Cisem Mail, Sinem Yalcintepe, Damla Eker, Hakan Gurkan
DeSanto-Shinawi syndrome (DESSH, OMIM #616708) is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the WAC gene. This syndrome is characterized by a wide range of physical and neurological symptoms including dysmorphic features, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. DESSH was described by DeSanto in 2015, and since then, only a few dozen cases have been reported worldwide. Recent research has focused on identifying the underlying genetic cause of the syndrome as well as exploring potential treatments...
April 13, 2024: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Andrea González-Rojas, Martina Valencia-Narbona
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure in the mother, typically occurring after 20 weeks of gestation and posing risks to both maternal and fetal health. PE causes placental changes that can affect the fetus, particularly neurodevelopment. Its key pathophysiological mechanisms encompass hypoxia, vascular and angiogenic dysregulation, inflammation, neuronal and glial alterations, and disruptions in neuronal signaling. Animal models indicate that PE is correlated with neurodevelopmental alterations and cognitive dysfunctions in offspring and in humans, an association between PE and conditions such as cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and sexual dimorphism has been observed...
March 24, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M de Jong, D S M R Wynchank, M Michielsen, A T F Beekman, J J S Kooij
Background : The diagnostics and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women remain insufficient. Fluctuations of reproductive hormones during the premenstrual period, postpartum period, and (peri)menopause are neglected, even though they impact ADHD symptoms and associated mood disorders. Therefore, we created a female-specific treatment group for women with ADHD and premenstrual worsening of ADHD and/or mood symptoms. Methods : We describe the group programme and underlying rationale, offering a qualitative analysis of the participants' evaluation...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Roshan Melwani-Sadhwani, Eva Ruth Alonso-Agustín, Audrey Sagols-Ruiz, Ana Isabel Contreras-Madrid
A study in Gran Canaria assessed the oral health of 53 children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 106 without ADHD, aged 6 to 16 years. Clinical data on dental caries, conservative treatments, and periodontal health were recorded. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dental caries in children with ADHD and how their habits and behaviors contribute to their oral health status. The results showed that children with ADHD had a significant increase in dental caries, conservative treatments, and gingival bleeding...
April 3, 2024: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Jacques Hamard, Vanessa Rousseau, Geneviève Durrieu, Philippe Garcia, Antoine Yrondi, Agnès Sommet, Alexis Revet, François Montastruc
BACKGROUND: Use of psychostimulants and relative drugs has increased worldwide in treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and adults. Recent studies suggest a potential association between use of psychostimulants and psychotic symptoms. The risk may not be the same between different psychostimulants. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether amphetamine or atomoxetine use is associated with a higher risk of reporting symptoms of psychosis than methylphenidate use in adolescents and adults, particularly in patients with ADHD...
April 12, 2024: BMJ Ment Health
Nanna Roed Søndergaard, Karen Busk Nørøxe, Anders Helles Carlsen, Stine Helene Randing, Pernille Warrer, Per Hove Thomsen, Loa Clausen
Objectives: This study aimed to examine switch from first-line methylphenidate (MPH) to lisdexamfetamine (LDX) in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This is a retrospective observational study based on systematic review of patient records of all children (7-13 years) diagnosed with ADHD and referred to a Danish specialized outpatient clinic. The study included 394 children switching from MPH to LDX as either second-line or third-line treatment (atomoxetine [ATX] as second-line treatment) during the study period from April 1, 2013, to November 5, 2019...
April 2024: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Paul E Croarkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2024: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Emily Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2024: JAMA
Shuanglin Li, Rajesh Nair, Syed Mohsen Naqvi
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly seen in childhood that leads to behavioural changes in social development and communication patterns, often continues into undiagnosed adulthood due to a global shortage of psychiatrists, resulting in delayed diagnoses with lasting consequences on individual's well-being and the societal impact. Recently, machine learning methodologies have been incorporated into healthcare systems to facilitate the diagnosis and enhance the potential prediction of treatment outcomes for mental health conditions...
2024: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Ann-Margret Rydell, Karin C Brocki
INTRODUCTION: As adolescents leave high school, plans for the future are of great importance. Future orientation reflects positive thoughts regarding further education, employment, and family life. While future orientation has been found to affect behavior problems, the influence of behavior problems on future orientation is mainly unknown. Positive parent-child and peer relations may boost positive outlooks, but the interplay of behavior problems and social relations for future orientation remains to be studied...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Adolescence
Kaustubh Supekar, Carlo de Los Angeles, Srikanth Ryali, Leila Kushan, Charlie Schleifer, Gabriela Repetto, Nicolas A Crossley, Tony Simon, Carrie E Bearden, Vinod Menon
A major genetic risk factor for psychosis is 22q11.2 deletion (22q11.2DS). However, robust and replicable functional brain signatures of 22q11.2DS and 22q11.2DS-associated psychosis remain elusive due to small sample sizes and a focus on small single-site cohorts. Here, we identify functional brain signatures of 22q11.2DS and 22q11.2DS-associated psychosis, and their links with idiopathic early psychosis, using one of the largest multi-cohort data to date. We obtained multi-cohort clinical phenotypic and task-free fMRI data from 856 participants (101 22q11...
April 12, 2024: Molecular Psychiatry
Gauri G Shastri, Gustavo Sudre, Kwangmi Ahn, Benjamin Jung, Bhaskar Kolachana, Pavan K Auluck, Laura Elnitski, Stefano Marenco, Philip Shaw
While epigenetic modifications have been implicated in ADHD through studies of peripheral tissue, to date there has been no examination of the epigenome of the brain in the disorder. To address this gap, we mapped the methylome of the caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex in post-mortem tissue from fifty-eight individuals with or without ADHD. While no single probe showed adjusted significance in differential methylation, several differentially methylated regions emerged. These regions implicated genes involved in developmental processes including neurogenesis and the differentiation of oligodendrocytes and glial cells...
April 11, 2024: Translational Psychiatry
Daegeon Kim, Dhananjay Yadav, Minseok Song
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting both children and adolescents. Individuals with ADHD experience heterogeneous problems, such as difficulty in attention, behavioral hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Recent studies have shown that complex genetic factors play a role in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Animal models with clear hereditary traits are crucial for studying the molecular, biological, and brain circuit mechanisms underlying ADHD. Owing to their well-managed genetic origins and the relative simplicity with which the function of neuronal circuits is clearly established, models of mice can help learn the mechanisms involved in ADHD...
April 11, 2024: Translational Psychiatry
Stella Oláh, Vivien Nagy, Mónika Miklósi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: David P. Bernstein's model of personal strengths was born out of the interaction of schema theory and positive psychology. According to Bernstein, the strengths of a healthy adult self can be described along four dimensions: self-directedness, self-regulation, connectedness, and transcendence. Previous research has shown that attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with higher levels of perceived stress, but the role of personal strengths in this context has not yet been investigated...
March 2024: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Jeff Schein, Martin Cloutier, Rebecca Bungay, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Ann Childress
Aims: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication is frequently associated with adverse events (AEs), but limited real-world data exist regarding their costs from a payer's perspective. Therefore, this study evaluated the healthcare costs associated with common AEs among adult patients treated for ADHD in the US. Materials and methods: Eligible adults treated for ADHD were identified from a large US claims database (10/1/2015─9/30/2021). A retrospective cohort study design was used to assess excess healthcare costs and costs directly related to AE-specific claims per-patient-per-month (PPPM) associated with 10 selected AEs during ADHD treatment...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Medical Economics
Hyunju Lee, Inhye Song, Woo Young Kim, Hannah Huh, Eun Kyoung Lee, Jaesuk Jung, Cheon Seok Suh, Hanik Yoo
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of treatment programs for children with reading (RD) or mathematics disorders (MD). Structured treatment programs were developed to improve phonological awareness and number sense among children and adolescents with RD or MD, respectively, and the effectiveness of the learning disorder treatment programs were evaluated. METHODS: We used standardized, objective diagnostic, and evaluation tools not only to recruit participants with RD, MD, or comorbid attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, but also to assess the effectiveness of the treatments regarding both improved core neurocognitive deficits of RD or MD and academic achievement...
April 1, 2024: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
María Merino, Paulina Maravilla-Herrera, Teresa Martín Lorenzo, Juan Antonio Arance, Julio Bobes, Montse Corrales, Fátima Guzmán, María Morales, Carlos Mur
INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults highly interfere with function in multiple dimensions, increasing the economic burden associated with ADHD. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ADHD in Spanish adults and estimate the associated economic burden within the healthcare, social, economic, and legal domains. METHODS: An economic model was developed from a social perspective using a bottom-up approach, based on the scientific literature and a multidisciplinary expert group...
2024: Glob Reg Health Technol Assess
Ewelina Bogdańska-Chomczyk, Maciej Równiak, Andrew Chih-Wei Huang, Anna Kozłowska
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impairments in developmental-behavioral inhibition, resulting in impulsivity and hyperactivity. Recent research has underscored cortical inhibition deficiencies in ADHD via the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system, which is crucial for maintaining excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain. This study explored postnatal changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity, indicating GABAergic interneuron types, in the prefrontal (PFC) and motor (MC) cortices of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an ADHD animal model...
2024: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Valerie K Arnold, Frank A López, Ann C Childress, Michelle D Po, Cassandra L Uchida, Lewis Cuthbertson, Floyd R Sallee, Bev Incledon
OBJECTIVE: DR/ER-MPH (formerly HLD200) is an evening-dosed delayed-release and extended-release methylphenidate approved for the treatment of ADHD in patients ≥6 years. Post hoc analyses of two pivotal Phase 3 trials: HLD200-107 (NCT02493777) and HLD200-108 (NCT02520388) evaluated emotional lability (EL) with DR/ER-MPH treatment. METHODS: Differences in Conners Global Index-Parent (CGI-P) EL subscale scores and age- and gender-adjusted T -scores over an open-label titration phase (HLD200-107) and between treatment and placebo groups at endpoint (HLD200-108) were evaluated...
April 10, 2024: Journal of Attention Disorders
Anders Helander, Annika Andersson, Tomas Villén
This study evaluated an alternative routine for reporting urinary chiral amphetamine results in assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment with amphetamine medications and for detecting side-use of illicit racemic amphetamine. Currently in Sweden, only enantiopure d-amphetamine-based ADHD medications (lisdexamphetamine dimesylate and dexamphetamine sulfate) are approved. It is therefore unsuitable to express the chiral result as the l/d-ratio, as before, because l-amphetamine should not be present provided treatment compliance...
April 10, 2024: Drug Testing and Analysis
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