Alzheimer' disease

Zeinab Mortazavizadeh, Andreas Maercker, Tanja Roth, Egemen Savaskan, Simon Forstmeier
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to investigate the quality of the dyadic relationship between mild Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. The main objective is to evaluate the consistency, agreement and validity of the German version of the Scale for Quality of the Current Relationship in Caregiving (SQCRC). The secondary objective was to examine the association of relationship quality with quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers...
March 26, 2020: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Osagie Emokpae, Benneth Ben-Azu, Abayomi M Ajayi, Solomon Umukoro
d-Ribose-l-cysteine (DRLC) is an analogue of cysteine that has been shown to boost cellular antioxidant capacity by enhancing intracellular biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Deficiency of GSH has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of memory. Thus, the use of antioxidants to prevent or retard the progression of memory deteriorations in persons with AD has been the focus of intense investigations. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of DRLC on memory and scopolamine-induced amnesia, acetyl-cholinesterase activity, and oxidative stress in mice...
March 27, 2020: Drug Development Research
Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
This chapter describes a protocol for proteomic profiling of the rat hippocampal proteome using a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and data analysis to determine the cellular location of the identified proteins. In the example given, many of these proteins were localized in the plasma membrane and nucleus. These could be of interest in further studies of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders linked with hippocampal dysfunction, such as aging, major depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
2020: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul C Guest
The increase in the human lifespan has not been paralleled by an increase in healthy life. With the increase in the proportion of the aged population, there has been a natural increase in the prevalence of age-related disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, frailty, and various other disorders. A continuous rise in these conditions could lead to a widespread medical and social burden. There are now considerable efforts underway to address these deficits in preclinical and clinical studies, which include the use of better study cohorts, longitudinal designs, improved translation of data from preclinical models, multi-omics profiling, identification of new biomarker candidates and refinement of computational tools and databases containing relevant information...
2020: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jiayi Sun, Toshihiro Murata, Hideyuki Shigemori
The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing rapidly, and thus more research has been focused on the relationship between these two age-related chronic diseases. According to the amyloid hypothesis, prevention of the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a promising strategy for AD and T2D. In this study, thioflavin-T assay and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three phenylpropanoids isolated from Lycopus lucidus-schizotenuin A and lycopic acids A and B-on both Aβ and hIAPP fibrillization...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Natural Medicines
Antonio Carotenuto, Heather Wilson, Beniamino Giordano, Silvia P Caminiti, Zachary Chappell, Steven C R Williams, Alexander Hammers, Eli Silber, Peter Brex, Marios Politis
There is mounting evidence regarding the role of impairment in neuromodulatory networks for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of neuromodulatory networks in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been assessed. We applied resting-state functional connectivity and graph theory to investigate the changes in the functional connectivity within neuromodulatory networks including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic systems in MS. Twenty-nine MS patients and twenty-four age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed clinical and cognitive assessments including the expanded disability status score, symbol digit modalities test, and Hamilton Depression rating scale...
March 26, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Ziqiang Wang, Kun Li, Weiren Huang
Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) is a long non-coding RNA that is widely expressed in a variety of mammalian cell types. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that NEAT1 plays key roles in various biological and pathological processes; therefore, it is important to understand how its expression is regulated and how it regulates the expression of its target genes. Recently, we found that NEAT1 expression could be regulated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and that altered NEAT1 expression epigenetically regulates downstream gene transcription during herpes simplex virus-1 infection and Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that NEAT1 acts as an important sensor and effector during stress and disease development...
March 26, 2020: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2020: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Michael Ntim, Qi-Fa Li, Yue Zhang, Xiao-Da Liu, Na Li, Hai-Lun Sun, Xuan Zhang, Bakhtawar Khan, Bin Wang, Qiong Wu, Xue-Fei Wu, Williams Walana, Khizar Khan, Quan-Hong Ma, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
Synaptic plasticity is the neural basis of physiological processes involved in learning and memory. Tripartite motif-containing 32 (TRIM32) has been found to play many important roles in the brain such as neural stem cell proliferation, neurogenesis, inhibition of nerve proliferation, and apoptosis. TRIM32 has been linked to several nervous system diseases including autism spectrum disorder, depression, anxiety, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of TRIM32 in regulating the mechanism of synaptic plasticity is still unknown...
March 26, 2020: Cerebral Cortex
Annika Mehr, Meike Hick, Susann Ludewig, Michaela Müller, Ulrike Herrmann, Jakob von Engelhardt, David P Wolfer, Martin Korte, Ulrike C Müller
Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, yet its physiological functions remain incompletely understood. Previous studies had indicated important synaptic functions of APP and the closely related homologue APLP2 in excitatory forebrain neurons for spine density, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. Here, we show that APP is also widely expressed in several interneuron subtypes, both in hippocampus and cortex. To address the functional role of APP in inhibitory neurons, we generated mice with a conditional APP/APLP2 double knockout (cDKO) in GABAergic forebrain neurons using DlxCre mice...
March 26, 2020: Cerebral Cortex
Caitlín Ní Chasaide, Marina A Lynch
Neuroinflammation is now recognised as an important contributory factor in the progression of Alzheimer's disease and probably also in the early stages of the disease. It is likely that this derives largely from aberrant activation of microglia, the resident mononuclear phagocytes of the brain. These cells are responsible for physiological immune surveillance and clearance of pathogens in the central nervous system, but evidence indicates that in Alzheimer's disease, microglial function is compromised, and this contributes to the pathology...
January 2020: Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Shijie Li, Yongchuan Tang
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between a healthy lifestyle and episodic memory among adults with subjective memory complaints (SMCs). We proposed a structure equation model to study the association between a healthy lifestyle and episodic memory with an investigation covering 309 participants over 50 years old with SMCs. The model showed a good fit after being adjusted ( p = 0.054, goodness of fit index = 0.981, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.956, comparative fit index = 0...
2020: BioMed Research International
Brett D Story, Matthew E Miller, Allison M Bradbury, Emily D Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J Beecy, Heather L Gray-Edwards
Mouse models of human disease remain the bread and butter of modern biology and therapeutic discovery. Nonetheless, more often than not mouse models do not reproduce the pathophysiology of the human conditions they are designed to mimic. Naturally occurring large animal models have predominantly been found in companion animals or livestock because of their emotional or economic value to modern society and, unlike mice, often recapitulate the human disease state. In particular, numerous models have been discovered in dogs and have a fundamental role in bridging proof of concept studies in mice to human clinical trials...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yi-Shian Peng, Chia-Wei Tang, Yi-Yun Peng, Hung Chang, Chien-Lung Chen, Shu-Lin Guo, Li-Ching Wu, Min-Chang Huang, Hoong-Chien Lee
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent progressive neurodegenerative human disease whose cause remains unclear. Numerous initially highly hopeful anti-AD drugs based on the amyloid-β (Aβ) hypothesis of AD have failed recent late-phase tests. Natural aging (AG) is a high-risk factor for AD. Here, we aim to gain insights in AD that may lead to its novel therapeutic treatment through conducting meta-analyses of gene expression microarray data from AG and AD-affected brain...
2020: PeerJ
Hiroki Takeuchi, Keiko Imamura, Bin Ji, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masato Hasegawa, Naruhiko Sahara, Nobuhisa Iwata, Makoto Inoue, Hideo Hara, Takeshi Tabira, Maiko Ono, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Ryosuke Takahashi, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Haruhisa Inoue
Pathological aggregates of tau proteins accumulate in the brains of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-tau). Although immunotherapies of these disorders against tau are emerging, it is unknown whether nasal delivery, which offers many benefits over traditional approaches to vaccine administration, is effective or not for tauopathy. Here, we developed vaccination against a secreted form of pathological tau linked to FTLD-tau using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector infectious to host nasal mucosa, a key part of the immune system...
2020: NPJ Vaccines
Nobuko Hongo, Yusaku Takamura, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Kazuyuki Tobe, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Hisao Nishijo
Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress due to amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the formation of amyloid plaque, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau, microglial activation, and cognitive deficits. The dysfunction or phenotypic loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons has been implicated in cognitive deficits. Astaxanthin is one of carotenoids and known as a highly potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that astaxanthin's antioxidant effects may prevent the onset of cognitive deficits in AD by preventing AD pathological processes associated with oxidative stress...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Adrian Jorda, Martin Aldasoro, Constanza Aldasoro, Sol Guerra-Ojeda, Antonio Iradi, Jose Mª Vila, Juan Campos-Campos, Soraya L Valles
Aspirin has been used as anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregate for decades but the precise mechanism(s) of action after the presence of the toxic peptide Aβ1-42 in cultured astrocytes remains poorly resolved. Here we use low-doses of aspirin (10-7 M) in astrocytes in primary culture in presence or absence of Aβ1-42 toxic peptide. We noted an increase of cell viability and proliferation with or without Aβ1-42 peptide presence in aspirin treated cells. In addition, a decrease in apoptosis, determined by Caspase 3 activity and the expression of Cyt c and Smac/Diablo, were detected...
2020: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Yejin Kim, Xiaoqian Jiang, Luca Giancardo, Danilo Pena, Avram S Bukhbinder, Albert Y Amran, Paul E Schulz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) varies a great deal cognitively regarding symptoms, test findings, the rate of progression, and neuroradiologically in terms of atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that an unbiased analysis of the progression of AD, regarding clinical and MRI features, will reveal a number of AD phenotypes. Our objective is to develop and use a computational method for multi-modal analysis of changes in cognitive scores and MRI volumes to test for there being multiple AD phenotypes...
March 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
Ruochen Yang, Paul Bogdan
Mathematical modelling of real complex networks aims to characterize their architecture and decipher their underlying principles. Self-repeating patterns and multifractality exist in many real-world complex systems such as brain, genetic, geoscience, and social networks. To better comprehend the multifractal behavior in the real networks, we propose the weighted multifractal graph model to characterize the spatiotemporal complexity and heterogeneity encoded in the interaction weights. We provide analytical tools to verify the multifractal properties of the proposed model...
March 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
Eunyoung Jung, Seong-Ho Koh, Myeongjong Yoo, Yoon Kyung Choi
Regeneration of adult neural circuits after an injury is limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Heme oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that produces HO metabolites, such as carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron by heme degradation. CO may act as a biological signal transduction effector in CNS regeneration by stimulating neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms as well as mitochondrial biogenesis. CO may give directions by which the injured neurovascular system switches into regeneration mode by stimulating endogenous neural stem cells and endothelial cells to produce neurons and vessels capable of replacing injured neurons and vessels in the CNS...
March 25, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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