Wojciech Danysz, Andrzej Dekundy, Astrid Scheschonka, Peter Riederer
The aim of the current review was to provide a new, in-depth insight into possible pharmacological targets of amantadine to pave the way to extending its therapeutic use to further indications beyond Parkinson's disease symptoms and viral infections. Considering amantadine's affinities in vitro and the expected concentration at targets at therapeutic doses in humans, the following primary targets seem to be most plausible: aromatic amino acids decarboxylase, glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor, sigma-1 receptors, phosphodiesterases, and nicotinic receptors...
February 23, 2021: Journal of Neural Transmission
Iban Onandia-Hinchado, Natividad Pardo-Palenzuela, Unai Diaz-Orueta
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reportedly the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed during childhood, and it is recognized as a common condition in adulthood. We review the evidence to help identify cognitive domains associated to deficits in adult ADHD. A systematic review with narrative synthesis was performed, assessing studies on adult ADHD, neuropsychology and research on involved cognitive domains in adults 18+ years old with an established diagnosis of ADHD, in seven electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, WebOfScience, Embase, Scopus, OvidSPMedline, and Teseo), and Worldcat and OpenGrey grey literature databases...
February 23, 2021: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jihane Homman-Ludiye, James A Bourne
Rodent models, particularly mice, have dominated the field of developmental neuroscience for decades, like they have in most fields of biomedicine research. However, with 80 million years since rodents and primates last shared a common ancestor, the use of mice to model the development of the human brain is not without many shortcomings. The human brain diverges from the mouse brain in many aspects and is comprised of novel structures as well as diversified cellular subtypes. While these newly evolved features have no equivalent in rodents, they are observed in nonhuman primates...
February 23, 2021: ILAR Journal
M Planton, B Lemesle, M Cousineau, J Carlier, E Milongo-Rigal, G Carle-Toulemonde, J Salles, J Pariente
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. While ADHD was initially recognized as a childhood syndrome, scientific evidence accumulated to indicate that a significant proportion of ADHD children continue to experience symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Moreover, the question of ADHD diagnosis can arise in adult patients who were not diagnosed in childhood. Currently, the diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood is based on the revised criteria described for children...
February 19, 2021: Revue Neurologique
P Navalón, J Merchan-Naranjo, F Ghosn, B Almansa, C Chafer-Pericas, J Gonzalez-Peñas, E Rodriguez-Toscano, S Zeballos, M Arriaga, P Castro Castro, D Blanco Bravo, M Vento, L Pina-Camacho, A García-Blanco
BACKGROUND: such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or Intellectual Disability (ID), are prevalent childhood-onset complications in very preterm newborns-VPTN (<32 weeks of gestational age-EG) and more so in extremely preterm newborns-EPTN (<28 weeks EG). There are few studies exploring the pathophysiological pathways that may condition differentially the emergence/course of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) in very preterm and extremely preterm newborns (VPTN/EPTN)...
February 19, 2021: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Laura D Eddy, Arthur D Anastopoulos, Melissa R Dvorsky, Paul J Silvia, Jeffrey D Labban, Joshua M Langberg
Objective : The current study reports functional outcomes from a multi-site randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for college students diagnosed with ADHD. Methods : A sample of emerging adults ( N = 250; ages 18 to 30) currently attending college were comprehensively evaluated and diagnosed with ADHD ( M age  = 19.7; 66% female, 6.8% Latino, 66.3% Caucasian). Participants were randomized to either a two-semester intervention (Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS)) or a delayed treatment condition...
February 22, 2021: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Shweta Sunil, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Nitin Anand
Online gaming has become a concern for health professionals due to its dysfunctional effects. This study aimed to conceptualise and summarise the impact that gaming platforms like PUBG can have on an individual's mental health. A systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA model. A total of five papers were shortlisted and reviewed for the purpose of this study. The results indicated the use of gaming platforms like PUBG by players to address and cope with anxiety and depression, and it also highly influences the presence of other concerns like ADHD and suicidality, self-harm and aggressive behaviours...
February 22, 2021: Medico-legal Journal
Mei-Rong Pan, Shi-Yu Zhang, Sun-Wei Qiu, Lu Liu, Hai-Mei Li, Meng-Jie Zhao, Min Dong, Fei-Fei Si, Yu-Feng Wang, Qiu-Jin Qian
The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in medicated adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a multidimensional evaluation and follow-up to week 36. Ninety-eight adult ADHD were randomly allocated to the CBT combined with medication (CBT + M) group or the medication (M) only group. The primary endpoint was the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Secondary endpoints included emotional symptoms, self-esteem, automatic thoughts, quality of life (QoL), and executive function (EF)...
February 22, 2021: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Gideon Koren, Rana Cohen, Ornie Sachs
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has been recently estimated to afflict up to 5% of American children. Most of these children exhibit different degrees of symptomatology of disruptive behaviors. Yet, there has been very little research on the efficacy and safety of pharmacological modalities, limited mostly to stimulants for attention deficit hyperactive disorder or second generation atypical antipsychotics for aggression. Recently, the use of cannabinoids has been described for symptoms related to autistic spectrum disorder with apparent favorable effects, as well as for other disruptive behaviors...
2021: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Jun Kido, Shirou Matsumoto, Tetsuya Ito, Shinichi Hirose, Kaori Fukui, Kanako Kojima-Ishii, Yuichi Mushimoto, Shinobu Yoshida, Mika Ishige, Norio Sakai, Kimitoshi Nakamura
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inherited metabolic diseases that lead to hyperammonemia. Severe hyperammonemia adversely affects the brain. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide study between January 2000 and March 2018 to understand the present status of UCD patients in Japan regarding diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes. A total of 229 patients with UCDs (126 patients: ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency [OTCD]; 33: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency [CPS1D]; 48: argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency [ASSD]; 14: argininosuccinate lyase deficiency [ASLD]; and 8: arginase 1 deficiency [ARG1D]) were enrolled in the present study...
June 2021: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Ingunn Mundal, Petter Laake, Juan Mezzich, Stål K Bjørkly, Mariela Loreto Lara-Cabrera
Background: The brief generic Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) is a culturally informed self-report 10-item questionnaire used to measure health-related quality of life (QoL). QoL is an important outcome measure in guiding healthcare and is held as a substantial parameter to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children might negatively influence the parents' QoL. Having a validated questionnaire to measure QoL for this population will therefore be a vital first step in guiding healthcare for parents of children with ADHD...
2021: Frontiers in Psychology
Je-Ming Hu, Chia-Cheng Lee, Tzu-Chiao Lin, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Chao-Yang Chen, Pi-Kai Chang, Cheng-Wen Hsiao, Chien-An Sun, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Wu-Chien Chien
Background: The association between attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) and the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) is, as yet, to be investigated, and thus, we have conducted this nationwide, cohort study to examine the association in patients from Taiwan. Methods: In this study, 798 individuals with newly diagnosed ADHD and 2,394 (1:3) age-, gender-, and index year- matched controls without ADHD were enrolled, between 2000 and 2013, from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, a subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
2021: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Trinidad García, Estrella Fernández, Miriam Villalba, Débora Areces, Celestino Rodríguez
The aim of this study was to analyze life satisfaction in a sample of 70 children and adolescents (M = 12.21, SD = 2.85) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to parents' and children's/adolescents' reports. In addition, we examined the influence of a series of child/adolescent variables (ADHD presentation, and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms, age, gender, and pharmacological support status) on their levels of life satisfaction. Results indicated moderate correlations between children's/adolescents' and parents' perceptions of life satisfaction (r = ...
February 22, 2021: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Akın Tahıllıoğlu, Öznur Bilaç, Taciser Uysal, Eyüp Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to determine which parents or teachers predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) better in children and adolescents, and to detect both diagnostical and symptomatological agreement levels across informant reports. METHOD: A total of 417 cases aged 6-14 from a non-referred community sample were assessed by a semi-structured interview, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Also, impairment criteria were taken into account to ensure the gold standard diagnosis for ADHD...
February 22, 2021: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Avital E Falk, Kelsey Stiles, Isabel N Krein, Steve S Lee
Although positive parenting behavior is central to efficacious interventions for child conduct problems (CP), studies of youth CP have focused mostly on negative parenting behavior. That is, few studies have examined dimensions of positive parenting behavior (e.g., positive reinforcement, involvement) as independent predictors of CP and even fewer have investigated their potential moderation by callous-unemotional (CU) traits. A sample of 184 6-9 year-old children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was followed prospectively for two years...
February 21, 2021: Aggressive Behavior
Jim Pheils, Megan J Ehret
PURPOSE: Current literature on the safety and efficacy of intermediate- and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is evaluated. SUMMARY: Methylphenidate has been an established treatment for ADHD, but due to its relatively short half-life, numerous intermediate- and long-acting products have been developed. While these extended-release products provide efficacy similar to that of immediate-acting products, the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects can vary...
February 21, 2021: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Julia E Maietta, Hana C Kuwabara, Chad L Cross, Sarah M Flood, Thomas F Kinsora, Staci R Ross, Daniel N Allen
OBJECTIVE: The presence of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disorders (LD) have demonstrated effects on Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance. No current research has directly examined whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has similar effects. The current study compared ImPACT cognitive and symptom profiles in athletes with self-reported ASD to other NDs and healthy controls using case-control matching...
February 22, 2021: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Margaret H Sibley, Mercedes Ortiz, Larissa M Gaias, Rosemary Reyes, Mahima Joshi, Dana Alexander, Paulo Graziano
OBJECTIVE: ADHD symptom severity appears to be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study surveyed top problems experienced by adolescents and young adults (A/YAs) with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify possible reasons for symptom escalation and potential targets for intervention. We also explored perceived benefits of the pandemic for A/YAs with ADHD. METHOD: At the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-June 2020), we administered self and parent ratings about current and pre-pandemic top problem severity and benefits of the pandemic to a sample of convenience (N = 134 A/YAs with ADHD participating in a prospective longitudinal study)...
February 14, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Research
William Davies
Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare developmental condition in females caused by complete, or partial, loss of the second sex chromosome; it is associated with a number of phenotypes including short stature, ovarian failure and infertility, as well as neurobehavioural and cognitive manifestations. In contrast, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) arises from an excess of X chromosome material in males (typical karyotype is 47,XXY); like TS, KS is associated with infertility and hormonal imbalance, and behavioural/neurocognitive differences from gonadal sex-matched counterparts...
February 18, 2021: European Journal of Medical Genetics
J B Nissen, A H Carlsen, P H Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Chronic tic disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders that can be treated with Habit Reversal Training (HRT) and Exposure Response Prevention (ERP). Intermediate and long-term effects have been examined after individual treatment with HRT, whereas evaluation of long-term outcome after an initial treatment with ERP, or a combination of HRT and ERP is lacking. The present study examines the long-term effect after a combined treatment with HRT and ERP delivered in an individual or a group setting METHODS: Fifty-nine children and adolescents diagnosed with a chronic tic disorder were randomised to manualised treatment combining HRT and ERP as individual or group training...
February 20, 2021: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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