Karam Asmaro, Hassan A Fadel, Sameah A Haider, Jacob Pawloski, Edvin Telemi, Tarek R Mansour, Ankush Chandra, Michael Bazydlo, Adam M Robin, Ian Y Lee, Ellen L Air, Jack P Rock, Steven N Kalkanis, Jason M Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Opioids are prescribed routinely after cranial surgery despite a paucity of evidence regarding the optimal quantity needed. Overprescribing may adversely contribute to opioid abuse, chronic use, and diversion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a system-wide campaign to reduce opioid prescribing excess while maintaining adequate analgesia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing a craniotomy for tumor resection with home disposition before and after a 2-mo educational intervention was completed...
April 16, 2021: Neurosurgery
Christopher R Honey, Marie T Krüger, Timóteo Almeida, Linda A Rammage, Mandeep S Tamber, Murray D Morrison, Anujan Poologaindran, Amanda Hu
BACKGROUND: Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a dystonia of the vocal folds causing difficulty with speech. The current standard of care is repeated botulinum toxin injections to weaken the adductor muscles. We sought to ameliorate the underlying neurological cause of SD with a novel therapy-deep brain stimulation (DBS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of DBS in SD through phase I trial, and to quantify the magnitude of any benefit. METHODS: Six patients had left ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) thalamic DBS and were randomized to 3 mo blinded-DBS "on" or "off" followed by a crossover...
April 16, 2021: Neurosurgery
Meei-Ling Sheu, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Hsi-Kai Tsou, Meng Yin Yang, Hong-Lin Su, Jason Sheehan, Ming-Hong Chang, Hong-Shiu Chen, Hung-Chuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries result in muscle denervation and apoptosis of the involved muscle, which subsequently reduces mitochondrial content and causes muscle atrophy. The local injection of mitochondria has been suggested as a useful tool for restoring the function of injured nerves or the brain. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes following the administration of isolated mitochondria into denervated muscle after nerve injury that have not been investigated...
April 16, 2021: Neurosurgery
Johannes Burtscher, Robert T Mallet, Martin Burtscher, Grégoire P Millet
The absolute reliance of the mammalian brain on oxygen to generate ATP renders it acutely vulnerable to hypoxia, whether at high altitude or in clinical settings of anemia or pulmonary disease. Hypoxia is pivotal to the pathogeneses of myriad neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, reduced environmental oxygen, e.g. sojourns or residing at high altitudes, may impart favorable effects on aging and mortality. Moreover, controlled hypoxia exposure may represent a treatment strategy for age-related neurological disorders...
April 13, 2021: Ageing Research Reviews
Yicong Zheng, Xiaonan L Liu, Liang-Tien Hsieh, Mitzi Hurtado, Yan Wang, Tara A Niendam, Cameron S Carter, Charan Ranganath, J Daniel Ragland
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit impaired episodic memory when relating objects to each other in time and space. Empirical studies and computational models suggest that low-frequency neural oscillations may be a mechanism by which the brain keeps track of temporal relationships during encoding and retrieval, with modulation of oscillatory power as sequences are learned. It is unclear whether sequence memory deficits in SZ are associated with altered neural oscillations...
April 13, 2021: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Daniele Galanti, Alessandro Inno, Maria La Vecchia, Nicolò Borsellino, Lorena Incorvaia, Antonio Russo, Stefania Gori
Brain metastases (BMs) are frequently associated with HER2+ breast cancer (BC). Their management is based on a multi-modal strategy including both local treatment and systemic therapy. Despite therapeutic advance, BMs still have an adverse impact on survival and quality of life and the development of effective systemic therapy to prevent and treat BMs from HER2 + BC represents an unmet clinical need. Trastuzumab-based therapy has long been the mainstay of systemic therapy and over the last two decades other HER2-targeted agents including lapatinib, pertuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine, have been introduced in the clinical practice...
April 13, 2021: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Muhammad Asim, Wang Bing, Hao Bo, Wang Xiaoguang
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating medical illness, for which currently available pharmacotherapies have poor efficacy. Accumulating evidence from clinical and preclinical animal investigations supports that ketamine exhibits a rapid and persistent effect against PTSD, though the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be clarified. In this literature review, we recapitulate the achievements from early ketamine studies to the most up-to-date discoveries, with an effort to discuss an inclusive therapeutic role of ketamine for PTSD treatment and its possible therapeutic mechanism...
April 13, 2021: Neurochemistry International
Risako Yamashita, Yasunori Takahashi, Kazumi Takashima, Hiromu Okano, Ryota Ojiro, Qian Tang, Satomi Kikuchi, Mio Kobayashi, Bunichiro Ogawa, Meilan Jin, Reiji Kubota, Yoshiaki Ikarashi, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Lead (Pb) exposure causes cognitive deficits in children. The present study investigated the effect of developmental exposure to Pb acetate (PbAc) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were administered drinking water containing 0, 2000, or 4000 ppm PbAc from gestational day 6 until day 21 post-delivery (weaning), and offspring were maintained without PbAc exposure until adulthood on postnatal day (PND) 77. There was a dose-related accumulation of Pb in the offspring brain at weaning, while Pb was mainly excreted in adulthood...
April 13, 2021: Toxicology
Khalil Ali Ahmad, Rana Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Zaeem Ahsan, Meng-Yan Deng, Le Ma, Evhy Apryani, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang
Gabapentinoids are recommended first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. They are neuronal voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit ligands and have been suggested to attenuate neuropathic pain via interaction with neuronal α2δ-1 subunit. However, the current study revealed their microglial mechanisms underlying antineuropathic pain. Intrathecal injection of gabapentin, pregabalin and mirogabalin rapidly inhibited mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, with projected ED50 values of 30.3, 6...
April 13, 2021: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ban-Yu Saitoh, Eizo Tanaka, Norio Yamamoto, Daan Van Kruining, Kyoko Iinuma, Yuko Nakamuta, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Ryo Yamasaki, Koichiro Matsumoto, Jun-Ichi Kira
Microglia play key roles in synaptic pruning, which primarily occurs from the postnatal period to adolescence. Synaptic pruning is essential for normal brain development and its impairment is implicated in neuropsychiatric developmental diseases such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recent epidemiological surveys reported a strong link between ASD and atopic/allergic diseases. However, few studies have experimentally investigated the relationship between allergy and ASD-like manifestations, particularly in the early postnatal period, when allergic disorders occur frequently...
April 13, 2021: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stephanie Rankin-Turner, Pieter Vader, L O'Driscoll, Bernd Giebel, Liam M Heaney, Owen G Davies
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are complex nanoparticles required for the intercellular transfer of diverse biological cargoes. Unlike synthetic nanoparticles, EVs may provide a natural platform for the enhanced targeting and functional transfer of therapeutics across complex and often impenetrable biological boundaries (e.g. the blood-brain barrier or the matrix of densely organised tumours). Consequently, there is considerable interest in utilising EVs as advanced drug delivery systems for the treatment of a range of challenging pathologies...
April 13, 2021: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Kundanika Mukherjee, Suraj Unniappan
Energy homeostasis is regulated by the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, which is partly controlled by the cross-talk between central and peripheral hormonal signals. Phoenixin (PNX) is a recently discovered pleiotropic neuropeptide with isoforms of 14 (PNX-14) and 20 (PNX-20) amino acids. It is a potent reproductive peptide in vertebrates, regulating the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG). It has been identified as a regulator of food intake during light phase when injected intracerebroventricularly in rats...
April 13, 2021: Peptides
Inah Hwang, Deanna Tang, Jihye Paik
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to the physiological cellular turnover of the adult brain and make up its regenerative potential. It is thus essential to understand how different factors influence their proliferation and differentiation to gain better insight into potential therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. Recent evidences indicate the roles of redox stress sensing and coping mechanisms in mediating the balance between NSPC self-renewal and differentiation...
April 13, 2021: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yong-Zhen Guo, Yan-Mei Ma, Xiao-Peng Zhang, Ling-Di Dong, Li Jing, Jian-Zhong Zhang
Brain edema is a major cause of death in patients who suffer an ischemic stroke. Diabetes has been shown to aggravate brain edema after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but few studies have focused on the heterogeneity of this response across different brain regions. Aquaporin 4 plays an important role in the formation and regression of brain edema. Here, we report that hyperglycemia mainly affects the continuity of aquaporin 4 distribution around blood vessels in the cortical penumbra after ischemia-reperfusion; however, in the striatal penumbra, in addition to affecting the continuity of distribution, it also substantially affects the fluorescence intensity and the polarity distribution in astrocytes...
April 13, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Saak V Ovsepian, Valerie B O'Leary, Cyril Hoschl, Laszlo Zaborszky
The disproportionate evolutionary expansion of human cerebral cortex with reinforcement of cholinergic innervations warranted the rise in functional and metabolic load of conserved basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system. Given that acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau and promotes non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the growing neocortex increased demands for ACh, while the emerging role of BF cholinergic projections in Aβ clearance entailed greater exposure of source neurons and their innervation fields to amyloid pathology and tau toxicity...
April 13, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Alaa H Salama, Abeer A A Salama, Mona Elhabak
In the present study, gabapentin (GBP)-loaded chitosan nanosized particles were fabricated applying the nanospray drying technique. Different preparation parameters (spray mesh diameter, chitosan concentration and presence of D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were studied while fixing other parameters (spraying rate, inlet temperature and gas flow rate). An optimized formulation with a particle size 107±13 nm was obtained upon spraying 0.1% (w/v) chitosan solution containing 0.05% (w/v) of TPGS utilizing the small nozzle (4 μm spray mesh hole size)...
April 13, 2021: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Amir Arash Hassanlou, Shole Jamali, Kimia RayatSanati, Zahra Mousavi, Abbas Haghparast
The main problem with addiction is a relapse with a high rate in methamphetamine (METH) abusers. Using addictive drugs repetitively will cause the reward. METH reward is due to an increase in dopamine levels, and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has a modulatory role in reward through CB1 receptors. On the other hand, the hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory, so it is involved in the neuroplasticity caused by METH abuse. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reduce the effects of METH through different mechanisms such as increasing the ECS activity, regulating emotional memory in the ventral hippocampus through D2-like dopamine receptors, and decreasing the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity...
April 13, 2021: Brain Research Bulletin
Yoshimitsu Ouchi, Miko Yamato, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Takashi Bungo
The adenosine A1 receptor is important for body temperature regulation in mammals; however, little is known about its function in avian species. In this study, we investigated the effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist and antagonist (adenosine 5'-monophosphate [5'-AMP] and 8 p-sulfophenyl theophylline [8-SPT], respectively) on thermoregulation in chickens. Male chicks were used in this study. After administration of 5'-AMP and 8-SPT, the rectal temperature, plasma metabolites, and gene expressions in the hypothalamus and liver were measured...
April 14, 2021: Brain Research Bulletin
Lina Zhang, Yuan Jiang, Songyun Deng, Yunan Mo, Yan Huang, Wenchao Li, Chenglong Ge, Xinshu Ren, Haisong Zhang, Xiaolei Zhang, Qianyi Peng, Zhiyong Liu, Li Huang, Fan Zhou, Yuhang Ai
AIMS: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is one of the most common complications of sepsis, and it might lead to long-term cognitive dysfunction and disability. This study aimed to explore the role of S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B)/RAGE/ceramide signaling pathway in SAE. MAIN METHODS: FPS-ZM1 (an inhibitor of RAGE), myriocin and GW4869 (an inhibitor of ceramide) were used to explore the role of S100B/RAGE/ceramide in acute brain injury and long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis...
April 13, 2021: Life Sciences
Z H Fan, Y Xu, W Luo, X C He, T T Zheng, J J Zhang, X Y Xu, Q W Qin, X Z Lee
CD63 is a member of the four-transmembrane-domain protein superfamily and is the first characterized tetraspanin protein. In the present study, we cloned the common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) CD63 (ccCD63) sequence and found that the ccCD63 ORF contained 711 bp and encoded a protein of 236 amino acids. Homology analysis revealed that the complete ccCD63 sequence had 84.08% amino acid similarity to CD63 of Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that ccCD63 was localized in the cytoplasm...
April 13, 2021: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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