Nusrat Matin, Courtney Fisher, Teresa A Lansdell, Bruce D Hammock, Jun Yang, William F Jackson, Anne M Dorrance
OBJECTIVE: Parenchymal arterioles (PAs) regulate perfusion of the cerebral microcirculation, and impaired PA endothelium-dependent dilation occurs in dementia models mimicking chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are vasodilators; their actions are potentiated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition. We hypothesized that chronic sEH inhibition with trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3 (1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) would prevent cognitive dysfunction and improve PA dilation in a hypertensive CCH model...
August 7, 2020: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo
In the current study, we examined adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the common ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers PCNA which labels proliferating cells, and DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX labelled cells was widespread throughout the brain of both species. The highest density of cells immunoreactive to both markers was observed in the olfactory bulbs and the telencephalon, especially the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle...
August 7, 2020: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Meera Rath, Jennifer Guergues, Joao P C Pinho, Ping Zhang, Truc G Nguyen, Kaley A MacFadyen, Joanna Peris, Jay P McLaughlin, Stanley M Stevens, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain where they play essential roles in the development and maintenance of physiological functions of this organ. Aberrant activation of microglia is speculated to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Repeated binge ethanol consumption can have a profound impact on the function and integrity of the brain resulting in changes in behaviors such as withdrawal and reward...
August 7, 2020: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ye Liu, Jinfeng Liu, Dandan Chen, Xiaosha Wang, Zhe Zhang, Yicheng Yang, Lihui Jiang, Weizhi Qi, Ziyuan Ye, Shuqing He, Quanying Liu, Lei Xi, Yingping Zou, Changfeng Wu
Fluorescent probes in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1000~1700 nm) have resulted in unprecedented imaging performance. Here, we describe a fluorination strategy in semiconducting polymers for development of highly bright NIR-II probes. Notably, tetrafluorination yielded a fluorescence QY of 3.2% for the polymer dots (Pdots), over 3-fold enhancement as compared to non-fluorinated counterparts. The fluorescence enhancement was attributable to nanoscale fluorous effect in the Pdots that maintained the molecular planarity and minimized the structure distortion between the excited state and ground state, thus reducing the nonradiative relaxations...
August 7, 2020: Angewandte Chemie
Guo-Chang Wang, Yu-Jing Chen, Xu-Ran Feng, Ping-Yong Feng
PURPOSE: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) has high spatial resolution and can simultaneously perform wall and lumen imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) can evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. In this paper, the result of 3.0T HR-MRI and 3.0T DCE-MRI has been evaluated to explore the application value of unilateral middle cerebral artery inflammatory stenosis and changes in vascular permeability parameters of stroke events...
August 7, 2020: Brain and Behavior
Nathan J Stevenson, Maria-Luisa Tataranno, Anna Kaminska, Elena Pavlidis, Robert R Clancy, Elke Griesmaier, James A Roberts, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Sampsa Vanhatalo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of, and agreement among, EEG and aEEG readers' estimation of maturity and a novel computational measure of functional brain age (FBA) in preterm infants. METHODS: Seven experts estimated the postmenstrual ages (PMA) in a cohort of recordings from preterm infants using cloud-based review software. The FBA was calculated using a machine learning-based algorithm. Error analysis was used to determine the accuracy of PMA assessments and intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess agreement between experts...
August 7, 2020: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Ann-Marie G de Lange, Claudia Barth, Tobias Kaufmann, Melis Anatürk, Sana Suri, Klaus P Ebmeier, Lars T Westlye
Pregnancy involves maternal brain adaptations, but little is known about how parity influences women's brain aging trajectories later in life. In this study, we replicated previous findings showing less apparent brain aging in women with a history of childbirths, and identified regional brain aging patterns linked to parity in 19,787 middle- and older-aged women. Using novel applications of brain-age prediction methods, we found that a higher number of previous childbirths were linked to less apparent brain aging in striatal and limbic regions...
August 7, 2020: Human Brain Mapping
Aline Delva, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Michel Koole, Koen Van Laere, Wim Vandenberghe
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) primarily affects presynaptic terminals and spreads trans-synaptically. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and anatomical extent of presynaptic terminal loss across the brain in early PD. A second objective was to compare loss of presynaptic terminals and cell bodies within the nigrostriatal tract. METHODS: A total of 30 patients with early PD and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent positron emission tomography with 11 C-UCB-J, a ligand for the universal presynaptic terminal marker synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), and with the dopamine transporter ligand 18 F-FE-PE2I, as well as a detailed clinical assessment...
August 7, 2020: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Andy C Dean, Erika L Nurmi, Angelica M Morales, Arthur K Cho, Lauren C Seaman, Edythe D London
Chronic methamphetamine use is linked to abnormalities in brain structure, which may reflect neurotoxicity related to metabolism of the drug. As the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme is central to the metabolism of methamphetamine, genotypic variation in its activity may moderate effects of methamphetamine on brain structure and function. This study explored the relationship between CYP2D6 genotype and measures of brain structure and cognition in methamphetamine users. Based on the function of genetic variants, a CYP2D6 activity score was determined in 82 methamphetamine-dependent (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV] criteria) and 79 healthy-control participants who completed tests of cognitive function (i...
August 6, 2020: Addiction Biology
Lucas Soustelle, Maria Cristina Antal, Julien Lamy, Laura-Adela Harsan, Paulo Loureiro de Sousa
PURPOSE: To determine optimal constrained tissue parameters and off-resonance sequence parameters for single-point macromolecular proton fraction (SP-MPF) mapping based on a comprehensive quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) protocol in healthy and demyelinated living mice at 7T. METHODS: Using 3D spoiled gradient echo-based sequences, a comprehensive qMT protocol is performed by sampling the Z-spectrum of mice brains, in vivo. Provided additional T1 , <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
July 27, 2020: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Marta Correa-Vela, Vincenzo Lupo, Marta Montpeyó, Paula Sancho, Anna Marcé-Grau, Jorge Hernández-Vara, Alejandra Darling, Alison Jenkins, Sandra Fernández-Rodríguez, Cristina Tello, Laura Ramírez-Jiménez, Belén Pérez, Ángel Sánchez-Montáñez, Alfons Macaya, María J Sobrido, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Carmen Espinós
FBXO7 is implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and parkin-mediated mitophagy. FBXO7defects cause a levodopa-responsive parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome(PPS). METHODS: We investigated the disease molecular bases in a child with PPS and brain iron accumulation. RESULTS: A novel homozygous c.368C>G (p.S123*) FBXO7 mutation was identified in a child with spastic paraplegia, epilepsy, cerebellar degeneration, levodopa nonresponsive parkinsonism, and brain iron deposition...
August 6, 2020: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
David A Lovejoy, David W Hogg
Affective disorders arise in stressful situations from aberrant sensory information integration that affects energetic nutrient (i.e., glucose) utilization to the cognitive centers of the brain. Because energy flow is mediated by molecular signals and receptors that evolved before the first complex brains, the phylogenetically oldest signaling systems are essential in the etiology of affective disorders. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide subfamily is a phylogenetically old metazoan peptide family and is pivotal for regulating organismal energy response associated with stress...
August 7, 2020: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Dunhui Li, Frank L Mastaglia, Sue Fletcher, Steve D Wilton
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders that manifest various motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although currently available therapies can alleviate some of the symptoms, the disease continues to progress, leading eventually to severe motor and cognitive decline and reduced life expectancy. The past two decades have witnessed rapid progress in our understanding of the molecular and genetic pathogenesis of the disease, paving the way for the development of new therapeutic approaches to arrest or delay the neurodegenerative process...
August 6, 2020: Medicinal Research Reviews
Kenichi Matsuyama, Yasuji Yamamoto, Ichiro Sora
AIM: Many researchers argue that Alzheimer's disease is at least partly caused by deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. Ferulic acid (FA) and Angelica archangelica (AA) are candidate agents for reducing Aβ and improving cognitive function. Feru-guard 100M is a supplement containing FA and AA extract. Using this supplement, we planned to assess the effect of FA and AA on Aβ deposition in the human brain. METHODS: This was an open-label, interventional multi-institutional joint study of Kobe University and the Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation (Kobe, Japan)...
August 6, 2020: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Chau Vu, Yaqiong Chai, Julie Coloigner, Aart J Nederveen, Matthew Borzage, Adam Bush, John C Wood
PURPOSE: Gadolinium-based dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) is commonly used to characterize blood flow in patients with stroke and brain tumors. Unfortunately, gadolinium contrast administration has been associated with adverse reactions and long-term accumulation in tissues. In this work, we propose an alternative deoxygenation-based DSC (dDSC) method that uses a transient hypoxia gas paradigm to deliver a bolus of paramagnetic deoxygenated hemoglobin to the cerebral vasculature for perfusion imaging...
July 27, 2020: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Brian A Darlow, Lianne J Woodward, Karelia J Levin, Tracy Melzer, L John Horwood
AIM: To determine IQ at 26 to 30 years in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) adults compared with term-born controls; and to examine the stability of IQ in VLBW individuals between 7 to 8 years and 26 to 30 years, identify perinatal and social predictors of IQ, and assess the contribution of brain volume to IQ. METHOD: At 26 to 30 years, 229 VLBW adults (71% survivors of prospectively enrolled national cohort) and 100 term-born controls were tested on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence...
August 7, 2020: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
D M Maric, V Papic, M Radomir, I Stanojevic, I Sokolovac, K Milosavljevic, D L Maric, D Abazovic
OBJECTIVE: Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex brain disorder and has multiple causes that occur in diverse combinations. There is a need to classify children with ASD at a very young age so that they can access evidence-based intervention that can significantly improve their outcomes. CASE REPORT: In this report we present a case of autism, which underwent intrathecal autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation along with neurorehabilitation. The primary goal of the treatment is to improve the quality of life of the patient...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Pavel Goldstein, Yoni Ashar, Jonas Tesarz, Mehmet Kazgan, Burak Cetin, Tor D Wager
Depression and anxiety co-occur with chronic pain, and all three are thought to be caused by dysregulation of shared brain systems related to emotional processing associated with body sensations. Understanding the connection between emotional states, pain, and bodily sensations may help understand chronic pain conditions. We developed a mobile platform for measuring pain, emotions, and associated bodily feelings in chronic pain patients in their daily life conditions. Sixty-five chronic back pain patients reported the intensity of their pain, 11 emotional states, and the corresponding body locations...
August 7, 2020: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Tracy d'Arbeloff
An aging global population and accompanying increases in the prevalence of age-related disorders are leading to greater financial, social, and health burdens. Aging-related dementias are one such category of age-related disorders that are associated with progressive loss of physical and cognitive integrity. One proposed preventative measure against risk of aging-related dementia is improving cardiovascular fitness, which may help reverse or buffer age-related brain atrophy associated with worse aging-related outcomes and cognitive decline...
August 7, 2020: GeroScience
E B Engler-Chiurazzi, K L Monaghan, E C K Wan, X Ren
As mitigation of brain aging continues to be a key public health priority, a wholistic and comprehensive consideration of the aging body has identified immunosenescence as a potential contributor to age-related brain injury and disease. Importantly, the nervous and immune systems engage in bidirectional communication and can exert profound influence on each other. Emerging evidence supports numerous impacts of innate, inflammatory immune responses and adaptive T cell-mediated immunity in neurological function and diseased or injured brain states, such as stroke...
August 7, 2020: GeroScience
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