Mark K Lane, James A Keeney
We performed this study to assess the effectiveness of multimodal total knee arthroplasty prosthetic joint infection (TKA-PJI) prophylaxis including "on-time" dual-antibiotic prophylaxis, and the influence of body mass index (BMI) on prophylaxis effectiveness. After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, we assessed 1,802 primary TKAs (1,496 patients) who received cefazolin alone or cefazolin combined with vancomycin for TKA-PJI prophylaxis. A detailed chart review was performed to determine patient demographic features (age, gender, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score), antibiotic selection, vancomycin administration timing, and 1-year PJI rates...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Knee Surgery
Ye-Rang Yun, Hee-Chul Kim, Hye-Young Seo
Citrus fruits contain an abundance of nutrients, including vitamins C and B6 and hesperidin, which attribute to its beneficial health effects. Previously, kimchi with Jeju citrus concentrate (CK) elicited anti-obesity effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we aimed to investigate whether CK exhibits anti-obesity effects by reducing serum and hepatic lipid concentrations and anti-obesity-associated gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6N mice. Low-dose CK (LDCK, 50 mg/kg) and high-dose CK (HDCK, 200 mg/kg) were orally administered 3 times per week over 8 weeks with HFD diet...
November 19, 2020: Nutrition Research
Yenan Zhu, Keryn E Pasch, Alexandra Loukas, Kimberle L Sterling, Cheryl L Perry
INTRODUCTION: Few studies examine the impact of objective exposure to point-of-sale (POS) marketing for cigars including little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) on tobacco use. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to LCC marketing at the POS and current and future use of LCCs and cigarettes among young adult college students. METHOD: Data on LCC and cigarette use from 4201 young adult students (mean age = 22.8 [SD = 2.3]; 35.9% non-Hispanic whites) attending 24 Texas colleges was linked to objective assessments of POS marketing at 220 tobacco retail outlets within one mile of the colleges...
January 9, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Isabella Zsoldos, Charlotte Sinding, Ambre Godet, Stéphanie Chambaron
Attentional automatic processes and cerebral activity may differ between individuals with different weight statuses in the presence of food stimuli (e.g. odors, pictures). In the present study, we used an implicit olfactory priming paradigm to test the influence of non-attentively perceived food odors on the cerebral activity underlying the processing of food pictures, in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A pear odor and a pound cake odor were used as primes, respectively priming sweet low-energy-density foods and high-energy-density foods...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience
Hossein Shirvani, Reza Mirnejad, Mehdi Soleimani, Ehsan Arabzadeh
Exercise training with anti-inflammatory effects can improve insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of eight-week swimming exercises on lipid profile, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 200±20 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 each group): the control (C), aerobic exercise (E), HFD, and HFD + aerobic exercise (HFD & E)...
January 19, 2021: Gene
Zhuye Jie, Xinlei Yu, Yinghua Liu, Lijun Sun, Peishan Chen, Qiuxia Ding, Yuan Gao, Xukai Zhang, Maomao Yu, Yuan Liu, Yong Zhang, Karsten Kristiansen, Huijue Jia, Susanne Brix, Kaiye Cai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elucidating key factors affecting personal responses to food is the first step towards implementing personalized nutrition strategies in e.g. weight loss programs. We here aimed to identify factors of importance for individual weight loss trajectories in a natural setting where subjects were provided dietary advice but otherwise asked to self-manage the daily caloric intake and data reporting. METHODS: A 6-months weight-reduction program with longitudinal collection of dietary, physical activity, body weight, and fecal microbiome data as well as SNP genotypes in 83 subjects was conducted followed by integration of the high-dimensional data to define the most determining factors for weight loss in a dietician-guided, smartphone-assisted dieting program...
January 19, 2021: Gastroenterology
Xiankang Fang, Zhiqiang Du, Chunling Duan, Shanshan Zhan, Tian Wang, Mengyu Zhu, Jiajie Shi, Juan Meng, Xianhua Zhang, Maiyun Yang, Yajun Zuo
AIMS: Beinaglutide has been approved for glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. In addition to glycemic control, significant weight loss is observed from real world data. This study is designed to investigate the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of beinaglutide in different models. METHODS: The pharmacological efficacy of beinaglutide was evaluated in C57BL/6 and ob/ob mice after single administration. Pharmacokinetic profiles in mice were investigated after single or multiple administration...
January 19, 2021: Life Sciences
Brydie Clarke, Janelle Kwon, Boyd Swinburn, Gary Sacks
INTRODUCTION: Despite global recommendations for governments to implement a comprehensive suite of policies to address obesity, policy adoption has been deficient globally. This paper utilised political science theory and systems thinking methods to examine the dynamics underlying decisions regarding obesity prevention policy adoption within the context of the Australian state government initiative, Healthy Together Victoria (HTV) (2011-2016). The aim was to understand key influences on policy processes, and to identify potential opportunities to increase the adoption of recommended policies...
2021: PloS One
Claudia Eberle, Teresa Fasig, Franziska Brüseke, Stefanie Stichling
BACKGROUND: "Stress" is an emerging problem in our society, health care system as well as patient care, worldwide. Especially by focusing on pre-gestational, gestational but also lactation phases "stress" is to be considered as an own trans-generational risk factor which is associated with adverse metabolic as well cardiovascular outcomes in mothers and their children. Hence, the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenotrophic (HPA) axis may be stimulated by various "stress" mechanisms as well as risk factors leading to an adverse in utero environment, e...
2021: PloS One
Vitor F Martins, Christopher R Dobson, Maedha Begur, Jesal Parekh, Scott T Ball, Francis Gonzalez, Jan M Hughes-Austin, Simon Schenk
While obesity and insulin resistance are known risk factors for wound complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), the biologic causes remain to be elucidated. Recently, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) was identified as a mediator of delayed wound healing in insulin resistant states. Herein, we explored the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and biomarkers of NET formation in TJA subjects. We enrolled 14 obese (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m2), and 15 lean (BMI<30 kg/m2) subjects undergoing primary knee or hip TJA...
2021: PloS One
Jamie L De Revere, Rasmus D Clausen, Todd A Astorino
Data obtained in primarily Caucasian (C) and African American adults show that ethnicity does not mediate responsiveness to exercise training. It is unknown if Hispanics (H), who face elevated health risks and are less active than C, exhibit a similar response to exercise training. This study compared cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic responses to high intensity interval training (HIIT) between C and H women. Twelve C and ten H women ages 19-35 yr who were non-obese and inactive completed nine sessions of HIIT over a 3 wk period...
2021: PloS One
XiaoLei Xiu, Anran Wang, Qing Qian, Sizhu Wu
BACKGROUND: The period of the rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States made people uncertain about their perception of the threat from COVID-19 and the response measures. To mount an effective response to this epidemic, it is necessary to understand the public's perceptions, behaviors and attitudes. OBJECTIVE: To test hypotheses that the perception of a threat from COVID-19 influences attitudes and behaviors. METHODS: This study used an open dataset of online questionnaires about COVID-19 provided by Nexoid, and selected the results of a questionnaire on behaviors, attitudes and perceptions related to COVID-19 among the US public from March 29 to April 20, 2020...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Mark A Fleming, William J Kane, Max O Meneveau, Christopher C Ballantyne, Daniel E Levin
Background: Food insecurity and obesity are significant problems affecting adolescents. There is a paucity of recent data examining this relationship. This study utilizes a recent nationally representative sample of US adolescents to examine the relationship between obesity and food security status, as well as other risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 4777 US adolescents (13-18 years old) was performed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2016. Prevalence of obesity based on food security status was calculated...
January 22, 2021: Childhood Obesity
Tatiana Toro-Ramos, Martica Heaner, Qiuchen Yang, Laura DeLuca, Heather Behr, Kayla Reynolds, Youngin Kim, Andreas Michaelides
Background: Mobile health (mHealth) technology can circumvent barriers to participation in weight loss programs faced by new mothers. The objective of this study was to assess weight change and program engagement in postpartum women ( n  = 130) participating in a 24-week behavior change mHealth weight-loss intervention. Materials and Methods: Participants were recruited through a program offered on a commercial mHealth application that provided evidence-based lifestyle interventions. To meet inclusion criteria, women had to be 18-45 years of age, and given birth within 2 years before the start of the study...
January 21, 2021: Journal of Women's Health
Alex C DiBartola, Nikita Thakur, Satbir Singh, Carl D Quinion, Julie Balch Samora
BACKGROUND: Nearly 1 in 5 American children are obese. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and perioperative complications, patient-reported outcomes (PRO), and functional recovery after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of type II and III supracondylar humerus fractures. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients treated operatively with CRPP of Wilkins modification of the Gartland classification type II and III supracondylar humerus fractures was performed over a 1-year timeframe (July 1, 2016 to July 1, 2017)...
January 20, 2021: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Gerald F Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2021: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Natasha K Leeuwendaal, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present recent insights into the role of the gut microbiota on gastrointestinal (GI) peptide secretion and signalling, with a focus on the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is accumulating suggesting that secretion of GI peptides is modulated by commensal bacteria present in our GI tract. Recent data shows that the gut microbiome impacts on ghrelinergic signalling through its metabolites, at the level of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) and highlights concomitant changes in circulating ghrelin levels with specific gut microbiota changes...
January 19, 2021: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Zareen Farukhi, Samia Mora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonfasting lipid testing has been introduced into several guidelines over the past decade or so however, the uptake into clinical practice has not been universal. This review highlights some of the prevalent reasons for provider reluctance to use nonfasting testing and the evidence to support nonfasting testing for routine screening in most patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have found nonfasting lipids to be as, or more, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction...
January 19, 2021: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Abishek Arokiadoss, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS is symptom directed. This review provides an update related to clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the gut epithelium secretagogue receptors and channels. RECENT FINDINGS: The new Rome IV criteria define functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) as disorders of the gut-brain interaction...
January 18, 2021: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Gissette Reyes-Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is at the forefront of current research and treatment development programs. Despite extreme lowering of LDL-cholesterol there remains a high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Recent large epidemiological, genomic wide association studies and Mendelian randomization studies have identified novel mechanisms and targets regulating TRL. This review will focus on recent and ongoing clinical trials that aim to reduce cardiovascular risk by decreasing plasma levels of TRL...
January 18, 2021: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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