Ingun Toftemo, Anne Karen Jenum, Line Sletner
AIM: Independent effects of gestational diabetes (GDM), maternal prepregnant obesity and gestational weight gain on offspring BMI and obesity are scarcely documented. We examined associations between GDM and children's BMI trajectories from birth to 4-5 years age, and effects of prepregnant obesity and gestational weight gain not mediated through GDM. METHODS: We included 734 children from a population-based, multi-ethnic cohort of women and their offspring followed from early pregnancy...
October 24, 2020: Acta Paediatrica
Kumiko Taguchi, Nozomu Kaneko, Kanami Okudaira, Takayuki Matsumoto, Tsuneo Kobayashi
AIMS: Diabetes impairs insulin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) production. GLP-1, an incretin hormone, has been shown to prevent the development of endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we hypothesized that GLP-1 would improve the impaired insulin-induced relaxation response in diabetic mice. We also examined the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Using aortic rings from ob/ob mice, an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and lean mice, vascular relaxation responses and protein expressions were evaluated using insulin, GLP-1, and pathway-specific inhibitors to elucidate the mechanisms of response...
October 24, 2020: Acta Physiologica
Nadia Pristaj, Sahrai Saeed, Helga Midtbø, Hilde Halland, Knut Matre, Eva Gerdts
INTRODUCTION: Sex-difference in types of cardiac organ damage has been reported in subjects with increased body mass index (BMI). However less is known about sex-differences in left ventricular (LV) myocardial function assessed by global longitudinal strain (GLS) in these subjects. METHODS: 493 subjects (mean age 47 ± 9 years, 61% women) with BMI > 27.0 kg/m2 and without known cardiac disease underwent 24-hour (24h) ambulatory blood pressure (BP) recording, body composition analysis, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement and echocardiography...
October 24, 2020: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Christianne C A F M Veugen, Emma M Teunissen, Leontine A S den Otter, Martijn P Kos, Robert J Stokroos, Marcel P Copper
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of the NoSAS (neck, obesity, snoring, age, sex) score, the STOP-Bang (snoring, tiredness, observed apneas, blood pressure, body mass index, age, neck circumference, gender) questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). METHODS: Data from 235 patients who were monitored by ambulant polysomnography (PSG) were retrospectively analyzed...
October 24, 2020: Sleep & Breathing
Boris Zingerman, Arie Erman, Tiki Mashraki, Avry Chagnac, Benaya Rozen-Zvi, Ruth Rahamimov
BACKGROUND: Increased albuminuria is a predictor of graft loss in kidney graft recipients. It is unknown whether obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of increased albuminuria in this population. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between obesity and albuminuria in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: We enrolled 330 renal transplant recipients and prospectively collected demographic, anthropomorphic, clinical and laboratory variables susceptible to influence albumin excretion...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Nephrology
Aekta Neel, Chris E Cunningham, Glyn R Teale
BACKGROUND: In response to the challenges of assessing fetal growth in obese women, guidelines recommend routine third trimester ultrasound scans. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of this routine scan in obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2 ). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1008 pregnancies with maternal BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 born after 37 weeks gestation at a Victorian hospital from 2015 to 2017...
October 24, 2020: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Alexandra Krez, Sanchita Agarwal, Mariana Bucovsky, Donald J McMahon, Yizhong Hu, Marc Bessler, Beth Schrope, Angela Carrelli, Shannon Clare, Xiang-Dong Edward Guo, Shonni J Silverberg, Emily M Stein
CONTEXT: The prevalence of obesity is burgeoning among African American and Latina women; however, few studies investigating the skeletal effects of bariatric surgery have focused on these groups. OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term skeletal changes following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in African American and Latina women. DESIGN: Four-year prospective cohort study. PATIENTS: African American and Latina women presenting for RYGB (n = 17, mean age 44, body mass index 44 kg/m2) were followed annually for 4 years postoperatively...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bo Ahrén, Giovanni Pacini
Besides insulin-mediated transport of glucose into the cells, an important role is also played by the non-insulin-mediated transport. This latter process is called glucose effectiveness (acronym SG ), which is estimated by modeling of glucose and insulin data after an intravenous glucose administration and accounts for ≈70% of glucose disposal. This review summarizes studies on SG , mainly in humans and rodents with focus on results achieved in model experiments in mice. In humans, SG is reduced in type 2 diabetes, in obesity, in liver cirrhosis and in some elderly populations...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Mohamed Kazamel, Amro Maher Stino, Albert Gordon Smith
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both global health challenges with well-established diagnostic criteria and significant impacts on quality of life. Clinical observations, epidemiologic evidence, and animal models of disease have strongly suggested MetS is associated with an elevated risk for cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). MetS neuropathy preferentially affects small unmyelinated axons early in its course, and it may also affect autonomic and large fibers. CSPN risk is linked to MetS and several of its components including obesity, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes...
October 24, 2020: Muscle & Nerve
Danilo Dias Santana, Deborah Mitchison, Scott Griffiths, Jose Carlos Appolinario, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of overvaluation across sociodemographic features and weight status over time. METHODS: The data included sequential cross-sectional surveys with representative samples of the adolescent and adult (15 years or older) population in South Australia. Five surveys that assessed overvaluation were conducted in the years 2005 (n = 3047), 2008 (n = 3034), 2009 (n = 3007), 2015 (n = 3005) and 2016 (n = 3047). Overvaluation was assessed by structured interview based on the Eating Disorder Examination...
October 23, 2020: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Hong Chang Tan, Jean W Hsu, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Alvin Eng, Weng Hoong Chan, Chin Meng Khoo, E Shyong Tai, Shaji Chacko, Farook Jahoor
BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are elevated in obese individuals with insulin resistance (IR) and decrease after bariatric surgery. However, the metabolic mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives are to compare leucine kinetics between morbidly obese and healthy-weight individuals cross-sectionally, and to prospectively evaluate changes in the morbidly obese after sleeve gastrectomy. We hypothesized that leucine oxidation is slower in obese individuals and increases after surgery...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Nutrition
Julia C Kuszewski, Peter R C Howe, Rachel H X Wong
BACKGROUND: Obesity accelerates age-related cognitive decline, which is partly mediated by vascular dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to test the hypothesis that supplementation with fish oil and curcumin can enhance cognitive performance by improving cerebral circulatory function in overweight or obese middle-aged to older adults. METHODS: In a 16-wk double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial, adults [50-80 y; BMI (kg/m2): 25-40] were randomly assigned to either fish oil (2000 mg/d DHA + 400 mg/d EPA), curcumin (160 mg/d), or a combination...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Nutrition
Ismael Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Joanna Kalafut, Arkadiusz Czerwonka, Adolfo Rivero-Müller
The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) plays critical roles in multiple physiological processes such as pain perception, brain development and body temperature regulation. Mutations on this gene (CNR1), results in altered functionality and/or biosynthesis such as reduced membrane expression, changes in mRNA stability or changes in downstream signaling that act as triggers for diseases such as obesity, Parkinson's, Huntington's, among others; thus, it is considered as a potential pharmacological target. To date, multiple quantification methods have been employed to determine how these mutations affect receptor expression and localization; however, they present serious disadvantages that may arise quantifying errors...
October 23, 2020: Scientific Reports
Yanyu Zhao, Anahita Pilvar, Anup Tank, Hannah Peterson, John Jiang, Jon C Aster, John Paul Dumas, Mark C Pierce, Darren Roblyer
Water and lipids are key participants in many biological processes, but there are few non-invasive methods that provide quantification of these components in vivo, and none that can isolate and quantify lipids in the blood. Here we develop a new imaging modality termed shortwave infrared meso-patterned imaging (SWIR-MPI) to provide label-free, non-contact, spatial mapping of water and lipid concentrations in tissue. The method utilizes patterned hyperspectral illumination to target chromophore absorption bands in the 900-1,300 nm wavelength range...
October 23, 2020: Nature Communications
Kathryn E Kyler, Matt Hall, Jessica L Bettenhausen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with poor outcomes for specific clinical groups of hospitalized children, but few data exist on outcomes of children with obesity on a larger scale during hospitalization. Therefore, we aimed to determine if use outcomes differ between hospitalized children with obesity and hospitalized children without obesity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of all children aged 2 to 19 years hospitalized at a single academic institution between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2016...
October 23, 2020: Hospital Pediatrics
John M Dennis, Bilal A Mateen, Raphael Sonabend, Nicholas J Thomas, Kashyap A Patel, Andrew T Hattersley, Spiros Denaxas, Andrew P McGovern, Sebastian J Vollmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between type 2 diabetes and all-cause mortality among adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the critical care setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a nationwide retrospective cohort study in people admitted to hospital in England with COVID-19 requiring admission to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 March 2020 and 27 July 2020. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate 30-day in-hospital all-cause mortality associated with type 2 diabetes, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, and other major comorbidities (chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic heart disease, hypertension, immunosuppression, chronic neurological disease, chronic renal disease, and chronic liver disease)...
October 23, 2020: Diabetes Care
Carmen Balagué, Juan Carlos Ruiz de Adana, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Daniel Del Castillo, José Julian Puche, Ramón Vilallonga
BACKGROUND: Many options have been put forward to treat staple line leaks after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) but no clear consensus has emerged concerning a management algorithm. OBJECTIVES: Aiming to establish a pattern to tailor treatment, the Spanish Society of Obesity Surgery (SECO) and the Obesity Section of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) set up a national register to record treatment of leaks after SG. SETTING: Multiple hospital centers, Spain...
September 11, 2020: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Markus Brissman, Louise Lindberg, Andrew J Beamish, Claude Marcus, Emilia Hagman
BACKGROUND: Despite the modest effects of behavioral treatment on obesity in adolescence, bariatric surgery is rarely performed. Obesity often persists from childhood to adulthood, but it is not known how many individuals proceed with bariatric surgery in young adulthood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of individuals who received pediatric behavioral obesity treatment subsequently underwent bariatric surgery in early adulthood, and to identify predictors thereof...
September 16, 2020: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Thibault Lunel, Sylvain Iceta, Arnaud Pasquer, Elise Pelascini, Julie Perinel, Gilles Poncet, Emmanuel Disse, Maud Robert
BACKGROUND: Revisional procedures in bariatric surgery are increasing with several debated failure risk factors, such as super obesity and old age. No study has yet evaluated the outcomes and risks of a third bariatric procedure indicated for weight loss failure or weight regain. OBJECTIVES: To assess failure risks of a third bariatric procedure according to Reinhold's criteria (percentage excess weight loss [%EWL] ≤50% and/or body mass index [BMI] ≥35 kg/m2 )...
September 1, 2020: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Stephanie Di Figlia-Peck, Ronald Feinstein, Martin Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2020: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
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