Brendan D Snarr, Guillaume St-Pierre, Benjamin Ralph, Mélanie Lehoux, Yukiko Sato, Ann Rancourt, Takahiro Takazono, Shane R Baistrocchi, Rachel Corsini, Matthew P Cheng, Michele Sugrue, Lindsey R Baden, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, John R Wingard, Irah L King, Maziar Divangahi, Masahiko S Satoh, Bryan G Yipp, Sachiko Sato, Donald C Sheppard
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic mold that infects patients who are immunocompromised or have chronic lung disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality in these populations. While the factors governing the host response to A. fumigatus remain poorly defined, neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection is critical to clear the fungus. Galectin-3 is a mammalian β-galactose-binding lectin with both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, however the role of galectin-3 in the defense against molds has not been studied...
August 4, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
I Falces-Romero, M Ruiz-Bastián, B Díaz-Pollán, E Maseda, J García-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a complication of respiratory bacterial and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS/METHODS: In University Hospital La Paz (Madrid, Spain), we reviewed the clinical and demographic characteristics of 10 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and Aspergillus spp. isolate in respiratory samples. We also recovered results of galactomannan tests in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples...
August 4, 2020: Mycoses
Adriana Oliveira Manfiolli, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Leandro José de Assis, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Lilian Pereira Silva, Juliana I Hori, Louise A Walker, Carol A Munro, Ranjith Rajendran, Gordon Ramage, Gustavo H Goldman
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.tcsw.2018.03.002.].
December 2020: Cell Surface
Isabel Valsecchi, Jennifer I Lai, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Ariane Pillé, Audrey Beaussart, Victor Lo, Chi L L Pham, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Ann H Kwan, Magalie Duchateau, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Mariette Matondo, Melanie Lehoux, Donald C Sheppard, Yves F Dufrene, Jagadeesh Bayry, J Iñaki Guijarro, Margaret Sunde, Jean-Paul Latgé
The rodlet structure present on the Aspergillus fumigatus conidial surface hides conidia from immune recognition. In spite of the essential biological role of the rodlets, the molecular basis for their self-assembly and disaggregation is not known. Analysis of the soluble forms of conidia-extracted and recombinant RodA by NMR spectroscopy has indicated the importance of disulfide bonds and identified two dynamic regions as likely candidates for conformational change and intermolecular interactions during conversion of RodA into the amyloid rodlet structure...
December 2019: Cell Surface
In Young Jung, Youn Jung Lee, Hyo Sup Shim, Yun Suk Cho, Yu Jin Sohn, Jong Hoon Hyun, Yae Jee Baek, Moo Hyun Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, Yoon Soo Park, Joon Sup Yeom, Young Keun Kim, Hyo Youl Kim, Jun Yong Choi
PURPOSE: With changing fungal epidemiology and azole resistance in Aspergillus species, identifying fungal species and susceptibility patterns is crucial to the management of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate performance of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples in the identification of fungal species and in the detection of azole-resistance mutations in the Aspergillus fumigatus cyp51A gene at a South Korean hospital...
August 2020: Yonsei Medical Journal
Xiling Wu, Lei Wu, Zhimin Chen
Pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis is a rare, but life-threatening cause of central airway obstruction. Here, we reported three cases of pediatric pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis. The infectious etiologies were Staphylococcus aureus secondary to influenza A virus and Aspergillus fumigatus . Endoscopy was used in diagnosis and management of all patients and two patients survived. The improvement in mortality rate of these diseases need early recognition and prompt treatment with mechanical debridement by endoscope and early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Orchi Dutta, Vanessa Espinosa, Keyi Wang, Samantha Avina, Amariliz Rivera
Pulmonary infections with Aspergillus fumigatus ( Af ) are a significant cause of invasive fungal disease and lead to high morbidity and mortality in diverse populations throughout the world. Currently available antifungal drugs are often ineffective, thus contributing to unacceptably high mortality rates in patients suffering from invasive fungal infections. The use of cytokines as adjunctive immune therapies holds the promise of significantly improving patient outcomes in the future. In recent studies, we identified an essential role for type I and III interferons as regulators of optimal antifungal responses by pulmonary neutrophils during infection with Af ...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rabia Naz, Thomas H Roberts, Asghari Bano, Asia Nosheen, Humaira Yasmin, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan, Rumana Keyani, Sami Ullah, Wajiha Khan, Zahid Anwar
Jacaranda mimosifolia trees are grown in frost-free regions globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol crude extract and various fractions of increasing polarity of J. mimosifolia leaves for bioactive metabolites, as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The anti-inflammatory potential of the various fractions of J. mimosifolia leaf extract was studied via the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay. Methanol crude extract (ME), derived fractions extracted with chloroform (CF) and ethyl acetate (EAF), and residual aqueous extract (AE) of dried J...
2020: PloS One
Killen H Briones-Claudett, Mónica H Briones-Claudett, Alex Posligua Moreno, Bertha J López Briones, Killen H Briones Zamora, Diana C Briones Marquez, Jaime Bemites Sólis, Juan S Crespo, Michelle Grunauer
BACKGROUND The venous system of the posterior thoracic wall merges into a single trunk called the azygos vein, located in the posterior mediastinum, before draining into the superior vena cava. An aneurysm in the azygos vein is extremely rare. Such aneurysms are discovered as incidental radiology findings or while investigating a mediastinal mass. Visualization via bronchoscopy is atypical. CASE REPORT An 86-year-old female patient presented to the Emergency Department with a 5-day complaint of dyspnea and chest pain...
July 29, 2020: American Journal of Case Reports
Ashley C Campbell, Kyle M Stiers, Julia S Martin Del Campo, Ritcha Mehra-Chaudhary, Pablo Sobrado, John J Tanner
The SidA ornithine hydroxylase from Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal disease drug target involved in the production of hydroxamate containing siderophores, which are used by the pathogen to sequester iron. SidA is an N-monooxygenase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of L-ornithine through a multistep oxidative mechanism, utilizing a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Here we present four new crystal structures of SidA in various redox- and ligation states, including the first structure of oxidized SidA without NADP(H) or L-ornithine bound (resting state)...
July 28, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Özlem Doğan, Dolunay Gülmez, Sevtap Arıkan Akdağlı
Aspergillus fumigatus can cause different clinical manifestations including chronic pulmonary infections, as well as invasive aspergillosis which is highly mortal in the immunocompromised host. Azole antifungal drugs, voriconazole in particular, are the first-line recommended therapeutic regimen. Azoles inhibit 14-α demethylase enzyme encoded by the cyp51A gene. In recent years, increased azole resistance is observed among environmental and clinical A.fumigatus isolates. Two different mechanisms have been proposed for the development of resistance...
April 2020: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Audrey Jeanvoine, Chloé Godeau, Audrey Laboissière, Gabriel Reboux, Laurence Millon, Steffi Rocchi
Background: Wood chipping has been described as a potential hotspot for the selection of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (AR Af ). We previously reported AR Af isolates in sawmills (Eastern France), most of which contained the TR34 /L98H mutation. Methods: To study genotypic relatedness, microsatellite genotyping (short tandem repeat for A. fumigatus (STR Af )) was performed on 41 azole-susceptible A. fumigatus (AS Af ) and 23 AR Af isolated from 18 sawmills and two clinical A. fumigatus (sensitive and resistant) isolated from a sinus sample of a woodworker...
July 26, 2020: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Hasan Nazik, Gabriele Sass, Eric Déziel, David A Stevens
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) compete with each other for nutrients and survival in natural environments, and have been extensively studied because of their intermicrobial interactions in the human microbiome. These are the principal microbes infecting immunocompromised patients and persons with cystic fibrosis, particularly the airways. These intermicrobial studies have largely been conducted in liquid medium or on agar, and thus focus on soluble or diffusible microbial products...
July 25, 2020: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Lisa Kirchhoff, Silke Dittmer, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
In recent decades, invasive infections from fungal pathogens have been reported with increasing frequency. Concurrently, the rates of detected resistance-mechanisms against commonly used antifungal agents in fungi are increasing. The need for novel antifungal drugs is thus imminent. Here, the novel drug olorofim (F901318) has been tested for its antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogens Lomentospora prolificans (N = 20), Scedosporium aurantiacum (N = 2), Scedosporium apiospermum (N = 6), Rasamsonia argillacea species complex (N = 23), Exophiala dermatitidis (N = 10) and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAF, N = 25) in an in vitro broth microdilution assay according to EUCAST recommendations...
July 25, 2020: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Xiao-Chen Wei, Ming-Feng Zhao, Xin Li, Xia Xiao
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various posaconazole dosing regimens of the different formulations against Aspergillus spp. in adults. Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) were conducted using pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and pharmacodynamics (PD) data to determine the probabilities of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fractions of response (CFR) in terms of area under the concentration curve/minimum inhibition concentration targets of posaconazole. According to the results of the PTAs, currently clinical recommended dosing regimens of the delayed-release tablet and intravenous solution were appropriate in the prophylaxis against Aspergillus spp...
July 25, 2020: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Xuanqing Wang, Zhijian Kong, Yonghong Wang, Mengmeng Wang, Dongyang Liu, Qirong Shen
Composting is a cost-efficient method of transferring various unstable and complex organic matters into a stable and humus-like substance, during which various fungus play a critical role in the decomposition of organic matters. In this study, the rice straw and swine manure co-composting were carried out in a pilot-scale, and the evolution of various biochemical parameters and fungi community were detected at different time points. The results showed that most of the parameters fluctuated strongly at the thermophilic phase (THP), and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) results showed that Mycothermus spp...
September 15, 2020: Journal of Environmental Management
James B Doub, Poonam Mathur
Here, we present a case of an immunocompetent 37-year old male who developed Aspergillus fumigatus osteomyelitis 16 years after extensive chest wall reconstructive surgery for Ewing sarcoma. His treatment course was complicated by a severe adverse drug reaction to voriconazole, requiring the use of oral posaconazole therapy. Serum 1,3-beta-D glucan assay was utilized to dictate the duration of posaconazole therapy. The patient successfully completed 9 months of oral posaconazole therapy and has not had clinical recurrence for 9 months off antifungal therapy...
July 27, 2020: Infection
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Valliappan Muthu, Kuruswamy T Prasad, Amanjit Bal, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an inflammatory disease caused by immunologic reactions initiated against Aspergillus fumigatus colonizing the airways of patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. The common manifestations include treatment-resistant asthma, transient and fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. It is believed that globally there are about five million cases of ABPA, with India alone accounting for about 1.4 million cases. The occurrence of ABPA among asthmatic patients in special clinics may be as high as 13 per cent...
June 2020: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Duantao Cao, Ruilin Wu, Suxia Dong, Feiyan Wang, Chao Ju, Sumei Yu, Shiji Xu, Hua Fang, Yunlong Yu
A total of 191 soil samples from Hangzhou, China, were submitted to detect non-wild-type (non-WT) Aspergillus fumigatus and its associated mechanisms. There were 2 (4.7%), 13 (12.4%), and 31 (23.1%) isolates identified as non-WT in 2014, 2016, and 2018, respectively. The resistant mutations of TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/T289A, and TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I were found in 3, 5, and 5 non-WT isolates. The G448S mutation, previously only found in clinical settings, was detected in A. fumigatus from soil samples.
July 27, 2020: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yan Ma, Tie-Jun Ling, Xiao-Qin Su, Bin Jiang, Bo Nian, Li-Jiao Chen, Ming-Li Liu, Zheng-Yan Zhang, Dao-Ping Wang, Yong-Ying Mu, Wen-Wen Jiao, Qian-Ting Liu, Ying-Hong Pan, Ming Zhao
Post-fermented Pu-erh tea (PFPT) is a microbially-fermented tea with distinct sensory qualities and multiple health benefits. Aspergillus are the dominant fungi in the fermentation and the main contributors to the characteristics of PFPT, so their underlying functions warrant detailed study. Here, tea leaves were fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and resulting samples (designated as Asn, Ast and Asf, respectively) were analyzed by proteomic and metabolomic methods...
July 17, 2020: Food Chemistry
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