Jung Ha Park, Ji Hyun Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Mi Hee Kong, Yun Hwan Oh
One-third of the global population aged 15 years and older engages in insufficient physical activities, which affects health. However, the health risks posed by sedentary behaviors are not well known. The mean daily duration of sedentary behavior is 8.3 hours among the Korean population and 7.7 hours among the American adult population. Sedentary lifestyles are spreading worldwide because of a lack of available spaces for exercise, increased occupational sedentary behaviors such as office work, and the increased penetration of television and video devices...
November 2020: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Norbert Leško, Milan Maretta, Matej Škorvánek, Mária Frankovičová, Vladimír Sihotský, Ľubomír Špak, Zuzana Gdovinová
AIM: The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of CEA and CAS in patients with carotid artery stenosis, and their effect on long-term mortality and morbidity, as well as to identify predictors of long-term mortality in a single-centre observational study. CLINICAL RATIONALE: While data on short-term morbidity and mortality after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid stenting (CAS) is robust, there is only a limited amount of literature on long-term mortality and its predictors five years-plus post these procedures...
November 26, 2020: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Essam M Abdelalim
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia as a result of progressive loss of pancreatic β cells, which could lead to several debilitating complications. Different paths, triggered by several genetic and environmental factors, lead to the loss of pancreatic β cells and/or function. Understanding these many paths to β cell damage or dysfunction could help in identifying therapeutic approaches specific for each path. Most of our knowledge about diabetes pathophysiology has been obtained from studies on animal models, which do not fully recapitulate human diabetes phenotypes...
November 26, 2020: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Andrej Zeyfang, Joachim Zeeh, Anke Bahrmann, Janine N Kugler, Hans Jürgen Heppner
In the treatment of diabetes in old age cognitive, functional and constitutional resources of the individual must be taken into account. Purely glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-oriented treatment goals are less relevant. The primary focus should be freedom from symptoms while avoiding hypoglycemia and maintaining the quality of life. The geriatric assessment helps to clarify the current functional, psychological and cognitive status as well as the need for support in multimorbid older people and to define appropriate treatment strategies...
November 26, 2020: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Xiaobo Hu, Cong Hu, Jun Liu, Zhuan Wu, Tingting Duan, Zhaohui Cao
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in pancreatic β cell destruction which leads to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Vitamin D (VD) has been reported to reduce the risk of T1DM; however, it remains unknown whether VD affects ER stress in pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated the role of the active form of VD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3), in ER stress-induced β cell apoptosis and explored its potential mechanism in mouse insulinoma cell line mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6)...
November 26, 2020: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Karim Gariani, Truong-Thanh Pham, Benjamin Kressmann, François R Jornayvaz, Giacomo Gastaldi, Dimitrios Stafylakis, Jacques Philippe, Benjamin A Lipsky, İlker Uçkay
BACKGROUND: In patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) who underwent surgical debridement, we investigated whether a short (3 weeks), compared with a long (6 weeks) duration of systemic antibiotic treatment is associated with non-inferior results for clinical remission and adverse events (AE). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, non-inferiority, pilot trial, we randomized (allocation 1:1), patients with DFO after surgical debridement to either a 3-week or a 6-week course of antibiotic therapy...
November 26, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Siao-Ling Fan, Jer-An Lin, Sheng-Yi Chen, Jia-Hong Lin, Hsin-Tang Lin, Ying-Yin Chen, Gow-Chin Yen
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Hemsl.) and its polysaccharides on impaired wound healing in diabetes. The results indicate that ethanol extracts of Hsian-tsao (EE) and crude polysaccharides from water extracts of Hsian-tsao (WEP) had strong inhibitory effects on methylglyoxal (MG)-induced glycation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. EE and WEP also decreased MG-induced inflammation-related factors in RAW 264.7 macrophages and restored MG-impaired wound-healing factors in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts...
November 26, 2020: Food & Function
Yu Mi Jo, Hee Seo, Ga Yun Kim, Seong Won Cheon, Seul-Ah Kim, Tae Soon Park, Byung-Serk Hurh, Nam Soo Han
Fermenting garlic and onion provides the advantages of storage life extension, anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic activities, and their metabolite, allyl mercaptan, offers a strong aroma and various health benefits. Here, we report the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus SMB718 isolated from Korean traditional paste and its high allyl mercaptan productivity in garlic and onion fermentation. This strain was safe for use in food fermentation, as it was a non-biogenic amine producer and non-hemolytic...
November 26, 2020: Food & Function
Williams Bell Ngan, Lawrence Essama Eno Belinga, Alain Serges Patrick Essam Nlo'o, Frederic Roche, Luc Goethals, Samuel Honoré Mandengue, Bienvenu Bongue
BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. They were responsible for 40 million of the 57 million deaths recorded worldwide in 2016. In Cameroon, epidemiological studies have been devoted to NCDs and their risk factors. However, none provides specific information on their extent or the distribution of their risk factors within the Cameroonian defense forces. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the cardiovascular risk of a Cameroonian military population compared with that of its neighboring civilian population...
November 26, 2020: JMIR Formative Research
Émilie Brenaut
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease that starts before the age of 40 years in 3/4 cases. Pregnancy in a couple where one of the future parents has psoriasis is therefore a frequent situation that the dermatologist may encounter and must anticipate. Contraception should be systematically discussed with psoriatic patients of childbearing age, as it is mandatory with certain treatments (as methotrexate or acitretin). Information for psoriatic women planning to become pregnant seems insufficient. Patients get a lot of information on the internet, with the risk of getting wrong information...
October 1, 2020: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Xue-Qi Liu, Ling Jiang, Lei Lei, Zhen-Yong Nie, Wei Zhu, Sheng Wang, Han-Xu Zeng, Shi-Qi Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Benito Yard, Yong-Gui Wu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and the main cause of end-stage nephropathy (ESRD). Inflammation and fibrosis play key roles in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. By using in vivo and in vitro DN models, our laboratory has identified the protective role of carnosine (CAR) on renal tubules. Our results showed that carnosine restored the onset and clinical symptoms as well as renal tubular injury in DN. Furthermore, carnosine decreased kidney inflammation and fibrosis in DN mice...
November 26, 2020: Clinical Science (1979-)
Hozan Mufty, Sabrina Houthoofd, Kim Daenens, Inge Fourneau
INTRODUCTION: Omniflow II is promoted as an infection-resistant vascular graft. It is used to treat vascular graft infection; nevertheless, early graft infection has been reported.Report: A 71-year-old patient was treated with an Omniflow II bypass for a non-healing diabetic foot ulcer. Seven months postoperatively, late infection occurred secondary to hematogenous spread from a persistent foot infection. CONCLUSION: We report on the first case of late infection of an Omniflow II vascular graft caused by hematogenous spread...
November 26, 2020: Vascular
Jennifer Schindler-Ruwisch, Abby Peters
Access to high-quality mhealth tools for diabetes management is critical. The purpose was to systematically review mobile apps for features relevant to helping emerging adults manage their diabetes as they transition to independent diabetes monitoring. Mobile apps were reviewed for relevance to emerging adults, aged 18-25, living with diabetes. The GooglePlay store was systematically searched to identify diabetes management mobile tools. Of the 29 apps, only one app had any features relevant to emerging adults...
November 26, 2020: Informatics for Health & Social Care
Junqiu Zhai, Zhanlun Ou, Liuting Zhong, Yu-E Wang, Li-Ping Cao, Shixia Guan
The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide (EXT) is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. However, this peptide has a short biological half-life and the delayed release characteristic of current formulations limit its clinical application. Herein, we prepared EXT-loaded inside-porous poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with outside layers (EXT-PMS) using a W1 /O/W2 emulsion method with a microfluidic technique and its fabrication and formulation conditions were systematically investigated...
November 18, 2020: Drug Delivery
Matshediso Zachariah, Hatem Maamoun, Larissa Milano, Margaret P Rayman, Lisiane B Meira, Abdelali Agouni
Selenium is an essential trace element important for human health. A balanced intake is, however, crucial to maximize the health benefits of selenium. At physiological concentrations, selenium mediates antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival actions. However, supra-nutritional selenium intake was associated with increased diabetes risk leading potentially to endothelial dysfunction, the initiating step in atherosclerosis. High selenium causes apoptosis in cancer cells via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a mechanism also implicated in endothelial dysfunction...
November 25, 2020: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Eiji Kutoh, Alexandra N Kuto, Askuka Wada, Jyunka Hayashi, Rumi Kurihara
The aim of this study is to investigate whether sitagliptin can be used as an initial drug for T2DM and to evaluate its effects on metabolic parameters in relation to its glycemic efficacies. The subjects received 25-50 mg/day sitagliptin monotherapy (n=69). At 3 months, they were divided into three groups (n=23 each) according to the novel parameter called "A1c index" which is designed to assess glycemic efficacy. The metabolic parameters were compared between good-responders and poor-responders...
November 25, 2020: Drug Research
Ruju Vashi, Bhoomika M Patel
Heart failure is a worldwide pandemic influencing 26 million individuals worldwide and is expanding. Imbalanced redox homeostasis in cardiac cells alters the structure and function of the cells, which leads to contractile dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis in chronic heart failure. Various targets and agents acting on these such as siRNA, miRNA, interleukin-1, opioids, vasodilators, and SGLT2 inhibitors are being evaluated for heart failure, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is one of them...
November 25, 2020: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Martin H Lundqvist, Kristina Almby, Urban Wiklund, Niclas Abrahamsson, Prasad G Kamble, Maria J Pereira, Jan W Eriksson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Results from animal models and some clinical work suggest a role for the central nervous system (CNS) in glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis by modulation of glucoregulatory hormones and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The aim of this study was to characterise the neuroendocrine response to various glucose concentrations in overweight and insulin-resistant individuals compared with lean individuals. METHODS: Overweight/obese (HI, n = 15, BMI ≥27...
November 26, 2020: Diabetologia
Hiroko Yamaguchi, Mime Nagai, Hikari Sugawa, Hisataka Yasuda, Ryoji Nagai
Methylglyoxal (MGO) produced during glycolysis is known to react with arginine residues on proteins to generate advanced glycation end products, such as Nδ -(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolone-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1). Since the production of MGO is increased during hyperglycemia or metabolic disorders in vivo, it is considered that the measurement of MG-H1 is useful for evaluating abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, we prepared a monoclonal antibody against MG-H1 to develop a conventional measurement system for MG-H1...
November 25, 2020: Glycoconjugate Journal
Maya S Eissa, Eman Darweish, Mohammed R Elghobashy, Mostafa A Shehata
BACKGROUND: Mitiglinide (MTG) is one of meglitinides group which are used for treatment of type two diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: Mitiglinide (MTG) is a novel oral hypoglycemic drug. The present work adopts two stability-indicating chromatographic methods for determination of MTG after being exposed to forced degradation using 4 M methanolic HCl for 12 h. METHODS: The first method is HPTLC/densitometry using methanol:chloroform:acetic acid (5:2...
June 1, 2020: Journal of AOAC International
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