Stefan R Bornstein, Jeanette Schulz-Menger, Martin Heni, Stefan Engeli, Jens Jordan, Andreas L Birkenfeld
AIMS: Neprilysin (NEP), a zinc metallopeptidase, degrades a variety of bioactive peptides including natriuretic peptides terminating their biological action on arterial blood pressure and natriuresis. Pharmacological inhibition of NEP reduces mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Physiological interventions reducing NEP levels are unknown in humans. Because obesity leads to increased NEP levels and increases the risk for heart failure, we hypothesized that weight loss reduces NEP concentrations in plasma and tissue...
February 27, 2021: ESC Heart Failure
Claire Roberts, Tim Gruffydd-Jones, Jessica L Williams, Jane K Murray
BACKGROUND: Living in a multicat household has been implicated as a risk factor for various feline issues, but evidence is often anecdotal or based on retrospective studies. METHODS: Data from the Bristol Cats Study, a UK longitudinal study of pet cats, were used. Cats were included if they had remained in either a single cat or multicat household between questionnaires 1 (two months old to four months old) and 5 (two-and-a-half years old). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between single cat/multicat households and measures of health and behaviour (overweight/obesity, abscesses/cat bites, negative interactions with owner and periuria)...
July 2020: Veterinary Record
Yueyi Yang, Jieya Wei, Jiachi Li, Yujia Cui, Xuedong Zhou, Jing Xie
The homeostasis of the vertebrate body depends on anabolic and catabolic activities that are closely linked the inside and outside of the cell. Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in these metabolic activities. Although a large amount of evidence shows that normal lipid metabolism guarantees the conventional physiological activities of organs in the vertebrate body and that abnormal lipid metabolism plays an important role in the occurrence and deterioration of cardiovascular-related diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, and type II diabetes, little is known about the role of lipid metabolism in cartilage and its diseases...
February 26, 2021: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Giulio M Mari, Jacopo Crippa, Achilli Pietro, Dario Maggioni, Andrea Costanzi, Mauro A Scotti, Marco Braga, Eugenio Cocozza, Giacomo Borroni, Ilaria Benzoni, Luigi Totaro, Matteo Origi, Giovanni Ferrari, Antonio Ziccarelli, Roberto Petri, Vincenzo Bagnardi
Background: Compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for patients undergoing rectal surgery ranges from 43% to 73.6%. Reasons reported for not initiating or completing AC include onset of postoperative complications, drug toxicity, disease progression and/or patient preferences. Little is known regarding the impact of obesity on the compliance to AC in this setting. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective study analyzed compliance to AC and treatment-related morbidity in 511 patients having undergone surgery with curative intent for rectal cancer in six Italian colorectal centers between January 2013 and December 2017...
January 2021: Chirurgia
Ahmad M Alkashash, Maha At Elsebaie, Mohamed H Bikhet, Mahmoud Morsi, Ravi K Paluri
To characterize clinical features of early onset pancreatic adenocarcinoma (EOPC) patients and explore prognostic factors affecting their survival. Methods: Retrospective review of 95 patients, 45 years old, who presented to the University of Alabama Hospitals with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from September 1998 to June 2018. Results: Median survival time was 12.9 months for all patients. Obesity, male gender, race, and tumor location were not associated with survival. Smoking at time of diagnosis increased risk of death by three folds (HR 3...
January 2021: Chirurgia
Juergen Eckel
In the current issue of Acta Physiologica, Lundberg and co-workers publish a paper entitled "Germ-free mice are not protected against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction" in which the authors show that feeding a Western diet to both conventionally raised and germ-free mice results in weight gain, increased fat mass, fatty liver, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation1 . This indicates that development of obesity and components of the metabolic syndrome is not dependent on the presence of gut microbiota and adds to the ongoing discussion regarding the causal role of intestinal microbiota in the development of obesity...
February 26, 2021: Acta Physiologica
Ze Wu, Lanlan Fang, Yuxi Li, Yang Yan, Avinash Thakur, Jung-Chien Cheng, Ying-Pu Sun
PROBLEM: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that has a huge impact on the human infertility. Increased levels of various circulating inflammatory cytokines have been observed in PCOS patients, which can contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a secretory chemokine, is a potent chemotactic factor that recruits monocytes/macrophages to inflammatory foci. Several previous studies comparing the circulating MCP-1 levels between non-PCOS and PCOS patients have yielded contradictory results...
February 26, 2021: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Hong-Min Ahn, Gyung Mo Son, In Young Lee, Dong-Hoon Shin, Tae Kyun Kim, Su Bum Park, Hyung Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Indocyanine green (ICG) is a multifunctional dye used in tumor localization, tissue perfusion, and lymph node (LN) mapping during fluorescence-guided laparoscopic colorectal surgery. PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the optimal protocol for preoperative endoscopic submucosal ICG injection to perform fluorescence lymph node mapping (FLNM), along with undisturbed fluorescent tumor localization and ICG angiography during a single surgery. METHODS: Colorectal cancer patients (n = 192) were enrolled from May 2017 to December 2019...
February 26, 2021: Surgical Endoscopy
Yingjuan Liu, Xiaolin Wu, Yue Wang, Yunliang Guo
Liver fibrosis, with the characterization of progressive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), is the common pathologic feature in the process of chronic liver disease. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which are activated and differentiate into proliferative and contractile myofibroblasts are recognized as the main drivers of fibrosis. Obesity-related adipocytokine dysregulation is known to accelerate liver fibrosis progression, but the direct fibrogenic effect of mature adipocytes on HSCs has been rarely reported...
February 26, 2021: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Rebeca Ortega, Luisa Hueso, Esther Benito, Joaquín Ortega, Miguel Civera, Maria-Jesus Sanz, José T Real, Laura Piqueras
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammation governs adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction in obesity. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in animal studies, but its role in human obesity remains elusive. We investigated the expression and function of RORα on AT inflammation in patients with morbid obesity with/without diabetes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed RORα expression in paired biopsies of subcutaneous and omental AT from 41 patients (body mass index (BMI) 43...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Cyrielle Payen, Abigaëlle Guillot, Lily Paillat, Abel Fothi, Abdallah Dib, Jennifer Bourreau, Françoise Schmitt, Laurent Loufrani, Tamas Aranyi, Daniel Henrion, Mathilde Munier, Céline Fassot
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity impacts vascular functions linked to metabolic disorders in offspring, leading to cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. Even if the relation between prenatal conditioning of cardiovascular diseases by maternal obesity and vascular function begins to be documented, little is known about resistance arteries. They are of particular interest because of their specific role in the regulation of local blood flow. Then our study aims to determine if maternal obesity can directly program fetal vascular dysfunction of resistance arteries, independently of metabolic disorders...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Thomas Yates, Cameron Razieh, Francesco Zaccardi, Alex V Rowlands, Samuel Seidu, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
Obesity is an emerging risk factor for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Simple measures of physical fitness, such as self-reported walking pace, may also be important risk markers. This analysis includes 412,596 UK Biobank participants with linked COVID-19 data (median age at linkage = 68 years, obese = 24%, median number of comorbidities = 1). As of August 24th 2020, there were 1001 cases of severe (in-hospital) disease and 336 COVID-19 deaths. Compared to normal weight individuals, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of severe COVID-19 in overweight and obese individuals was 1...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Seyed Morsal Mosallami Aghili, Mahbube Ebrahimpur, Babak Arjmand, Zhaleh Shadman, Mahnaz Pejman Sani, Mostafa Qorbani, Bagher Larijani, Moloud Payab
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We reviewed clinical studies to clarify the obesity relationship with COVID-19 severity, comorbidities, and discussing possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electronic databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched and all studies conducted on COVID-19 and obesity were reviewed. All studies were independently screened by reviewers based on their titles and abstracts...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Ada M Cuevas, Jeanne M Clark, James J Potter
COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by a coronavirus, designed as SARS CoV-2, whose clinical presentation is widely variable, with most patients having mild or no symptoms, but others developing a malign disease with multi-organ failure and even death. Accumulating data from different populations have shown that obesity is a risk factor for a severe evolution of the disease, however, the mechanisms that explain this association are not clearly understood. An ominous evolution of COVID-19 has been attributed to an exacerbated inflammatory response, designed as "cytokine storm" with augmented production of cytokines/chemokines through the activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, that triggers an inflammatory downstream response, mediated in part by the adaptor molecule, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Birgit Hirschmugl, Simone Perazzolo, Bram G Sengers, Rohan M Lewis, Michael Gruber, Gernot Desoye, Christian Wadsack
BACKGROUND: Metabolic changes in obese pregnant women, such as changes of plasma lipids beyond physiological levels, may subsequently affect fetal development in utero. These metabolic derangements may remain in the offspring and continue throughout life. The placenta mediates bidirectional exchange of nutrients between mother and fetus. The impact of prepregnancy obesity on placental transfer of lipids is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine materno-to-fetal free fatty acid (FFA) transfer by a combined experimental and modeling approach...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Suzanne Phelan, Fred Marquez, Leanne M Redman, Sonia Arteaga, Rebecca Clifton, Brian A Grice, Debra Haire-Joshu, Corby K Martin, Candice A Myers, Jeremy Pomeroy, Eileen Vincent, Linda Van Horn, Alan Peaceman, Maxine Ashby-Thompson, Dympna Gallagher, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Trisha Boekhoudt, Kimberly Drews, Greg Brown
This study examined whether the neighborhood built environment moderated gestational weight gain (GWG) in LIFE-Moms clinical trials. Participants were 790 pregnant women (13.9 weeks' gestation) with overweight or obesity randomized within four clinical centers to standard care or lifestyle intervention to reduce GWG. Geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the neighborhood built environment. The intervention relative to standard care significantly reduced GWG (coefficient = 0.05; p = 0.005) and this effect remained significant (p < 0...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Obesity
Richard J Reynolds, M Ryan Irvin, S Louis Bridges, Hwasoon Kim, Tony R Merriman, Donna K Arnett, Jasvinder A Singh, Nicholas A Sumpter, Alexa S Lupi, Ana I Vazquez
Hypertension, obesity, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes are comorbidities that have very high prevalence among persons with hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL) and gout. Here we use multivariate genetic models to test the hypothesis that the co-association of traits representing hyperuricemia and its comorbidities is genetically based. Using Bayesian whole-genome regression models, we estimated the genetic marker-based variance and the covariance between serum urate, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) from two independent family-based studies: The Framingham Heart Study-FHS and the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network study-HyperGEN...
February 26, 2021: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Rebecca Oelkrug, Jens Mittag
Since the discovery of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, research on BAT gained a new popularity to combat obesity and related comorbidities. To date, however, methods to quantify BAT thermogenesis are often either highly invasive, require advanced equipment, are time consuming or of limited sensitivity. Here we present a simple yet highly effective and minimally invasive protocol for the Precise Unravelment of Non-shivering brown fat thermoKinetics (PUNK) in mice using infrared thermography in combination with Vaseline to brush up the fur between the shoulder blades...
February 26, 2021: Scientific Reports
Xinhui Wang, Yinan Zhao, Dekun Zhou, Yingpu Tian, Gensheng Feng, Zhongxian Lu
Obesity is caused by a long-term imbalance between energy intake and consumption and is regulated by multiple signals. This study investigated the effect of signaling scaffolding protein Gab2 on obesity and its relevant regulation mechanism. Gab2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed with a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results showed that the a high-fat diet-induced Gab2 expression in adipose tissues, but deletion of Gab2 attenuated weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed with a high-fat diet...
February 26, 2021: Cell Death & Disease
Zhanqin Zhang, Hongtao Zhu, Jianguo Hu
At present, no systematic and in-depth study is available on the function and potential mechanisms of circular RNA in autophagy. This study aimed to screen the expression profiles of circRNA, miRNA, and mRNA of ovarian cancer cells induced by Torin 1 (10 µM). The expression profiles of circRNA, miRNA, and mRNA were analyzed with next-generation sequencing technology. CircRAB11FIP1 expression was elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues than in normal ovarian tissues. Silencing circRAB11FIP1 inhibited the autophagic flux of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells...
February 26, 2021: Cell Death & Disease
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