Anyan Huang, Kusheng Wu, Zemin Cai, Yuhang Lin, Xuanzhi Zhang, Yanhong Huang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors such as second-hand smoke (SHS). The association between postnatal exposure to SHS and ADHD risk in children was still inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the definite association. We searched for relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Science databases up to January 2020. We used random effect models to calculate pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
October 23, 2020: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Greta A Bushnell, Stephen Crystal, Mark Olfson
OBJECTIVE: To estimate trends of annual antipsychotic medication use by privately insured US young children (2-7 years) and to describe clinical and treatment characteristics of these children. METHOD: The study population included young children from a nationwide commercial claims database (2007-2017). We estimated annual antipsychotic use by age and sex, defined as the number of children dispensed an antipsychotic per year divided by the number enrolled. We described clinical diagnoses and mental health services utilization in those with prescription antipsychotic use in 2009 and 2017...
October 19, 2020: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Ann C Childress, Matthew N Brams, Andrew J Cutler, Graeme A E Donnelly, Sailaja Bhaskar
Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of PRC-063, a once-daily, multilayer, extended-release (ER) formulation of methylphenidate (MPH) hydrochloride, in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, dose-optimized, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Methods: Boys and girls aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled. During a 6-week, open-label, dose-optimization phase, subjects began treatment at 25 mg/day of PRC-063 and were titrated until an optimal dose (maximum 85 mg/day) was reached...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Elizabeth B Harstad, Slavica Katusic, Georgios Sideridis, Amy L Weaver, Robert G Voigt, William J Barbaresi
OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns ("classes") of outcomes for adults with and without childhood ADHD. METHOD: Subjects were 232 childhood ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD referents from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort. We used latent class analyses to identify classes based on a broad array of adult psychosocial outcomes and determined the proportion of subjects with childhood ADHD within each class. RESULTS: A three class solution provided optimal model fit; classes were termed "good," "intermediate," and "poor" functioning...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Attention Disorders
Francesca Morello, Vootele Voikar, Pihla Parkkinen, Anne Panhelainen, Marko Rosenholm, Aki Makkonen, Tomi Rantamäki, Petteri Piepponen, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Juha Partanen
The neural circuits regulating motivation and movement include midbrain dopaminergic neurons and associated inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic neurons in the anterior brainstem. Differentiation of specific subtypes of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the mouse embryonic brainstem is controlled by a transcription factor Tal1. This study characterizes the behavioral and neurochemical changes caused by the absence of Tal1 function. The Tal1cko mutant mice are hyperactive, impulsive, hypersensitive to reward, have learning deficits and a habituation defect in a novel environment...
October 21, 2020: Translational Psychiatry
Morgan R Peltier, Michael J Fassett, Vicki Y Chiu, Darios Getahun
OBJECTIVE:  This study aimed to determine if hypothyroidism prior to, or during, pregnancy increases the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the child and how the association may be modified by preterm birth, sex of the child, and race-ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN:  Data were abstracted from linked maternal-child medical records. Incidence rate differences (IRDs), adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to evaluate the association of maternal hypothyroidism with childhood ADHD risk...
October 21, 2020: American Journal of Perinatology
Fiona Davidson, Gabrielle Rigney, Benjamin Rusak, Christine Chambers, Malgorzata Rajda, Penny Corkum
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing body of research on the impact of stimulant medication on sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Negative sleep side effects are a common reason for nonadherence or for discontinuing a course of treatment. However, there is no published evidence as to whether pretreatment sleep can predict responses to treatment and the emergence of side effects. METHOD: In this study, baseline sleep variables were used to predict therapeutic effect (i...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Mao-Hsiu Hua, Yen-Ling Chen, Mu-Hong Chen, Kai-Lin Huang, Ju-Wei Hsu, Ya-Mei Bai, Shih-Jen Tsai, Yu-Te Wu
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity (FC) is believed to be abnormal in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most studies have focused on frontostriatal systems, and the role of the thalamic network in ADHD remains unclear. The current study used FC magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to explore corticothalamic network properties and correlated network dysconnection with ADHD symptom severity. METHODS: Eighteen adolescents with ADHD and 16 healthy controls aged 12 to 17 years underwent resting functional MRI scans, clinical evaluations, and 2 parent rating scales, namely the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale and the Child Behavior Checklist...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman
Anxiety disorders are common comorbidities of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conversely, ADHD is prevalent among anxious youths. A variety of treatments, both psychopharmacological and nonpsychopharmacological, are used to manage combined ADHD/anxiety disorder. This article aims to review the literature on the treatment of ADHD with comorbid anxiety disorders, and make evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. In most cases, when ADHD is the primary condition, stimulants are the first-line of treatment, frequently resulting not only in improvement in ADHD symptoms but also alleviating the symptoms of the comorbid anxiety disorder...
October 19, 2020: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jesse Elliott, Amy Johnston, Don Husereau, Shannon E Kelly, Caroline Eagles, Alice Charach, Shu-Ching Hsieh, Zemin Bai, Alomgir Hossain, Becky Skidmore, Eva Tsakonas, Dagmara Chojecki, Muhammad Mamdani, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 3% of adults globally. Many pharmacologic treatments options exist, yet the comparative benefits and harms of individual treatments are largely unknown. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to assess the relative effects of individual pharmacologic treatments for adults with ADHD. METHODS: We searched English-language published and grey literature sources for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving pharmacologic treatment of ADHD in adults (December 2018)...
2020: PloS One
Cecilia Arana Håkanson, Fanny Fredriksson, Helene Engstrand Lilja
AIM: Several studies in animal models have found that exposure to anesthetics in early life can cause cognitive dysfunction. Human studies show conflicting results and studies of cognitive function after anesthesia and neonatal surgery are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to anesthesia and abdominal surgery during infancy was associated with cognitive dysfunction from the perspective of educational level, disposable income and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in adolescent and adult individuals...
2020: PloS One
Yue Yang, Gang Peng, Hongwu Zeng, Diangang Fang, Linlin Zhang, Shoujun Xu, Binrang Yang
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the effects of SNAP25 on the integration ability of intrinsic brain functions in children with ADHD, and whether the integration ability was associated with working memory (WM). METHODS: A sliding time window method was used to calculate the spatial and temporal concordance among five rs-fMRI regional indices in 55 children with ADHD and 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: The SNAP25 exhibited significant interaction effects with ADHD diagnosis on the voxel-wise concordance in the right posterior central gyrus, fusiform gyrus and lingual gyrus...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Attention Disorders
Gita Rajan, Caroline Wachtler, Sara Lee, Per Wändell, Björn Philips, Lars Wahlström, Carl Göran Svedin, Axel C Carlsson
Sexual abuse is a crime with devastating health consequences. Accessible, acceptable and affordable treatment of PTSD after sexual abuse is important. In this pilot study, a one-session PTSD treatment and a modified perspective to PTSD treatment is introduced. The aim of the study was to test the efficacy of one session of Modified Lifespan Integration (MLI) on reduction of symptoms of PTSD in individuals with PTSD after one sexual assault. This was a single-center, individually randomized waitlist-controlled treatment study with 1:1 allocation, with the intervention of one 90 - 140 minutes session of MLI and with post-treatment follow-up at 3 weeks (time point two)...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Daniel J White, Gabriel P Ovsiew, Tasha Rhoads, Zachary J Resch, Mary Lee, Alison J Oh, Jason R Soble
OBJECTIVE: This study examined concordance between symptom and performance validity among clinically-referred patients undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Data from 203 patients who completed the WAIS-IV Working Memory Index, the Clinical Assessment of Attention Deficit-Adult (CAT-A), and ≥4 criterion performance validity tests (PVTs) were analyzed. RESULTS: Symptom and performance validity were concordant in 76% of cases, with the majority being valid performance...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Attention Disorders
Christine Vaccaro, Ahmad Shakeri, Emily Czaplinski, Sherif Eltonsy
The use of maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cognitive adverse effects among the offspring. As new-generation AEDs continue to enter the market, evidence on their safety during pregnancy is limited yet necessary. To date, there are no published reviews summarizing the evidence of new-generation AED exposure in utero and the development of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. The objective of this scoping review is to summarize the available evidence on the risk of ADHD after maternal exposure to new-generation AEDs during pregnancy...
2020: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Danyang Li, Nora Choque-Olsson, Hong Jiao, Nina Norgren, Ulf Jonsson, Sven Bölte, Kristiina Tammimies
Social skills group training (SSGT) is a frequently used behavioral intervention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the effects are moderate and heterogeneous. Here, we analyzed the effect of polygenic risk score (PRS) and common variants in gene sets on the intervention outcome. Participants from the largest randomized clinical trial of SSGT in ASD to date were selected ( N  = 188, 99 from SSGT, 89 from standard care) to calculate association between the outcomes in the SSGT trial and PRSs for ASD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and educational attainment...
2020: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Sophie C A Brolsma, Eliana Vassena, Janna N Vrijsen, Guillaume Sescousse, Rose M Collard, Phillip F van Eijndhoven, Aart H Schene, Roshan Cools
BACKGROUND: Prior work has proposed that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a specific cognitive bias: patients with depression seem to learn more from punishment than from reward. This learning bias has been associated with blunting of reward-related neural responses in the striatum. A key question is whether negative learning bias is also present in patients with MDD and comorbid disorders and whether this bias is specific to depression or shared across disorders. METHODS: We employed a transdiagnostic approach assessing a heterogeneous group of (nonpsychotic) psychiatric patients from the MIND-Set (Measuring Integrated Novel Dimensions in Neurodevelopmental and Stress-Related Mental Disorders) cohort with and without MDD but also with anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism (n = 66) and healthy control subjects (n = 24)...
August 30, 2020: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yoshiyuki Tsuda, Yumiko Matsuo, Sayaka Matsumoto, Toshihiro Wajima
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine, has been approved for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purposes of this study were constructing a population pharmacokinetic model of d-amphetamine after dosing of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and assessing influential factors on the pharmacokinetics of d-amphetamine in Japanese pediatric patients with ADHD. Additionally, the exposure-response relationship was evaluated for Japanese pediatric patients with ADHD using a clinical rating scale, the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD RS-IV, efficacy endpoint) total score as a response index...
September 18, 2020: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
J B Nissen, D R M A Højgaard, P H Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a distressing psychiatric disorder. Traumas may trigger or aggravate OCD symptoms. COVID-19 pandemic has coursed a global crisis and has been associated with onset of psychiatric disorders in adults. Little is known about children/adolescents with OCD. The present study aimed to examine how children/adolescents with OCD react towards COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to two separate groups of children/adolescents...
October 20, 2020: BMC Psychiatry
Helena C Kaltenegger, Sabrina Doering, Christopher Gillberg, Peter Wennberg, Sebastian Lundström
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have high rates of "comorbidity". Research on concurrent substance use (disorder) in ASD, however, is scarce and findings have been inconsistent. This study aims at assessing the prevalence of risk drinking in adolescent and young adult twins with and without autism spectrum problems. Data from a Swedish longitudinal nationwide twin study were analyzed. Across three age groups of 15- (N = 10,050), 18- (N = 7,931) and 24-year-olds (N = 2,882) prevalence rates of risk drinking were compared between twins with and without an ASD proxy diagnosis and between different ASD subgroups based on comorbid proxies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or Learning Disorder (LD)...
September 23, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
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