Lucero Romero-Aguilar, Christian Cárdenas-Monroy, Verónica Garrido-Bazán, Jesus Aguirre, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez, Juan Pablo Pardo
The alternative oxidase (AOX) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to oxygen without the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This enzyme has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, sporulation, yeast-mycelium transition, resistance to reactive oxygen species, infection, and production of secondary metabolites. Two approaches have been used to evaluate AOX function: incubation of cells for long periods of time with AOX inhibitors or deletion of AOX gene...
September 25, 2020: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
An N T Phan, Lars M Blank
Ustilago maydis , a smut fungus, is an appealing model in fundamental research and an upcoming cell factory for industrial biotechnology. The genome of U. maydis has been sequenced and some synthesis pathways were biochemically described; however, the operation of the cellular metabolic network is not well-characterized. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive study to optimize the sample preparation procedure for metabolomics of U. maydis using GC-MS/MS. Due to the unique characteristics of U. maydis cell culture, two quenching solutions, different washing steps, eight extraction methods, and three derivatization conditions have been examined...
2020: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Cinthia V Soberanes-Gutiérrez, Claudia León-Ramírez, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Emmanuel Cordero-Martínez, Julio C Vega-Arreguín, José Ruiz-Herrera
Ustilago maydis is a Basidiomycota fungus, in which very little is known about its mechanisms of cell survival and death. To date, only the role of metacaspase1, acetate, and hydrogen peroxide as inducers of cell death has been investigated. In the present work, we analyzed the lifespan of U. maydis compared with other species like Sporisorium reilianum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica, and we observed that U.maydis has a minor lifespan. We probe the addition of low concentrations metformin and curcumin to the culture media, and we observed that both prolonged the lifespan of U...
September 18, 2020: FEMS Yeast Research
Rajdeep Jaswal, Sivasubramanian Rajarammohan, Himanshu Dubey, T R Sharma
The rust pathogens are one of the most complex fungi in the Basidiomycetes. The development of genomic resources for rust and other plant pathogens has opened the opportunities for functional genomics of fungal genes. Despite significant progress in the field of fungal genomics, functional characterization of the genome components has lacked, especially for the rust pathogens. Their obligate nature and lack of standard stable transformation protocol are the primary reasons for rusts to be one of the least explored genera despite its significance...
September 14, 2020: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shelly Applen Clancey, Fiorella Ruchti, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann, Joseph Heitman, Giuseppe Ianiri
Mycoviruses infect fungi, and while most persist asymptomatically, there are examples of mycoviruses having both beneficial and detrimental effects on their host. Virus-infected Saccharomyces and Ustilago strains exhibit a killer phenotype conferring a growth advantage over uninfected strains and other competing yeast species, whereas hypovirus-infected Cryphonectria parasitica displays defects in growth, sporulation, and virulence. In this study, we identify a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus in five Malassezia species...
September 1, 2020: MBio
Jungho Lee, Fabienne Hilgers, Anita Loeschke, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Michael Feldbrügge
Sesquiterpenoids are important secondary metabolites with various pharma- and nutraceutical properties. In particular, higher basidiomycetes possess a versatile biosynthetic repertoire for these bioactive compounds. To date, only a few microbial production systems for fungal sesquiterpenoids have been established. Here, we introduce Ustilago maydis as a novel production host. This model fungus is a close relative of higher basidiomycetes. It offers the advantage of metabolic compatibility and potential tolerance for substances toxic to other microorganisms...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dibya Mukherjee, Sayandeep Gupta, Abhrajyoti Ghosh, Anupama Ghosh
Ustilago maydis genome codes for many secreted ribonucleases. The contribution of two among these belonging to the T2 family (Nuc1 and Nuc2) in the pathogen virulence, has been assessed in this study. The nuc1 and nuc2 deletion mutants showed not only reduced pathogenicity compared to the SG200 WT strain but also exhibited significant delay in the completion of the pathogenic lifecycle. Both the proteins were also tested for their nucleolytic activities towards RNA substrates from maize and yeast. This also yielded valuable insights into the ability of the ribonucleases to utilize extracellular RNA as a nutrient source...
August 26, 2020: Cellular Microbiology
Harwoko Harwoko, Jungho Lee, Rudolf Hartmann, Attila Mándi, Tibor Kurtán, Werner E G Müller, Michael Feldbrügge, Rainer Kalscheuer, Elena Ancheeva, Georgios Daletos, Marian Frank, Zhen Liu, Peter Proksch
Three new flavipin-derived alkaloids, azacoccones F-H (1-3), along with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum MK214079 associated with leaves of Salix sp. The structures of the new compounds were established by analysis of their 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) data. The absolute configuration of azacoccones F-H (1-3) was determined by comparison of experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data with reported ones and biogenetic considerations...
July 31, 2020: Fitoterapia
Michèle Reindl, Janpeter Stock, Kai P Hussnaetter, Aycin Genc, Andreas Brachmann, Kerstin Schipper
Subcellular targeting of proteins is essential to orchestrate cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. During cell division of Ustilago maydis , for example, chitinases must be specifically targeted to the fragmentation zone at the site of cell division to degrade remnant chitin and thus separate mother and daughter cells. Chitinase Cts1 is exported to this location via an unconventional secretion pathway putatively operating in a lock-type manner. The underlying mechanism is largely unexplored. Here, we applied a forward genetic screen based on UV mutagenesis to identify components essential for Cts1 export...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Domingo Martínez-Soto, Lucila Ortiz-Castellanos, Mariana Robledo-Briones, Claudia Geraldine León-Ramírez
Multicellularity is defined as the developmental process by which unicellular organisms became pluricellular during the evolution of complex organisms on Earth. This process requires the convergence of genetic, ecological, and environmental factors. In fungi, mycelial and pseudomycelium growth, snowflake phenotype (where daughter cells remain attached to their stem cells after mitosis), and fruiting bodies have been described as models of multicellular structures. Ustilaginomycetes are Basidiomycota fungi, many of which are pathogens of economically important plant species...
July 18, 2020: Microorganisms
Kofo Saromi, Philippa England, Wenhao Tang, Markus Kostrzewa, Andy Corran, Rudiger Woscholski, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus
RATIONALE: Glycosyl-Inositol-Phospho-Ceramides (GIPCs) or glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored fungal polysaccharide are known to be major lipids in plant and fungi plasma membrane and to play an important role in stresses adaption. However, their analysis remained challenging due to the several steps involved for their extractions and purifications prior to mass spectrometry analysis. To address this challenge, we developed a rapid and sensitive method to identify GIPCs from the 4 common fungi plant pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearium, Neurospora crassa and Ustilago maydis...
July 22, 2020: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Kira Müntjes, Magnus Philipp, Lisa Hüsemann, Nicole Heucken, Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters, Kerstin Schipper, Matias D Zurbriggen, Michael Feldbrügge
Eukaryotic microorganisms use monocistronic mRNAs to encode proteins. For synthetic biological approaches like metabolic engineering, precise co-expression of several proteins in space and time is advantageous. A straightforward approach is the application of viral 2A peptides to design synthetic polycistronic mRNAs in eukaryotes. During translation of these peptides the ribosome stalls, the peptide chain is released and the ribosome resumes translation. Thus, two independent polypeptide chains can be encoded from a single mRNA when a 2A peptide sequence is placed inbetween the two open reading frames...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dinushika Thambugala, Jim G Menzies, Ron E Knox, Heather L Campbell, Curt A McCartney
BACKGROUND: The genetics of resistance to loose smut of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the fungus Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr. is not well understood. This study examines loose smut resistance in Sonop (TD-14), a South African spring wheat variety. A doubled haploid (DH) population of 163 lines derived from the cross Diamont/TD-14 was studied. The parents and progenies were inoculated with U. tritici races T2, T9, and T39 individually in growth facilities at Morden and Swift Current, Canada...
July 3, 2020: BMC Plant Biology
Yafen Zhang, Yingli Hu, Qianchao Cao, Yumei Yin, Wenqiang Xia, Haifeng Cui, Xiaoping Yu, Zihong Ye
Ustilago esculenta undergoes an endophytic life cycle in Zizania latifolia . It induces the stem of its host to swell, forming the edible galls called jiaobai in China, which are the second most commonly cultivated aquatic vegetable in China. Z. latifolia raised for jiaobai can only reproduce asexually because the U. esculenta infection completely inhibits flowering. The infection and proliferation in the host plants during the formation of edible gall differ from those of conventional pathogens. Previous studies have shown a close relationship between mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and fungal pathogenesis...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jörg Kämper, Michael W Friedrich, Regine Kahmann
In many organisms two component systems have evolved to discriminate self from nonself. While the molecular function of the two components has been elucidated in several systems, the evolutionary events leading to the large number of different specificities for self/nonself recognition found in most systems remain obscure. We have investigated the variation within a multiallelic nonself recognition system in the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis by means of sequence analysis and functional studies...
June 19, 2020: New Phytologist
Muhammad Atif Irshad, Rab Nawaz, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Imran, Jamil Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Aqil Inam, Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali
The production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) by green and ecofriendly methods has received consideration during the recent past. The present study summarized the comparative production of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NPs by plant extracts of Trianthema portulacastrum (T2) and Chenopodium quinoa (T3) and by conventional chemical (sol-gel) method (T1). Synthesized TiO2 -NPs were examined by high-tech. techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transmission Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, SEM-EDS spot analysis and elemental mapping...
June 10, 2020: Chemosphere
Juan Antonio Cervantes-Montelongo, Guillermo Antonio Silva-Martínez, Raquel Pliego-Arreaga, Lorenzo Guevara-Olvera, José Ruiz-Herrera
We report the characterization of the gene UMAG_00031 from Ustilago maydis, previously identified as upregulated at alkaline pH. This gene is located on chromosome 1 and contains an ORF of 1539 bp that encodes a putative protein of 512 amino acids with an MW of 54.8 kDa. The protein is predicted to contain seven transmembrane domains (TMDs) and a signal peptide suggesting that is located in the cell membrane. Null ΔUMAG_00031 mutants were constructed, and their phenotype was analyzed. The mutant displayed a pleiotropic phenotype suggesting its participation in processes of alkaline pH adaptation independent of the Pal/Rim pathway...
June 11, 2020: Archives of Microbiology
Martin Schuster, Gero Steinberg
Early reports in the fungus Ustilago maydis suggest that the amphipathic fungicide dodine disrupts the fungal plasma membrane (PM), thereby killing this corn smut pathogen. However, a recent study in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici does not support such mode of action (MoA). Instead, dodine inhibits mitochondrial ATP-synthesis, both in Z. tritici and U. maydis. This casts doubt on an fungicidal activity of dodine at the PM. Here, we use a cell biological approach and investigate further the effect of dodine on the plasma membrane in both fungi...
May 28, 2020: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG&B
Sarah Jeffress, Kiruba Arun-Chinnappa, Ben Stodart, Niloofar Vaghefi, Yu Pei Tan, Gavin Ash
Elsinoë fawcettii, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, causes citrus scab on numerous citrus varieties around the world. Known pathotypes of E. fawcettii are based on host range; additionally, cryptic pathotypes have been reported and more novel pathotypes are thought to exist. E. fawcettii produces elsinochrome, a non-host selective toxin which contributes to virulence. However, the mechanisms involved in potential pathogen-host interactions occurring prior to the production of elsinochrome are unknown, yet the host-specificity observed among pathotypes suggests a reliance upon such mechanisms...
2020: PloS One
Marco Kremp, Elena Bittner, Domenica Martorana, Alexander Klingenberger, Thorsten Stehlik, Michael Bölker, Johannes Freitag
Proteins destined for transport to specific organelles usually contain targeting information, which are embedded in their sequence. Many enzymes are required in more than one cellular compartment and different molecular mechanisms are used to achieve dual localization. Here we report a cryptic type 2 peroxisomal targeting signal encoded in the 5' untranslated region of fungal genes coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), a key enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The conservation of the cryptic PTS2 motif suggests a biological function...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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