Raffael Ott, Robert Stein, Helena H Hauta-Alus, Justiina Ronkainen, Sílvia Fernández-Barrés, Ulrike Spielau, Holger Kirsten, Tanja Poulain, Phillip E Melton, Leanne K Küpers, Hatim Azaryah, Marco Colombo, Kathrin Landgraf, Elmar W Tobi, Therese O'Sullivan, Rae-Chi Huang, Cristina Campoy, Christiane Winkler, Jesus Vioque, Martine Vrijheid, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner, Sylvain Sebert, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Anette-G Ziegler, Sandra Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents, with potential distinct effects in people with increased BMI. DNA methylation (DNAm) may mediate these effects. Thus, we conducted meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) between dietary GI and GL and blood DNAm of children and adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We calculated dietary GI and GL and performed EWAS in children and adolescents (age range: 4...
September 26, 2023: Diabetes Care
Meghan Mooring, Grace A Yeung, Panu Luukkonen, Silvia Liu, Muhammad Waqas Akbar, Gary J Zhang, Oluwashanu Balogun, Xuemei Yu, Rigen Mo, Kari Nejak-Bowen, Masha V Poyurovsky, Carmen J Booth, Liza Konnikova, Gerald I Shulman, Dean Yimlamai
Obesity is increasing worldwide and leads to a multitude of metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is associated with the progression of NASH, but it has been described to have anti- and proinflammatory properties. We sought to examine the role of liver CYR61 in NASH progression. CYR61 liver-specific knockout mice on a NASH diet showed improved glucose tolerance, decreased liver inflammation, and reduced fibrosis...
September 27, 2023: Science Translational Medicine
Chandan K Sen
SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic wounds affect 10.5 million (up 2.3 million from the 2014 update) US Medicare beneficiaries. Chronic wounds impact the quality of life of nearly 2.5% of the total population of the United States. This fraction is larger in the elderly. These wounds can lead to a range of complications and healthcare costs. Given the aging population, the continued threat of diabetes and obesity worldwide, and the persistent problem of infection, it is expected that chronic wounds will continue to be a substantial clinical, social and economic challenge...
September 27, 2023: Advances in Wound Care
Tianyu Mao, Yiwen Sun, Xinyi Xu, Kang He
NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, characterized by lipid accumulation in the liver, and usually evolves from steatohepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, or even HCC. Its incidence is rapidly rising in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Current therapies are limited to lifestyle changes including dietary intervention and exercise, in which dietary modification exerts an important part in losing weight and preventing NAFLD. In this review, we briefly discuss the roles and mechanisms of dietary components including fructose, non-nutritive sweeteners, fat, proteins, and vitamins in the progression or prevention of NAFLD...
October 1, 2023: Hepatology Communications
Jiahao Liu, Yong Qiao, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Zhiqing Huang, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Hui Yan, Yan Li, Jun He
Proanthocyanidin (PRO) has been implicated in a variety of biological functions, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-obesity effects. However, little is known about its safety dose for animals. To explore its safety and effect on growth performance and intestinal health, thirty weaned pigs were divided into five groups and fed with basal diet containing 0, 30, 300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg PRO for 42 days. Results showed that PRO supplementation at 30 and 300 mg/kg significantly decreased the feed/gain ratio (F:G) and diarrhea rate ( p < 0...
September 7, 2023: Toxins
Lanlan Du, Han Lü, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Yu, Tunyu Jian, Huifang Zhao, Wenlong Wu, Xiaoqin Ding, Jian Chen, Weilin Li
In this study, blueberry ( Vaccinium ssp. ) anthocyanins (VA) and blackberry ( Rubus L. ) anthocyanins (RA) were used to investigate the effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the potential mechanisms. Importantly, all of the data presented in this study were obtained from experiments conducted on mice. As a result, VA and RA reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation while improving liver damage, inflammation, glucose, and lipid metabolism induced by a high-fat diet. Moreover, VA and RA regulated the gut microbiota composition, decreasing the pro-obesity and proinflammation bacteria taxa, such as the phylum Actinobacterium and the genera Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium , and increasing those negatively associated with obesity and inflammation, such as the phylum Bacteroidetes and the genera Prevotella and Oscillospira ...
September 27, 2023: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Changqing Li, Nan Shen, Shaohua Yang, Hui-Li Wang
Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) has led to an increased risk of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLDs). However, it is as yet unclear if the damage caused by BPA is able to be repaired sufficiently after exposure has ceased. Therefore, this project aims to investigate the effects of BPA on the hepatic lipid metabolism function and its potential mechanisms in mice by comparing the BPA exposure model and the BPA exposure + cessation of drug treatment model. Herein, the male C57BL/6 mice were exposed in the dose of 50 μg/kg/day and 500 μg/kg/day BPA for 8 weeks, and then transferred to a standard chow diet for another 8 weeks to recover...
September 12, 2023: Toxics
Luísa Correia-Sá, Virgínia C Fernandes, Maria Luz Maia, Edgar Pinto, Sónia Norberto, Agostinho Almeida, Cristina Santos, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F Domingues
Exposure to environmental chemicals during developmental stages can result in several adverse outcomes. In this study, the exposure of Portuguese children to Cu, Co, I, Mo, Mn, Ni, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Sn and Tl was evaluated through the analysis of first morning urine through ICP-MS. Furthermore, we attempted to determine possible exposure predictors. The study sample consisted of 54% girls and 46% boys, with a median age of 10 years; 61% were overweight/obese and were put on a nutritionally oriented diet. For I, half of the population was probably in deficiency status...
September 9, 2023: Toxics
Sara Vela-Bernal, Rita Facchetti, Raffaella Dell'Oro, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Empar Lurbe, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
The present study was designed to provide information on the ability of several different anthropometric markers to reflect the renal impairment associated with body weight increase and to predict the development of renal alterations linked to overweight and obesity. In 574 subjects representative of the general population of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study, with an age range between 57 and 73 years, we investigated the association between different anthropometric markers of body fat, as alternative to body mass index, and renal failure, to obtain information useful for determining their potential predictive value...
September 27, 2023: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Darian Hoagland, Jaisa Olasky, Tara S Kent, R Wesley Vosburg
BACKGROUND: The number of bariatric operations performed in the USA rises annually. Trainee exposure to this field is necessary to ensure competency in future surgical generations. However, the safety of trainee involvement of these operations has been called into question. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is to describe differences in outcomes between trainees and non-trainees as first assistants (FA) in sleeve gastrectomy (SG). SETTING: The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) database METHODS: Patients from the MBSAQIP database who underwent primary SG from 2015 to 2020 were identified...
September 27, 2023: Obesity Surgery
Georgia Argyrakopoulou, Nefeli Fountouli, Maria Dalamaga, Alexander Kokkinos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the great progress in obesity-tackling strategies, a negative energy equilibrium between energy expenditure and energy intake remains the cornerstone in obesity management. The present review article aims to shed light on the complicated interrelations of resting metabolic rate to weight fluctuations. RECENT FINDINGS: Energy expenditure depends on body composition and is highly affected by weight changes, exerting a significant role in subsequent weight regain and underlining the metabolic resistance that people with obesity face when dealing with weight maintenance...
September 27, 2023: Current Obesity Reports
Madhur Verma, Vandana Esht, Mohammed M Alshehri, Mohammed Aljahni, Kirti Chauhan, Walaa E Morsy, Nitin Kapoor, Sanjay Kalra
INTRODUCTION: Concerns over the escalating burden of non-communicable diseases call for the redressal of behavioral risk factors like increased body mass index. Most studies have failed to quantify the contribution of socio-demographic characteristics in a linear trend. The present study aims to estimate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indian adults and the contribution of different socio-demographic factors to the increasing prevalence. METHODS: We carried out a secondary data analysis of two National Family Health Survey (NFHS) rounds...
September 27, 2023: Advances in Therapy
Kristine Yang, Senthil Sambandam
INTRODUCTION: The presence of permanent end-colostomy is traditionally thought of as a risk factor for complications following orthopedic joint replacement; however, literature supporting this association is scarce. This study aims to discern how length of stay, cost of stay, and inpatient complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA) are impacted by presence of colostomy. METHODS: Data from the National Inpatient Sample was analyzed by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification regarding THA in patients with and without end-colostomy...
September 27, 2023: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Ittai Shichman, Christian T Oakley, Itay Ashkenazi, Scott Marwin, Morteza Meftah, Ran Schwarzkopf
INTRODUCTION: Literature examining the risks, benefits, and potential complications of TKA in morbidly obese patients is conflicting. Surgeons with more experience performing TKA on morbidly obese patients may generate superior outcomes. This study sought to assess whether complication rates and implant survivorship in morbidly obese TKA patients varies between high (HV) and low (LV) volume surgeons. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed to include all morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40) patients that underwent primary TKA between January 2016 and July 2021 at our high-volume center...
September 27, 2023: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Robson Damasceno de Lima, Renan Fudoli Lins Vieira, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Amandine Chaix, Ana Paula Azevedo Macedo, Gabriel Calheiros Antunes, Maíra Felonato, Renata Rosetta Braga, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver, is estimated to be the most common liver disease worldwide. Obesity is a major risk factor and contributor, and, accordingly, weight loss can improve NAFLD. Previous studies in preclinical models of diet-induced obesity and fatty liver disease have shown the independent benefits of resistance exercise training (RT) and time-restricted feeding (TRF) in preventing weight gain and hepatic build-up of fat...
September 27, 2023: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fadia Milhem, Slavko Komarnytsky
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder that is remarkably heterogeneous. It presents itself in a variety of phenotypes that can be metabolically unhealthy or healthy, associate with no or multiple metabolic risk factors, gain extreme body weight (super-responders), as well as resist obesity despite the obesogenic environment (non-responders). Progression to obesity is ultimately linked to the overall net energy balance and activity of different metabolic fluxes. This is particularly evident from variations in fatty acids oxidation, metabolic fluxes through the pyruvate-phosphoenolpyruvate-oxaloacetate node, and extracellular accumulation of Krebs cycle metabolites, such as citrate...
September 15, 2023: Metabolites
Janelle Lopez, Layla Al-Nakkash, Tom L Broderick, Monica Castro, Brielle Tobin, Jeffrey H Plochocki
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis (OA) often present as comorbidities. We examined the role of plasma IL-6, chondrocyte MMP-13, and col10a expression in the development of OA in obese diabetic mice. We further investigated dietary genistein and exercise training as potential mitigators of OA. One hundred adult mice (50 females, 50 males) aged 6 weeks were randomized into 5 groups, including lean controls, obese diabetic controls, and obese diabetic mice treated with genistein, exercise training, and genistein plus exercise training...
September 14, 2023: Metabolites
Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim
Maintaining systemic homeostasis requires the coordination of different organs and tissues in the body. Our bodies rely on complex inter-organ communications to adapt to perturbations or changes in metabolic homeostasis. Consequently, the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues produce and secrete specific organokines such as hepatokines, myokines, and adipokines in response to nutritional and environmental stimuli. Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of the interplay of organokines between organs is associated with the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
August 29, 2023: Metabolites
Sidsel Madsen, Steffen Yde Bak, Christian Clement Yde, Henrik Max Jensen, Tine Ahrendt Knudsen, Cecilie Bæch-Laursen, Jens Juul Holst, Christoffer Laustsen, Mette Skou Hedemann
The objective of the study was to investigate the preventive effect on obesity-related conditions of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) in young, healthy rats fed a high-fat Western-style diet to complement the existing knowledge gap concerning the anti-obesity effects of RE in vivo. Sprague Dawley rats (71.3 ± 0.46 g) were fed a high-fat Western-style diet (WD) or WD containing either 1 g/kg feed or 4 g/kg feed RE for six weeks. A group fed standard chow served as a negative control. The treatments did not affect body weight; however, the liver fat percentage was reduced in rats fed RE, and NMR analyses of liver tissue indicated that total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver were reduced...
August 27, 2023: Metabolites
Shamma Almuraikhy, Najeha Anwardeen, Asmma Doudin, Maha Sellami, Alexander Domling, Abdelali Agouni, Asmaa A Althani, Mohamed A Elrayess
Physical activity (PA) is known to have beneficial effects on health, primarily through its antioxidative stress properties. However, the specific metabolic pathways that underlie these effects are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic pathways that are involved in the protective effects of moderate PA in non-obese and healthy individuals. Data on 305 young, non-obese participants were obtained from the Qatar Biobank. The participants were classified as active or sedentary based on their self-reported PA levels...
August 27, 2023: Metabolites
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