Bang-Sheng Wu, Ya-Ru Zhang, Liu Yang, Wei Zhang, Yue-Ting Deng, Shi-Dong Chen, Jian-Feng Feng, Wei Cheng, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients rank among the highest levels of comorbidities compared to persons with other diseases. However, it is unclear whether the conditions are caused by shared pathophysiology due to the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes. OBJECTIVE: To figure out the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes in a wide range of diseases. METHODS: We estimated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for AD and tested the association between PRS and 16 ICD10 main chapters, 136 ICD10 level-1 chapters, and 377 diseases with cases more than 1,000 in 312,305 individuals without AD diagnosis from the UK Biobank...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Md Ashfikur Rahman, Satyajit Kundu, Harun Or Rashid, Hasibul Hasan Shanto, Md Mahmudur Rahman, Bayezid Khan, Md Hasan Howlader, Md Akhtarul Islam
BACKGROUND: In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Bangladesh, socioeconomic inequalities in access to maternity care remain a substantial public health concern. Due to the paucity of research, we attempted to determine the factors affecting the facility delivery, quantify wealth-related inequality, and identify potential components that could explain the inequality. METHODS: We used the latest Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2017-18) data in this study...
2022: PloS One
Angela Isabel Del Rio, Ilais Moreno Velásquez, Reina Roa, Roger Montenegro Mendoza, Jorge Motta, Hedley K Quintana
BACKGROUND: Recent estimates of hypertension in Panama remain unknown. We aim to describe the variation in prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in two Panamanian provinces using two different cross-sectional population-based studies and to investigate risk factors associated with hypertension unawareness. METHODS: Data were derived from a sub-national study conducted in the provinces of Panama and Colon (PREFREC-2010 [2,733 participants]) and from a nationally representative study (ENSPA-2019), in which we restricted our analyses to the same provinces (4,653 participants)...
2022: PloS One
Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Andrea Teng, Jeremy Krebs, Jonathan Koea, Chunhuan Lao, Ross Lawrenson, Ineke Meredith, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Diana Sarfati
The number of new cases of cancer is increasing each year, and rates of diabetes mellitus are also increasing dramatically over time. It is not an unusual occurrence for an individual to have both cancer and diabetes at the same time, given they are both individually common, and that one condition can increase the risk of the other. In this manuscript, we use national-level diabetes (Virtual Diabetes Register) and cancer (New Zealand Cancer Registry) data on nearly five million individuals over 44 million person-years of follow-up to examine the occurrence of cancer amongst a national prevalent cohort of patients with diabetes...
2022: PloS One
Aurélie Baillot, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stéphanie A Prince, Ahmed Jérôme Romain, Rachel C Colley, Justin J Lang
BACKGROUND: Data on meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for adults (24-H Guidelines) and associations with health indicators by body mass index (BMI) class are needed to support public health surveillance. The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of Canadian adults meeting individual and various combinations of the 24-H Guidelines by BMI class and their association with health indicators. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 to 4 (2007 to 2015, n = 10,515 adults aged 18 to 79 years) were used...
November 16, 2022: Health Reports
Yuki Kawai, Kayo Waki, Satoko Yamaguchi, Tomomi Shibuta, Kana Miyake, Shigeko Kimura, Tsuguyoshi Toyooka, Ryo Nakajima, Kazushi Uneda, Hiromichi Wakui, Kouichi Tamura, Masaomi Nangaku, Kazuhiko Ohe
BACKGROUND: Making lifestyle changes is an essential element of abdominal obesity (AO) reduction. To support lifestyle modification and self-management, we developed an information and communication technology-based self-management system-DialBeticsLite-with a fully automated dietary evaluation function for the treatment of AO. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of DialBeticsLite among Japanese office workers with AO...
November 28, 2022: JMIR Diabetes
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Rafael Cabeza, Fernando Idoate, Maddi Osés, María Medrano, Arantxa Villanueva, Lide Arenaza, Aritz Sanz, Francisco B Ortega, Jonatan R Ruiz, Idoia Labayen
IMPORTANCE: Excess abdominal fat is a major determinant in the development of insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) seems to precede the development of insulin resistance and is therefore a prime target of childhood lifestyle interventions aimed at preventing diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of added exercise to a family-based lifestyle intervention program designed to reduce VAT plus subcutaneous (ASAT), intermuscular (IMAAT), and pancreatic (PAT) adipose tissue in children with overweight or obesity and to explore the effect of changes in VAT on insulin resistance...
November 1, 2022: JAMA Network Open
Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Sabri Bromage, Polyna Khudyakov, Sumiya Erdenenbaatar, Baigal Delgererekh, Adrian R Martineau
IMPORTANCE: Vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <20 ng/mL) is prevalent among children living in temperate climates and has been reported to associate independently with stunting, obesity, and early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Phase 3 randomized clinical trials to investigate the influence of long-term vitamin D replacement on growth, body composition, and pubertal development of school-aged children with vitamin D deficiency are lacking...
November 28, 2022: JAMA Pediatrics
G Muscogiuri, L Barrea, L Verde, A Docimo, S Savastano, D Di Pauli, A Colao
PURPOSE: Weight stigma is the negative weight related attitudes and beliefs towards individuals because of their overweight or obesity. Subjects with obesity are often victim of weight-related stigma resulting in a significant negative social consequence. As obesity epidemic is growing so fast, there is urgency to act on weight-stigma related social consequences being potentially serious and pervasive. This study investigated experiences, interpersonal sources, and context of weight stigma in Italy in a sample of adult subjects with obesity...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Chris Chow Li Tee, Matthew B Cooke, Mee Chee Chong, Wee Kian Yeo, Donny M Camera
Obesity is a major global health issue and a primary risk factor for metabolic-related disorders. While physical inactivity is one of the main contributors to obesity, it is a modifiable risk factor with exercise training as an established non-pharmacological treatment to prevent the onset of metabolic-related disorders, including obesity. Exposure to hypoxia via normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude via reduced inspired oxygen fraction), termed hypoxic conditioning, in combination with exercise has been increasingly shown in the last decade to enhance blood glucose regulation and decrease the body mass index, providing a feasible strategy to treat obesity...
November 28, 2022: Sports Medicine
Nasser Sakran, Kim Soifer, Keren Hod, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Sharon Soued, Yafit Kessler, Dana Adelson, Reut Biton, J N Buchwald, David Goitein, Asnat Raziel
BACKGROUND: Long-term laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) outcomes in patients with obesity are scarce. We aimed to examine the outcomes and subjective experience of patients who underwent primary LSG with long-term follow-up. METHODS: The study is a retrospective observational analysis of patients who underwent primary LSG in a single center with 5-15 years of follow-up. Patients' hospital chart data supplemented by a detailed follow-up online questionnaire and telephone interview were evaluated...
November 28, 2022: Obesity Surgery
Yuting Diao, Juan Tang, Xuerong Wang, Wei Deng, Jing Tang, Chunfang You
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a relatively major public health problem. Simultaneously, an unhealthy lifestyle causes a series of metabolic abnormalities, the most critical of which are metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, it is increasingly common for MS and NAFLD to coexist with CHB. MS is a cluster of metabolic disorders, while NAFLD is always considered as the manifestation of MS in the liver. The aim of this article is to review recent advances to explain the complex relationship among MS, NAFLD, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
November 27, 2022: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Henrik Maagensen, Mads M Helsted, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the understanding of how gut-derived hormones regulate bone homeostasis in humans with emphasis on pathophysiological and therapeutic perspectives in diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut-derived incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is important for postprandial suppression of bone resorption. The other incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as the intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to suppress bone resorption in pharmacological concentrations, but the role of the endogenous hormones in bone homeostasis is uncertain...
November 28, 2022: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sandra P Palma Albornoz, Thais F C Fraga-Silva, Renan V H de Carvalho, Tamara S Rodrigues, Ana Flávia Gembre, Rômulo S de Oliveira, Fernanda Mesquita de Souza, Giseli Furlan Corrêa, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Daniela Carlos, Danilo C de Almeida, Niels O S Câmara, Dario S Zamboni, Viviani N Takahashi, Carlos A Sorgi, Lucia H Faccioli, Alexandra I Medeiros, Diego Luís Costa, Vânia L D Bonato
A low grade and persistent inflammation, which is the hallmark of obesity, requires the participation of NLRP3 and cell death. During Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, NLRP3 signaling is important for bacterial killing by macrophages in vitro, but was shown to be dispensable for host protection in vivo. We hypothesized that during obesity-tuberculosis comorbidity, NLRP3 signaling might play a detrimental role by inducing excessive inflammation. We employed a model of high fat diet-induced obesity, followed by M...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Pathology
Jianghong Liu, Xiaopeng Ji, Elizabeth Rovit, Susannah Pitt, Terri Lipman
BACKGROUND: Sleep problem is a highly prevalent health issue among pediatric populations across the world. In this review, we aimed to identify risk factors contributing to sleep deficiency and poor sleep hygiene in children. Potential biological, psychosocial, and environmental mechanisms as well as research gaps in the literature are also discussed. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search for relevant English language full-text, peer-reviewed publications was performed focusing on pediatric sleep studies from prenatal to childhood and adolescence in a variety of indexes in PubMed, SCOPUS, and Psych Info...
November 28, 2022: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Z Li, L Xia, X Li, Y Guan, H He, L Jin
PURPOSE: Abdominal hernia (AH) is one of the most common clinical diseases. A large number of observational studies have found that obesity is an important risk factor for AH. However, the causal relationship between obesity and AH cannot be determined because of the clinical studies on AH induced by obesity are relatively few and only have some small- or medium-scale observational studies. Observational studies have so many confounding factors and reverse causality due to their shortcomings...
November 28, 2022: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Ahmad Jayedi, Long Ge, Bradly C Johnston, Hossein Shahinfar, Maryam Safabakhsh, Saba Mohamadpur, Parivash Ghorbaninejad, Morteza Abyadeh, Sheida Zeraattalab-Motlagh, Sepideh Soltani, Aliyu Tijani Jibril, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
PURPOSE: This study aimed at quantifying and ranking the effects of different foods or food groups on weight loss. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase to April 2021. We included randomized trials evaluating the comparative effects of two or more food groups, or compared a food group against a control group (usual diet, no intervention) for weight loss in adults. We conducted random-effects network meta-analysis with Bayesian framework to estimate mean difference [MD] and 95% credible interval [CrI] of the effect of food groups on weight loss...
November 28, 2022: European Journal of Nutrition
Leslie Park, Kelli O'Connell, Keri Herzog, Walid Chatila, Henry Walch, Randze Lerie D Palmaira, Andrea Cercek, Jinru Shia, Moshe Shike, Arnold J Markowitz, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Mark A Schattner, Elizabeth D Kantor, Mengmeng Du, Robin B Mendelsohn
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the demographics and clinical features of patients with young onset (YO) CRC. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with CRC diagnosed between ages 20 and 49 years was evaluated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1/2004 to 6/2019. We excluded those with a hereditary CRC syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or prior CRC diagnosis. Patient demographics; presenting symptoms; medical, surgical, and smoking history; family history of cancer; tumor characteristics; and pathology were obtained from the electronic medical record...
November 28, 2022: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
L M Kotzé-Hörstmann, D T Bedada, R Johnson, L Mabasa, H Sadie-Van Gijsen
Current pharmaceutical treatments addressing obesity are plagued by high costs, low efficacy and adverse side effects. Natural extracts are popular alternatives, but evidence for their anti-obesity properties is scant. We assessed the efficacy of a green (minimally-oxidized) Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ) extract (GRT) to ameliorate the effects of obesogenic feeding in rats, by examining body weight, metabolic measures, adipose tissue cellularity and tissue-resident adipose stem cells (ASCs). Furthermore, we performed statistical correlations to explore the relationships and interactions between metabolic and adipose tissue measures...
November 28, 2022: Food & Function
Tina E Brinkley, Fang-Chi Hsu, Benita M Bowman, Theresa Addison, Dalane W Kitzman, Denise K Houston
PURPOSE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are integral in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, most programs do not incorporate structured, evidence-based obesity treatment, potentially limiting efficacy for the large number of CHD patients with overweight/obesity. This pilot study determined the feasibility of adding a behavioral weight loss intervention during standard CR. METHODS: Adults aged ≥40 yr with CHD and overweight/obesity were randomized to 6 mo of CR alone or CR plus a behavioral weight loss program incorporating meal replacements and individual dietary counseling (CR + WL)...
November 25, 2022: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
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