Eshim S Jami, Anke R Hammerschlag, Hannah M Sallis, Zhen Qiao, Ole A Andreassen, Per M Magnus, Pål R Njølstad, Alexandra Havdahl, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, David M Evans, Marcus R Munafò, Eivind Ystrom, Meike Bartels, Christel Middeldorp
Parental genes may indirectly influence offspring psychiatric outcomes through the environment that parents create for their children. These indirect genetic effects, also known as genetic nurture, could explain individual differences in common internalising and externalising psychiatric symptoms during childhood. Advanced statistical genetic methods leverage data from families to estimate the overall contribution of parental genetic nurture effects. This study included up to 10,499 children, 5990 mother-child pairs, and 6,222 father-child pairs from the Norwegian Mother Father and Child Study...
March 18, 2023: Translational Psychiatry
Bina Pulkit Patel, Barbara Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2023: Journal of Pediatrics
Talia Fried, Galia Plotkin-Amrami
Social research examining patients' and caretakers' narration of mental disorders, including ADHD, has been remarkably silent about comorbidity. Centering the theme of uncertainty and the question of what is "at stake" in mothers' mental health narratives of children (Kleinman, 1988), we characterize the patchwork process by which mothers deploy ADHD and comorbid diagnoses to account for key experiences and struggles in their and their child's lives. We found that ADHD had limited purchase in accounting for the emotional and social difficulties that were most urgent in mothers' narratives, despite the medical authority behind the ADHD label, which the mothers mostly accepted...
March 11, 2023: Social Science & Medicine
Bao Y Sciscent, David R Hallan, Elias B Rizk
OBJECTIVE: Although medical advances have allowed most patients with spina bifida (SB) to survive into adulthood, these patients may have physical impairments, urological complications, infections, and neurocognitive deficits. These factors can cause psychological distress and impact the transition from pediatric to adult care. There remains limited research on mental health disorders (MHDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in SB patients during this vulnerable transition period. This study aimed to investigate the 10-year incidence of MHDs and SUDs in 18- to 25-year-old patients with SB...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Katherine Flannigan, Nancy Poole, Jocelynn Cook, Kathy Unsworth
BACKGROUND: Consideration of sex- and gender-related factors is critical for understanding and supporting health and wellbeing. Although both sex and gender influence people with developmental disabilities, there is relatively little research on these factors and their influences among individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a complex neurodevelopmental disability impacting an estimated 4%-5% of the population. Understanding sex- and gender-related differences in FASD is needed to facilitate evidence-informed assessment, treatment planning, and advocacy...
March 18, 2023: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Eesha Akhlaque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2023: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Rita Gomes, Bebiana Sousa, Diana Gonzaga, Catarina Prior, Marta Rios, Inês Vaz Matos
INTRODUCTION: Sleep problems are frequent in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some authors have tried to characterize paediatric sleep habits in Portugal, but none has focused on preschool-age children nor attempted to establish their association with ADHD. We aimed to assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in preschool-age children and to study their association with sleep habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study...
March 15, 2023: Anales de pediatría
Heng-Ching Liao, Fang-Ju Lin, Chien-Ning Hsu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Chi-Chuan Wang
This study documented the prescribing patterns of methylphenidate and atomoxetine among patients aged 3 to 18 in Taiwan diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between 2004 and 2017. Initial treatment for ADHD, the time between the first diagnosis and the first prescription, and medication-switching patterns were investigated. The final cohort consisted of 256,882 patients, and 147,210 (57.3%) of them received medication treatment. Most of the patients (98.2%) received methylphenidate...
March 15, 2023: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Krzysztof Kowalski, Jerzy Samochowiec, Marcin Jabłoński, Łukasz Gawęda
Psychotic disorders often develop as the continuum of subclinical symptoms that include hallucination-like and delusion-like experiences, and are commonly referred to as psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). To date, a number of neurodevelopmental risk factors of psychosis have been detected, yet their mutual interplay remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the additive association of childhood trauma history, reading disabilities and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with psychosis proneness...
March 12, 2023: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Christopher Hautmann, Christina Dose, Martin Hellmich, Kristin Scholz, Josepha Katzmann, Julia Pinior, Stephanie Gebauer, Lisa Nordmann, Tanja Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Stephanie Schürmann, Manfred Döpfner
For children with externalising disorders, parent training programmes with different theoretical foundations are available. Currently, there is little knowledge concerning which programme should be recommended to a family based on their individual needs (e.g., single parenthood). The personalised advantage index (PAI) indicates the predicted treatment advantage of one treatment over another. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of this score in providing individualised treatment recommendations...
April 2023: Behaviour Research and Therapy
S Karande, N J Gogtay, N Shaikh, R Sholapurwala, T More, P Meshram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students with borderline intellectual functioning ("slow learners") underperform in all school subjects. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the self-perceived anxiety symptoms of slow learners. Its secondary objective was to analyze impact of sociodemographic variables on their symptoms. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional single-arm questionnaire-based study was conducted in the learning disability clinic of a public medical college in Mumbai...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Sara Soufsaf, Philippe Robaey, Fahima Nekka
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant which inhibits the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, DAT and NET, and is mostly used to treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The current dose optimization is done through titration, a cumbersome approach for patients. To assess the therapeutic performance of MPH regimens, we introduce an in silico framework composed of (i) a population pharmacokinetic model of MPH, (ii) a pharmacodynamic (PD) model of DAT and NET occupancy, (iii) a therapeutic box delimited by time and DAT occupancy, and (iv) a performance score computation...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Dora Koller, Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Renato Polimanti
Self-domestication could contribute to shaping the biology of human brain and consequently the predisposition to neurodevelopmental disorders. Leveraging genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we tested the enrichment of self-domestication and neural crest function loci with respect to the heritability of autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia (SCZ in East Asian and European ancestries, EAS and EUR, respectively), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette's syndrome (TS)...
March 17, 2023: Human Genetics
Won-Pyo Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Seung Pil Pack, Jae-Hyun Lim, Chul-Hyun Cho, Heon-Jeong Lee
IMPORTANCE: Early detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep problems is paramount for children's mental health. Interview-based diagnostic approaches have drawbacks, necessitating the development of an evaluation method that uses digital phenotypes in daily life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive performance of machine learning (ML) models by setting the data obtained from personal digital devices comprising training features (ie, wearable data) and diagnostic results of ADHD and sleep problems by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (K-SADS) as a prediction class from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study...
March 1, 2023: JAMA Network Open
Yuhai Xie, Puming Zhang, Jun Zhao
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely utilized to study the directed influences among neural populations which were called effective connectivity (EC), and the spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM) is the state-of-the-art framework to identify them. However, spDCM used variational Laplace to approximate the posterior density by maximizing the free energy, which might underestimate the variability of posterior density and get locked to the local minima. A spectral sampling algorithm (SS-DCM) was proposed to improve the estimation accuracy of the dynamic causal model for rs-fMRI...
March 16, 2023: Human Brain Mapping
Allyssa K Memmini, Kelly M Mosesso, Susan M Perkins, Benjamin L Brett, Paul F Pasquina, Thomas W McAllister, Michael A McCrea, Steven P Broglio
BACKGROUND: Previous sport-related concussion research highlights post-injury characteristics that influence recovery trajectories; however, there is limited information regarding premorbid factors that affect sport-related concussion risk. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (a) compare premorbid demographic factors among a large cohort of collegiate student athletes who did or did not sustain a sport-related concussion and (b) assess differences in acute injury characteristics based on biological sex and contact level...
March 16, 2023: Sports Medicine
Xin Zhao, Timothy Hayes, Adela C Timmons, Wensong Wu, Stacy L Frazier
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, persistent, and costly mental health condition. The internet is an increasingly popular source for information related to ADHD. With a nationally representative sample (2018 NSCH), we aimed to separate individual- and state-level effects to examine inequities in ADHD diagnoses. We extracted state-level relative search volumes using "ADHD," "ADHD treatment," "ADHD medication," and "ADHD therapy" from Google Trends, and sociodemographic and clinical variables from the 2018 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 26,835)...
March 17, 2023: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Alexis Winfield, Carly Sugar, Barbara Fenesi
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic uprooted regular routines forcing many children to learn from home, requiring many adults to work from home, and cutting families off from support outside the home. Public health restrictions associated with the pandemic caused widespread psychological distress including depression and anxiety, increased fear, panic, and stress. These trends are particularly concerning for families raising neuroatypical children such as those with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as these children are already more likely than their typically developing peers to experience comorbid mental health issues, and to experience greater distress when required to stay indoors...
2023: PloS One
Valentin K Gribkoff, Leonard K Kaczmarek
CNS diseases, including psychiatric disorders, represent a significant opportunity for the discovery and development of new drugs and therapeutic treatments with the potential to have a significant impact on human health. CNS diseases, however, present particular challenges to therapeutic discovery efforts, and psychiatric diseases/disorders may be among the most difficult. With specific exceptions such as psychostimulants for ADHD, a large number of psychiatric patients are resistant to existing treatments...
2023: Advances in Neurobiology
Shaili Aggarwal, Ole Valente Mortensen
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are targets of a wide range of compounds that have been developed as therapeutic treatments for various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders such as depression, ADHD, neuropathic pain, anxiety disorders, stimulant use disorders, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. The MAT family is comprised of three main members - the dopamine transporter (DAT), the norepinephrine transporter (NET), and the serotonin transporter (SERT). These transporters are through reuptake responsible for the clearance of their respective monoamine substrates from the extracellular space...
2023: Advances in Neurobiology
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