Sarah Ibrahim, Gabriela S F Monaco, Emily K Sims
The link between COVID-19 infection and diabetes has been explored in several studies since the start of the pandemic, with associations between comorbid diabetes and poorer prognosis in patients infected with the virus and reports of diabetic ketoacidosis occurring with COVID-19 infection. As such, significant interest has been generated surrounding mechanisms by which the virus may exert effects on the pancreatic β cells. In this review, we consider possible routes by which SARS-CoV-2 may impact β cells...
May 10, 2021: Islets
Ping Nie, Yan Lou, Yali Wang, Xue Bai, Li Zhang, Shan Jiang, Bing Li, Ping Luo
PURPOSE: To identify the clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and prognosis of kidney disease in a large cohort of elderly patients from Northeast China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the renal disease spectrum in 7,122 patients who underwent renal biopsies at the Second Hospital of Jilin University from 2006 to 2020. Patients were grouped according to age: below 60 years (non-elderly group, n  = 5923) and at least 60 years (elderly group, n  = 1199)...
December 2021: Renal Failure
Hakan Gölaç, Güzide Atalik, Alper Kutalmış Türkcan, Metin Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: As the duration of diabetes progresses, various disease related complications might occur in patients. The main goal of this paper is to compare acoustic and aerodynamic measures of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a control group of healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 91 subjects, 51 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM group) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV group) were participated in the study. Maximum phonation time (MPT) was captured for assessing phonatory mechanics...
May 10, 2021: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
Zhihao Xu, Qinzhi Wang, Ruixia Li, Hui Zhangsun, Mengna Dong, Li Wang
As glucose (Glu) is an essential substance for metabolism as well as a symbol to diagnose diabetes, the demand of Glu sensors has increased significantly in recent decades. In this work, a hierarchical Ni-based electrochemical enzyme-free Glu sensor, namely, NiSe2 /CNR (carbon nanorod), was engineered through a facile thermal treatment using dimethylglyoxime dinickel salt with selenium (Se) powder. The prepared NiSe2 /CNR not only subtly introduces a hierarchical structure with rod-like carbon nanorods and rock-like NiSe2 nanoparticles, which are extremely helpful in offering a greater catalytic activity area and more catalytic active sites, but also incorporates the Se element to increase the inherent activity...
May 10, 2021: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Magdalena Pasarica
Insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), and hybrid closed-loop insulin pumps with CGMs are available for the management of type 1 diabetes in patients of all ages and type 2 diabetes in patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin. These devices have numerous benefits for patients, including improved diabetes control, fewer hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis events, and improved quality of life. Currently, there are seven insulin pumps on the US market, five CGMs, and four closed-loop systems...
May 2021: FP Essentials
Erin St Onge
For most patients with type 2 diabetes, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends an A1c goal of less than 7%. However, this goal may be adjusted depending on certain patient factors. Metformin should be used as a first-line treatment in all patients with type 2 diabetes unless contraindicated. Add-on treatment with a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist should be considered in patients who have or are at high risk of cardiovascular disease and in patients with kidney disease...
May 2021: FP Essentials
Ernestine Lee
From 2013-2016, 34.5% of US adults had prediabetes. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening all adults ages 40 to 70 years with overweight or obesity for abnormal blood glucose, and screening for gestational diabetes in pregnant women after 24 weeks. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening all patients older than 45 years for prediabetes and diabetes, and screening earlier for patients with risk factors. Screening in younger patients is based on risk factors...
May 2021: FP Essentials
Magdalena Pasarica, Erin St Onge, Ernestine Lee
Type 1 diabetes is defined as a state of hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%. A family history of diabetes and a personal history of conditions associated with type 1 diabetes (ie, autoimmune diseases) increase the risk. Currently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening asymptomatic patients for type 1 diabetes autoimmune markers in the context of clinical research trials...
May 2021: FP Essentials
Karl T Rew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2021: FP Essentials
Q A Drmosh, Ibrahim Olanrewaju Alade, Mohammad Qamar, Sheikh Akbar
Acetone is one of the toxic, explosive, and harmful gases. It may cause several health hazard issues such as narcosis, headache, etc. Acetone is also regarded as a key biomarker gas to diagnose several diseases as well as monitor the disorders in human health. Based on clinical findings, acetone concentration in human breath is correlated with many diseases such as asthma, halitosis, lung cancer, and diabetes. Thus, its investigation can become a new approach for health monitoring. Better management in the early stages of such diseases has the potential not to reduce deaths associated with the disease but also reduce medical costs...
May 10, 2021: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Subholakshmi Choudhury, Nidhi Surendran, Amitava Das
Skin regeneration has been a challenging clinical problem especially in cases of chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, and epidermolysis bullosa-related skin blisters. Prolonged non-healing wounds often lead to bacterial infections increasing the severity of wounds. Current treatment strategies for chronic wounds include debridement of wounds along with antibiotics, growth factors, and stem cell transplantation therapies. However, the compromised nature of autologous stem cells in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes limits the efficacy of the therapy...
May 10, 2021: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Zofia M Kułaczkowska, Marta Wróbel, Dominika Rokicka, Mariusz Gąsior, Krzysztof Strojek
Diabetes mellitus is a major, global problem. Among the numerous complications of diabetes, there is increasing concern over the coexisting heart failure. Metformin is the most frequently used oral antidiabetic drug that is considered to be safe and effective in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since the publication of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, it has been suggested that metformin might improve cardiovascular prognoses. Results from available studies have shown that metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure was associated with improved clinical outcomes when compared with other oral antidiabetic agents, insulin, or lifestyle management...
2021: Endokrynologia Polska
Edyta Cichocka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: Endokrynologia Polska
Cong Li, Shibo Lin, Hui Liang
Single-anastomosis duodenal switch (SADS) has become increasingly popular. This review compared the conceptual difference between Eastern (SADS-E) and Western (SADS-W) countries. After searching for SADS through PubMed and high-impact journals, 19 articles with 2280 patients were included for analysis. We found SADS-W was reserved for patients with a high body mass index (BMI) without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Surgeons performing SADS-W used larger bougies and preferred shorter common channels. However, SADS-E was mainly preferred in T2DM patients with a low BMI...
May 10, 2021: Obesity Surgery
Dominic Salamone, Angela Albarosa Rivellese, Claudia Vetrani
Gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence multiple physiological mechanisms related to human health. Among microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are modulators of different metabolic pathways. On the other hand, several studies suggested that diet might influence gut microbiota composition and activity thus modulating the risk of metabolic disease, i.e. obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Among dietary component, dietary fibre may play a pivotal role by virtue of its prebiotic effect on fibre-fermenting bacteria, that may increase SCFA production...
May 10, 2021: Acta Diabetologica
Yingying Yang, Isabelle Le Ray, Jing Zhu, Jun Zhang, Jing Hua, Marie Reilly
Importance: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within-country studies have reported racial differences in the presentation and outcome, but little is known about differences between countries. Objective: To compare preeclampsia prevalence, risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes between the Swedish and Chinese populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study compared deliveries from the Swedish national Medical Birth Register (2007-2012) and the China Labor and Delivery Survey (2015-2016)...
May 3, 2021: JAMA Network Open
Ilse F Badenbroek, Markus M J Nielen, Monika Hollander, Daphne M Stol, Niek J de Wit, François G Schellevis
BACKGROUND: A high response rate is an important condition for effective prevention programs. We aimed at gaining insight into the characteristics and motives of non-responders in different stages of a stepwise prevention program for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) in primary care. METHODS: We performed a non-response analysis within a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a stepwise CMD prevention program in the Netherlands. Patients between 45 and 70 years without known CMD were invited for stage 1 of the program, completing a CMD risk score...
May 10, 2021: European Journal of Public Health
Salil Deo, Varun Sundaram, Muhammad Adil Sheikh, Jayakumar Sahadevan, Padmini Selvaganesan, Sri Krishna Madan Mohan, Joseph Rubelowsky, Yakov Elgudin, Richard Josephson, Piroze M Davierwala, Brian Cmolik
OBJECTIVES: We analysed the Veteran Affairs data to evaluate the association of pre-operative glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and long-term outcome after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Veterans with diabetes mellitus and isolated CABG (2006-2018) were divided into 4 groups (I: HbA1c <6.5%, II: HbA1c 6.5-8, III 8-10% and IV: HbA1c >10%). The relationship of pre-operative HbA1c and long-term survival was evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and reported as hazard ratios (HR)...
May 10, 2021: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Dana A Abdelgadir, Laurie M Rodriguez, Maruta A Blatchins, Pranita Mishra, Anjali Gopalan, Richard W Grant
INTRODUCTION: The primary care visit is an important opportunity to discuss and modify diabetes management. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into doctor-patient communication during primary care visits among English and Spanish speaking patients with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c > 7%). METHODS: We conducted a quantitative content analysis of audiotaped primary care visits in 2 patient cohorts. In Study 1 (31 English-speaking patients), we examined factors associated with management changes, and in Study 2 (20 Spanish-speaking patients and their Spanish-speaking providers), we examined the association of question asking with HbA1c control...
May 2021: Permanente Journal
Hanul Choi, Leigh-Anh Nguyen, Jenny Wan, Hooman Milani, Kristine McGill, Jong Park
BACKGROUND: The renal benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2) are now well established, and these agents are recommended by the American Diabetes Association and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. However, the safety profile of SGLT2 inhibitors in chronic kidney disease is not as clear. We describe the adverse event rates of SGLT2 inhibitors, primarily empagliflozin, in Kaiser Permanente Southern California members with diabetic kidney disease...
May 2021: Permanente Journal
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