Sophie Hsin-Yi Liang, Yi-Chen Lee, Brent Allan Kelsen, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
BACKGROUND: No study has examined how child and maternal psychopathological difficulties and family factors contribute to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD). AIMS: To investigate the impact of children's diagnosis of ADHD, children's and maternal psychopathology and significant sociodemographic variables of the children, parents and family on HRQOL of mothers of children with ADHD and those of children with typical development (TD) in Taiwan...
April 6, 2021: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Camila Rigobello, Rodrigo Moreno Klein, Juliana Diosti Debiasi, Luis Guilherme Ursini, Ana Paula Michelin, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira
Paracetamol (PAR) has been employed worldwide for pain and fever treatment during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiologic studies have shown that exposure to PAR can increase the risk for developmental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. This study aimed to investigate if gestational and lactational exposure to human-relevant doses of PAR could alter behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameters in the rat`s offspring. Wistar dams were gavaged daily with water or PAR (35 mg/kg/ or 350 mg/kg) during gestational day 6 to weaning (postnatal day 21)...
April 6, 2021: Behavioural Brain Research
Anne Helmer, Tamar Wechsler, Yafit Gilboa
Objective: This systematic review evaluated equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAATs), formerly referred to as equine-assisted services (EAS), in children and youth (ages 6-18 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Methods: Electronic database searches were conducted of studies from inception through December 2020. Results: A total of 12 articles were included: 8 noncontrolled prospective studies and 4 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Sean C Rose, Keith Owen Yeates, Joseph T Nguyen, Patrick M Ercole, Natalie M Pizzimenti, Matthew T McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between repetitive subconcussive head impacts and neurobehavioral outcomes in youth tackle football players. METHODS: Using helmet-based sensors, we measured head impacts for 3 consecutive seasons of play in 29 male players age 9-11. Cumulative impact g 's were calculated. Players completed a battery of outcome measures before and after each season, including neuropsychological testing, vestibular-ocular sensitivity, and self- and parent-reported measures of symptoms and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Child Neurology
Zhenhua Zhang, Shaoli Zhao, Jijun Song, Rui Li, Yaodong Zhang, Dongxiao Li
OBJECTIVE: To carry out cyto- and molecular genetic testing for a child featuring facial dysmorphism and attention deficit and hyperactive disorder. METHODS: The child was subjected to routine peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) analyses. RESULTS: The child's facial dysmorphism included low-set ears, curly ear auricle, protuberance of eyebrow arch, nostril notch, short and flat philtrum and thin upper lip...
April 10, 2021: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Mrinaal Valmiki, Peter Fawzy, Surbhi Valmiki, Mohamed A Aid, Ali R Chaitou, Maria Zahid, Safeera Khan
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychological disorder that causes inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in patients. Ventral striatal hypo-responsiveness, orbitofrontal cortex, and dopaminergic status in the brain are related to the pathogenesis of ADHD. Reinforcement tasks by monetary incentive delay (MID) was shown to produce more responsiveness in patients. In this study, we reviewed how reinforcement interventions and compensatory mechanisms affect the behavior of ADHD patients...
March 5, 2021: Curēus
Dayana Torres Valladares, Sirisha Kudumala, Murad Hossain, Lucia Carvelli
Amphetamine is a potent psychostimulant also used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. In vivo and in vitro data have demonstrated that amphetamine increases the amount of extra synaptic dopamine by both inhibiting reuptake and promoting efflux of dopamine through the dopamine transporter. Previous studies have shown that chronic use of amphetamine causes tolerance to the drug. Thus, since the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to amphetamine are still unknown, an animal model to identify the neurochemical mechanisms associated with drug tolerance is greatly needed...
April 8, 2021: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
V Furlin, T S Bara, É P G Felden, A C de Farias, M L Cordeiro
BACKGROUND: Children with intellectual development disorder (IDD) have high rates of comorbid neuropsychological and behavioural problems. However, there are not many studies on this population in middle-income and low-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of neuropsychological and behavioural problems in students with and without IDD and to assess the correlation between the responses from informants (parents and teachers) and the clinical diagnoses in Brazil...
April 8, 2021: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Anthony M Norcia, Azalea Lee, Wesley J Meredith, Peter J Kohler, Francesca Pei, Stephanie A Ghassan, Robin A Libove, Jennifer M Phillips, Antonio Y Hardan
To assess the relative integrity of early visual and auditory processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we used frequency-tagged visual and auditory stimulation and high-density electroencephalogram recordings of unimodal and dual-modality responses in a case-control design. To test for the specificity of effects on ASD, we recorded from a smaller group of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Horizontal 3 cycle per degree (cpd) gratings were presented at 5 Hz, and a random stream of /ba/, /da/, /ga/ syllables was presented at 6 Hz...
April 1, 2021: Journal of Vision
Ming-Kai Chen, Meng-Chan Ou, Xue-Chao Hao, Han Huang, Dong-Hang Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Peng Liang, Cheng Zhou, Yu Li
Objective: To investigate whether long-term exposure to inhaled sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, causes abnormal activities and memory impairment related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neonatal rats. Methods: On postnatal day 5 (P5), Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two sevoflurane subgroups and two control subgroups and underwent experimental intervention. The two sevoflurane (SEVO) subgroups were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 2 h and 4 h respectively, while the two control subgroups were given pure oxygen for the same amount and duration...
March 2021: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Tyler Buddell, Christopher C Quinn
Variants of the CACNA1C voltage-gated calcium channel gene have been associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and ADHD. The Timothy syndrome mutation is a rare de novo gain-of-function variant in CACNA1C that causes autism with high penetrance, providing a powerful avenue into investigating the role of CACNA1C variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. In our previous work, we demonstrated that an egl-19(gof) mutation, which is equivalent to the Timothy syndrome mutation in CACNA1C, can disrupt termination of the PLM axon in C...
April 1, 2021: microPublication. Biology
Shiva Janmohammadi, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo, Mojgan Farahbod, Paul G Overton, Ebrahim Pishyareh
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by several cognitive and behavioral problems such as inattention and impulsivity, abnormal control of eye movements and relocation, visual fixation and visuospatial perception. There is a link between core motor functions such as oculomotor function and cognition to the extent that the oculomotor system acts as a mediator between the motor and cognitive functions. Therefore, the effects of eye-tracking intervention were investigated on attention in these children...
April 22, 2020: Journal of Eye Movement Research
Ayelet Brand-Gothelf, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Nimrod Hertz-Palmor, Dana Basel, Doron Gothelf, Orit Karnieli-Miller
We describe the attitudes of child psychiatrists toward diagnosis delivery (DD) and explore potential stressful factors associated with the process. Eighty Israeli child psychiatrists completed a questionnaire on their perceptions of DD of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 child psychiatrists who were asked to share their personal experience with DD. The questionnaire responses revealed that child psychiatrists perceived schizophrenia and ADHD as the most and least severe disorders, respectively, and its treatment as being ineffective and effective, respectively...
2021: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nadine D Herzog, Tim P Steinfath, Ricardo Tarrasch
Sustained attention is the ability to continually concentrate on task-relevant information, even in the presence of distraction. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this ability is critical for comprehending attentional processes as well as neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by attentional deficits, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we aimed to investigate how trait-like critical oscillations during rest relate to the P300 evoked potential-a biomarker commonly used to assess attentional deficits...
2021: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Min-Sup Shin, Bung-Nyun Kim, Minji Cho, Mirae Jang, Hanbyul Shin, Ryemi Do, Hyungseo Park, Narae Yoon, Gahye Noh, Jae-Won Song, Yebin Ahn, Jiyoon Shin, Soomin Jang, Eunjung Noh, Eunhwa Lee
Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure-inattention [Swanson, Nolan and Pelham, version IV (SNAP-IV)] and anger [Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anger] for parents and guardians of children aged 6-17 years. Methods: We included 104 children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD with anxiety and depression, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and tic disorder with somatic symptoms (ADHD=41, depression=9, anxiety=14, ADHD+anxious depression=11, tic+somatic symptoms=29)...
April 1, 2021: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
Simon Schmitt, Tina Meller, Frederike Stein, Katharina Brosch, Kai Ringwald, Julia-Katharina Pfarr, Clemens Bordin, Nina Peusch, Olaf Steinsträter, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Susanne Meinert, Katharina Förster, Ronny Redlich, Nils Opel, Tim Hahn, Andreas Jansen, Andreas J Forstner, Fabian Streit, Stephanie H Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Axel Krug, Tilo Kircher, Igor Nenadić
BACKGROUND: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood. METHODS: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand...
April 8, 2021: Psychological Medicine
Kunio Miyake, Chihiro Miyashita, Atsuko Ikeda-Araki, Ryu Miura, Sachiko Itoh, Keiko Yamazaki, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Hideyuki Masuda, Tadao Ooka, Zentaro Yamagata, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We assessed whether DNA methylation differences may mediate the association between prenatal smoking exposure and ADHD symptoms at the age of 6 years. RESULTS: We selected 1150 mother-infant pairs from the Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's Health. Mothers were categorized into three groups according to plasma cotinine levels at the third trimester: non-smokers (≤ 0...
April 7, 2021: Clinical Epigenetics
Mekdes Dessie, Masresha Asmare Techane, Bizuneh Tesfaye, Daniel Ayelegne Gebeyehu
BACKGROUND: A child suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) faces many difficulties in social as well as academic performances. School teachers' knowledge and attitude towards ADHD play a vital role in early detection and referral of the child to treatment centers. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is highly neglected in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and factors that affecting elementary school teachers about ADHD...
April 7, 2021: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Rafael Martins Coelho, Cláudia Drummond, Natália Bezerra Mota, Pilar Erthal, Gabriel Bernardes, Gabriel Lima, Raquel Molina, Felipe Kenji Sudo, Rosemary Tannock, Paulo Mattos
Previous research investigating language in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has demonstrated several deficits in many aspects. However, no previous study employed quantitative methodology providing objective measures that could be compared among different studies with diverse samples. To fill this gap, we used network analysis to investigate how ADHD symptomatology impacts narrative discourse, a complex linguistic task considered to be an ecological measure of language. Fifty-eight adults (34 females and 24 males) with a mean age of 26 years old and a mean of 17 years of educational level were administered the Adult Self-Rating Scale for ADHD symptomatology...
2021: PloS One
Rachel L Doyle, Paula J Fite
Suicide among elementary school-age youth is vastly understudied despite being a major health concern. This study utilized mediation and moderation models to elucidate the nature of risk factors for suicide by examining the effect emotion dysregulation (of anger, sadness, and worry) has on the relation between ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) and suicidal outcomes (suicidal behavior and risk for suicide) in children ages 6 to 12. When accounting for sex, age, depressive symptoms, and emotion dysregulation, hyperactivity/impulsivity was positively associated with suicidal behavior; however, inattention was negatively associated with suicidal behavior...
April 7, 2021: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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