Prabashni Manickum, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson, Rasmika Naidoo, Serela Ramklass, Thandinkosi Madiba
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This review aims to systematically map global evidence on foot-care knowledge and practices in relation to diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify areas that need further research. METHODS: Database searches were undertaken using Google Scholar, Medline (PubMed), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost), and Medline (EBSCOhost). Studies were initially sought by title and focused on knowledge of diabetic foot ulcer burden. The framework by Arksey and O'Malley and the PRISMA-SCR guidelines were used to guide the methodology...
March 31, 2021: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Iis Inayati Rakhmat, Yudith Yunia Kusmala, Dewi Ratih Handayani, Henny Juliastuti, Eka Noneng Nawangsih, Arief Wibowo, Michael Anthonius Lim, Raymond Pranata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use...
April 1, 2021: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Xiangtong Liu, Zhiwei Li, Moning Guo, Jie Zhang, Lixin Tao, Xiaolin Xu, Aklilu Deginet, Feng Lu, Yanxia Luo, Mengmeng Liu, Mengyang Liu, Yue Sun, Haibin Li, Xiuhua Guo
BACKGROUND: The health effect of particulate matter pollution on stroke has been widely examined; however, the effect among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D) in developing countries has remained largely unknown. METHODS: A time-series study was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and inhalable particulate matter (PM10 ) on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with T2D in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018...
April 7, 2021: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hsiu-Chung Cheng, Tsung-Kun Chang, Wei-Chih Su, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Jaw-Yuan Wang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia have been shown to have significant effects on the incidence, chemoresistance, and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as the outcomes of localized and metastatic CRC. Inflammation and endocrine effects may act as central mechanisms of DM and cancer and stimulate the insulin-like growth factor 1-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (IGF-1-PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway. Dysregulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway leads to metabolic imbalance and indicates cancer risk...
April 7, 2021: Translational Oncology
Zi Yang, Jingyi Mi, Yu Wang, Lamei Xue, Jinxin Liu, Mingcong Fan, Duo Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: With the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, it is urgent to find a suitable treatment. Recently, the ketogenic diet has shown beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose, but some concerns have been raised about its probable side effects, such as hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Because a low-carbohydrate diet replaces part of the fat with carbohydrates on the basis of the ketogenic diet, we would like to know whether it does better in treating type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of a low-carbohydrate diet as a substitute for a ketogenic diet intervention in mice with type 2 diabetes...
March 4, 2021: Nutrition
Bo Wang, Zhaoqian Su, Yinghao Wu
The cellular functions of proteins are maintained by forming diverse complexes. The stability of these complexes is quantified by the measurement of binding affinity, while mutations that alter the binding affinity can cause various diseases such as cancer and diabetes. As a result, the accurate estimation of binding stability and the effects of mutations on changes of binding affinity is a crucial step to understanding the biological functions of proteins and their dysfunctional consequences. Based on the hypothesis that the stability of protein complexes is dependent on both the pairwise interactions of residues at its binding interface and all other remaining residues that do not appear at the binding interface, here we computationally reconstruct the binding affinity by decomposing it into the contribution of interfacial residues and the energetic component of other non-interface residues in a protein complex...
April 7, 2021: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Bo Yu, Mengran Xiao, Fuhua Yang, Jing Xiao, Hui Zhang, Lin Su, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaorong Li
Early diagnosis and precise monitoring of the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) can significantly improve therapeutic strategies and help decrease blindness caused by it. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were recently found to be involved in intercellular communications and are a potential source for the discovery of novel biomarkers. The current study aims to investigate the effectiveness of microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in small EVs (sEVs) as minimally invasive biomarkers for PDR. SEVs were extracted from plasma of healthy subjects, diabetic patients, nonPDR patients and PDR patients...
April 7, 2021: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sarah DeLozier, Lisa Bastarache, Sarah Bland, Melissa McPheeters, Quinn Wells, Eric Farber-Eger, Cosmin A Bejan, Daniel Fabbri, Trent Rosenbloom, Dan Roden, Kevin B Johnson, Wei-Qi Wei, Josh Peterson
From the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have looked to electronic health record (EHR) data as a way to study possible risk factors and outcomes. To ensure the validity and accuracy of research using these data, investigators need to be confident that the phenotypes they construct are reliable and accurate, reflecting the healthcare settings from which they are ascertained. We developed a COVID-19 registry at a single academic medical center and used data from March 1 to June 5, 2020 to assess differences in population-level characteristics in pandemic and non-pandemic years respectively...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Yongze Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
OBJECTIVE: Mandatory universal salt iodization in China was implemented 20 years ago; however, the current iodine status and prevalence of thyroid disorders among childbearing-age women are unknown. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional study with 26166 enrolled participants aged 18 to 49 years from all 31 provincial regions of mainland China was performed. The participants were given a questionnaire and underwent B-mode ultrasonography of the thyroid...
April 7, 2021: Endocrine Practice
Saikat Dewanjee, Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu, Rajkumar Singh Kalra, Albin John, P Hemachandra Reddy, Ramesh Kandimalla
Association of diabetes with an elevated risk of cardiac failure has been clinically evident. Diabetes potentiates diastolic and systolic cardiac failure following the myocardial infarction that produces the cardiac muscle-specific microvascular complication, clinically termed as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated susceptibility of diabetic cardiomyopathy is primarily caused by the generation of free radicals in the hyperglycemic milieu, compromising the myocardial contractility and normal cardiac functions with increasing redox insult, impaired mitochondria, damaged organelles, apoptosis, and cardiomyocytes fibrosis...
April 7, 2021: Ageing Research Reviews
Pham Vu Thuy, Nguyen Thi Thuy Dung, Truong Quy Kien, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Van Duc, Diem Thi Van, Do Manh Ha, Do Quyet, Tran Viet Tien, Do Nhu Binh, Pham Quoc Toan, Can Van Mao, Le Viet Thang
BACKGROUND: To assess the incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) for the first year post-transplantation and the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) before transplantation for NODAT prediction in kidney transplantation patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study of 251 consecutive adult end-stage kidney disease patients transplanted kidneys from living donors, follow-up during the first year to find NODAT. We diagnosed NODAT based on blood glucose or HbA1c following to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association...
April 7, 2021: Transplant Immunology
Manisha J Oza, Ankit P Laddha, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad, Shrikant R Mulay, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Insufficient insulin secretion and insulin action are two major causes for the development of diabetes, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood glucose level. Diet and sedentary life style play pivotal role in development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Dietary modification is associated with a reprogramming of nutrient intake, which are proven to be effective for the management of diabetes and associated complications...
April 7, 2021: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Li Zhu, Xuling Luo, Nian Fu, Linxi Chen
Mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) is a mitochondria stress response to maintain mitochondrial proteostasis during stress. Increasing evidence suggests that mitoUPR participates in diverse physiological processes especially metabolism and immunity. Although mitoUPR regulates metabolism in many aspects, it is mainly reflected in the regulation of energy metabolism. During stress, mitoUPR alters energy metabolism via suppressing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or increasing glycolysis. MitoUPR also alters energy metabolism and regulates diverse metabolic diseases such as diabetes, cancers, fatty liver and obesity...
April 7, 2021: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Prue Cowled, Margaret Boult, Mary Barnes, Robert A Fitridge
OBJECTIVES: Risk assessment models must be continuously validated and updated to ensure that predictions remain valid. Here, the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Risk Assessment Model, developed in 2008, is updated and improved. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from Australian patients who underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair between 2009 and 2013 (n=695). Data were provided by treating surgeons and the National Death Index. Key outcomes were early and mid-term survival, early complications (endoleak, operative, and graft-related) and late complications (endoleak and graft-related)...
April 7, 2021: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Ahsan Zil-E-Ali, Daniela Medina, Esther Sue Choi, Krishna Patel, Faisal Aziz
INTRODUCTION: Following a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedure, patients are discharged to their homes or other locations than home such as an acute care facility or skilled nursing facility based on their functional status and level of medical attention needed. Decision-making for discharge destination following a CEA to home or non-home locations is important due to the differences in survival and post-operative complications. While primary outcomes such as mortality and occurrence of stroke following CEA have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of information characterizing outcomes of discharge destination and the factors associated...
April 7, 2021: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jacaline K Parkman, Kristiana Sklioutovskaya-Lopez, Kalhara R Menikdiwela, Logan Freeman, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Jung Han Kim
Obesogenic and diabetogenic high fat (HF) diets can influence genetic factors in disease development with sexual dimorphic responses. We investigated potential protective effects of tart cherry (TC), fish oil (FO) and TC+FO supplementation in TALLYHO/Jng (TH) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice fed HF diets. Male and female TH and B6 mice were weaned onto five different diets; low fat (LF), HF, and HF supplemented with TC, FO, or TC+FO and maintained. For both males and females on LF, TH mice were heavier and fatter than B6, which was accentuated by HF in males, but not in females...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
I Castan-Laurell, C Dray, P Valet
Apelin, a peptide with several active isoforms ranging from 36 to 12 amino acids and its receptor APJ, a G-protein-coupled receptor, are widely distributed. However, apelin has emerged as an adipokine more than fifteen years ago, integrating the field of inter-organs interactions. The apelin/APJ system plays important roles in several physiological functions both in rodent and humans such as fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular physiology, angiogenesis, energy metabolism. Thus the apelin/APJ system has generated great interest as a potential therapeutic target in different pathologies...
April 7, 2021: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Shanshan Gou, Lu Qiu, Qiufang Yang, Peng Li, Xiaowen Zhou, Yixuan Sun, Xiuman Zhou, Wenshan Zhao, Wenjie Zhai, Guodong Li, Yahong Wu, Yonggang Ren, Yuanming Qi, Yiguo Zhang, Yanfeng Gao
Metformin, as the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been shown to possess a capability to activate or inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different ways. However, the detailed mechanisms of the opposite effect are poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that metformin induces accumulation of ROS by inhibiting the expression of a core antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1/Nrf1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells...
April 7, 2021: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xuexun Li, Qian Zhang, Lingming Zhu, Guangqiang Wang, Peipei Ge, Aizhen Hu, Xuerong Sun
AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), initially introduced for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), demonstrates cardiovascular and renal benefits in patients with heart failure (HF). We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of its effects on cardiovascular, renal, and major safety outcomes in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched using the terms of "SGLT2i and HF" or "SGLT2i *"...
April 7, 2021: International Journal of Cardiology
Ravi Retnakaran
By making it possible for women with diabetes to achieve their family planning goals, the discovery of insulin ushered in the field of diabetes in pregnancy. The ensuing century has witnessed tremendous advances, with clinical focus on preconception planning and maternal glycemic control making successful pregnancy an achievable goal. Currently, the global epidemic of overweight/obesity has led to maternal hyperglycemia now affecting one in every six pregnancies worldwide, prompting intense research interest...
April 7, 2021: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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