Axel Holstege
Gastroenterology offers a wide field for future "choosing wisely" recommendations (CWR). They should refer not only to an under- or overuse of diagnostic tools like laboratory or imaging tests but also to an evidence-based application of drug therapies und endoscopic interventions. Drugs like antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors are both often prescribed in the absence of clearly defined underlying diseases and not given when an indication is clear. Similar is true for the ordering of abdominal imaging methods...
July 2020: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Jared C Tishelman, Abigail Pyne, Cynthia A Kahlenberg, Jordan A Gruskay, Sabrina M Strickland
Patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) has garnered attention in recent years as an effective alternative to total knee arthroplasty for patients with symptomatic, isolated patellofemoral joint arthritis. Obesity has previously been identified as a risk factor for revision surgery, but its effect on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) has not been evaluated . A retrospective review of a consecutive series of PFA surgeries was conducted at a single, specialized orthopedics center in a major urban center. Patients were dichotomized by body mass index (BMI) as obese (O, BMI >30) or nonobese (NO, BMI: 18...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Knee Surgery
Dror Dicker, Silvia Bettini, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Gema Frühbeck, Rachel Golan, Gijs Goossens, Jason Halford, Grace O'Malley, Dana Mullerova, Ximena Ramos Salas, Maria N Hassapiou, Jørn Sagen, Euan Woodward, Volkan Yumuk, Luca Busetto
The World Health Organization declared COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic on March 12, 2020. COVID-19 is causing massive health problems and economic suffering around the world. The European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) promptly recognised the impact that the outbreak could have on people with obesity. On one side, emerging data suggest that obesity represents a risk factor for a more serious and complicated course of COVID-19 in adults. On the other side, the health emergency caused by the outbreak diverts attention from the prevention and care of non-communicable chronic diseases to communicable diseases...
July 13, 2020: Obesity Facts
Hugo Lee, Rachel J Fenske, Tugce Akcan, Elliot Domask, Dawn B Davis, Michelle E Kimple, Feyza Engin
The orosomucoid-like (Ormdl) proteins play a critical role in sphingolipid homeostasis, inflammation, and ER stress, all of which are associated with obesity and βcell dysfunction. However, their roles in β cells and obesity remain unknown. Here, we show that islets from overweight/obese human donors displayed marginally reduced ORMDL1-2 expression, whereas ORMDL3 expression was significantly downregulated compared with islets from lean donors. In contrast, Ormdl3 was substantially upregulated in the islets of leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice compared with lean mice...
June 29, 2020: IScience
Petar Radanliev, David De Roure, Rob Walton
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a global and integrated response of all national medical and healthcare systems. Covid-19 exposed the need for timely response and data sharing on fast spreading global pandemics. In this study, we investigate the scientific research response from the early stages of the pandemic, and we review key findings on how the early warning systems developed in previous epidemics responded to contain the virus. METHODS: We conducted data mining of scientific literature records from the Web of Science Core Collection, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, immunity, and vaccine...
July 4, 2020: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Swantje Brede, Birte Lutzke, Elena Albers, Chiara Dalla-Man, Claudio Cobelli, Manfred Hallschmid, Johanna Klement, Hendrik Lehnert
Previous experiments of our group have demonstrated that preprandial processing of food cues attenuates postprandial blood glucose excursions. Here we systematically re-evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of visual food cues by submitting 40 healthy fasted men (20 normal-weight men, mean age 24.8 ± 3.7 years, BMI 21.9 ± 0.3 kg/m2 ; 20 obese men, 26.8 ± 4.2 years, 34.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2 ) to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) following exposure to pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral items. OGTT-related changes in blood concentrations of glucose and relevant glucoregulatory hormones including GLP-1 were assessed and analyzed according to the oral minimal model...
July 10, 2020: Physiology & Behavior
A-Reum Ryu, Yong-Wan Kim, Mi-Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Chlorin e6-mediated photodynamic therapy (Ce6-mediated PDT) is a therapeutic modality that consists of a photosensitizer, source of light at a suitable wavelength, and molecular oxygen. PDT has been widely used for the treatment of cancers and non-neoplastic disorders. However, information on the inhibitory activity of Ce6-mediated PDT on adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is not available to date. METHODS: MTT assay, Oil Red O staining, and Nile red staining were used to investigate lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells to clarify adipocyte differentiation...
July 10, 2020: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Roopal Desai, Amber John, Joshua Stott, Georgina Charlesworth
AIMS: To systematically review longitudinal studies on living alone and incident dementia, to pool the results in a meta-analysis and calculate the population risk. METHODS: Embase, Medline and PsycInfo were searched from inception to August 2019 for longitudinal cohort studies of people living alone and risk of dementia. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and effect sizes pooled, with a sensitivity analysis for risk of bias (QUIPS quality rating tool). Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) was calculated, with prevalence of living alone calculated from UK Census data...
July 10, 2020: Ageing Research Reviews
Maria Giulia Manzione, Miquel Martorell, Farukh Sharopov, Namrata Ganesh Bhat, Nanjangud Venkatesh Anil Kumar, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Raffaele Pezzani
Plants are a natural source of bioactive compounds such as secondary metabolites. These molecules, also called phytochemicals, are fundamental for plant survival and often show therapeutic properties used for the treatment of human diseases. Asperuloside is a secondary metabolite which belongs to iridoid glycosides and is commonly present in the plant family Rubiaceae. In this review we aim to summarize the scientific knowledge on asperuloside, with a special emphasis on its pharmacological properties as anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-protozoal, anti-tumorigenic, anti-hypertensive, anti-obesity, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent...
July 10, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Stewart Christie, Rebecca O'Rielly, Hui Li, Gary Wittert, Amanda Page
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and anandamide (AEA) can regulate the sensitivity of gastric vagal afferents to stretch, an effect mediated via the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TPRV1) channel. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters the modulatory effects of ghrelin and AEA on gastric vagal afferent sensitivity. This may be a result of altered gastric levels of these hormones and subsequent changes in the expression of their receptors. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the effects of ghrelin and AEA on vagal afferent cell body mRNA content of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1), ghrelin receptor (GHSR), TRPV1, and the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of AEA, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)...
July 10, 2020: Peptides
Xinquan Yang, Ting Xiong, Dong Ning, Ti Wang, Hongyan Zhong, Shan Tang, Yongqing Mao, Guoqiang Zhu, Daxin Wang
Current studies aimed at investigating the association between atorvastatin therapy and insulin resistance (IR) appear to be controversial. IR is considered to be an important contributor to inducing cardiac dysfunction through multiple signals. The paradoxical cardiotoxicity of atorvastatin reported under different conditions suggests that the association between atorvastatin treatment, insulin resistance and cardiac function should be clarified further. In this study, C57BL/6 J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HD) or standard chow diet (SD) for 12 weeks and subsequently randomly divided into four groups: the SD-Control (SD-C) and HD-Control (HD-C) groups treated with saline for 10 months and the HD-A and HD-A + N groups treated with atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) alone or atorvastatin combined with nicotinamide (NAM, 1 g/kg/day) for 10 months...
July 10, 2020: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Laura Patterson Rosa, Martha F Mallicote, Maureen T Long, Samantha A Brooks
An analogous condition to human metabolic syndrome, Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is defined by several clinical signs including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and peripheral insulin dysregulation (ID). Affected horses may also exhibit hypertension, hyperlipemia and systemic inflammation. Measures of ID typically comprise the gold-standard for diagnosis in veterinary care. Yet, the dynamic nature of insulin homeostasis and complex procedures of typical assays make accurate quantification of ID and EMS challenging...
July 10, 2020: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Peta Stapleton, Teagan Spinks, Brett Carter
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity; however, an estimated 20% of patients do not experience significant weight loss postsurgery. This study examined the interaction of potential psychological factors and their mediating effects on the emotional eating of individuals one-year postbariatric surgery. METHOD: Three-hundred and sixty-six obese individuals (348 females; 95.1%) with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 ( M  = 39.14; SD  = 7...
August 2020: Psychological Reports
Jonathan H Marks
Corporate influence is one of the most pressing issues in public health. It cuts across many of our most intractable problems-from obesity to the opioid epidemic. Companies develop close relationships with public health agencies, research universities, academic medical centers, professional societies, and patient advocacy organizations-often funding medical research and public health interventions intended to address the very challenges these corporations are creating or exacerbating. How we view relationships with industry, including how these relationships are framed in ethical discourse, shapes our legal and policy responses to them...
May 2020: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Elizabeth White, Ryan Potter, Cary Rasmussen, Jennifer Kleven
INTRODUCTION: The Child and Adult Care Food Program requirements promote healthy eating behaviors and increased physical activity in the daycare setting to help prevent childhood obesity. Some of these standards can be difficult to meet for early childhood education centers. This study examines the challenges and barriers daycare centers face when implementing these guidelines. METHODS: Focus groups consisting of participants from early childhood education centers within our community were conducted in April and May of 2018...
June 2020: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Céline Cansell, Katharina Stobbe, Clara Sanchez, Ophélia Le Thuc, Coralie-Anne Mosser, Selma Ben-Fradj, Joris Leredde, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Delphine Debayle, Lucile Fleuriot, Frédéric Brau, Nadège Devaux, Alexandre Benani, Etienne Audinat, Nicolas Blondeau, Jean-Louis Nahon, Carole Rovère
In humans, obesity is associated with brain inflammation, glial reactivity, and immune cells infiltration. Studies in rodents have shown that glial reactivity occurs within 24 hr of high-fat diet (HFD) consumption, long before obesity development, and takes place mainly in the hypothalamus (HT), a crucial brain structure for controlling body weight. Here, we sought to characterize the postprandial HT inflammatory response to 1, 3, and 6 hr of exposure to either a standard diet (SD) or HFD. HFD exposure increased gene expression of astrocyte and microglial markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] and Iba1, respectively) compared to SD-treated mice and induced morphological modifications of microglial cells in HT...
July 13, 2020: Glia
Jennifer Hilger-Kolb, Adrian Loerbroks, Katharina Diehl
The transition from school to university has been found to be associated with a decline in physical activity (PA). As regular engagement in PA plays an important role in preventing obesity and various chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, a deeper understanding on barriers that hinder university students from being physically active is necessary. We therefore conducted a mixed-methods study which built, first, on conducting a quantitative online survey across Germany (n = 689; 69...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Sports Sciences
Thomas Ittoop, Kimberly Jeffrey, Chin-I Cheng, Sethu Reddy
<u>Background:</u> Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) predispose individuals to poor health outcomes as adults. Although a dose-response relationship between the number of ACEs and certain chronic illnesses has been shown, the impact of ACEs on diabetes is not thoroughly understood. <u>Objective:</u> To investigate the prevalence of ACEs in those with diabetes and the potential relationship to the severity of diabetes. <u>Methods:</u> Patients with diabetes (both Type 1 and Type 2) or obesity were surveyed from the Endocrinology & Diabetes Center at McLaren Central Michigan in Mt...
July 13, 2020: Endocrine Practice
Samantha G Farris, J Graham Thomas, Mindy M Kibbey, Jelena M Pavlovic, Kristine J Steffen, Dale S Bond
OBJECTIVE: Pain catastrophizing and cutaneous allodynia represent two risk factors for greater headache-related disability. Yet, there is limited knowledge of the extent to which these risk factors are modifiable and whether nonpharmacological treatment-related changes are associated with migraine improvements. Using data from the Women's Health and Migraine (WHAM) study, a randomized controlled trial that compared effects of behavioral weight loss (BWL) and migraine education (ME) in women with migraine and overweight/obesity, we tested whether: (a) BWL versus ME produced greater changes in pain catastrophizing and allodynia from baseline across posttreatment and follow-up time points, and (b) whether these improvements were associated with improvements in headache disability...
July 13, 2020: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Salvatore Bongarzone, Teresa Sementa, Joel Dunn, Jayanta Bordoloi, Kavitha Sunassee, Philip J Blower, Antony D Gee
The water-soluble vitamin biotin is essential for cellular growth, development and well-being but its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are poorly understood. This paper describes the radiolabelling of biotin with the positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide carbon-11 ([11 C]biotin) to enable the quantitative study of biotin trafficking in vivo. We show that intravenously administered [11 C]biotin is quickly distributed to liver, kidneys, retina, heart and brain in rodents - consistent with the known expression of the biotin transporter - and a surprising accumulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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