Kai Feng, Xinxin Ren, Yiqian Chou, Qingyang Yu, Ying Zhao, Ling Li, Junhong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of Shichangpu (Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A network pharmacology approach integrating ingredients of Shichangpu (Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) and target with ADHD, network construction, molecular function interactions and pathway analysis was used. RESULTS: This approach successfully helped to identify 7 active ingredients of CN, interacting with 21 key targets (ADRA1A, ADRA1B, ADRA2A, ADRA2B, ADRA2C, ADRB1, ADRB2, CHRM1, CHRM2, CHRM3, PTGS1, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, DRD1, DRD5, HTR2A, ADRA1D, MAOB, GRIA2, HTR1A)...
February 2020: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Lidy Pelsser, Klaas Frankena, Jan Toorman, Rob Rodrigues Pereira
Introduction: Double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigating the effect of a few-foods diet (FFD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided consistent evidence that ADHD can be triggered by foods, indicating the existence of a food-induced ADHD subtype. In 2001 the "few-foods" approach was included in an ADHD treatment protocol. This approach consists of (a) determining, by means of an FFD, whether food is a trigger of ADHD; (b) reintroducing, in FFD responders, foods to assess which foods are incriminated; (c) finally composing a personalised diet eliminating the involved foods only...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Geir Ogrim, Juri D Kropotov
Neuropsychiatric diagnoses like ADHD are based on subjective methods like interviews, rating scales and observations. There is a need for more brain-based supplements. Stimulant medication is the most common treatment for ADHD. Clinically useful predictors of response have so far not been reported. The aim of this paper is to describe the EEG based methods we apply to extract potential biomarkers for brain dysfunction. Examples relate to biomarkers for pediatric ADHD, and prediction of medication response. The main emphasis is on Event Related Potentials (ERPs)...
March 12, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wayne Leung, Ishmeet Singh, Scout McWilliams, Sylvia Stockler, Osman S Ipsiroglu
Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with sleep disorders, but standardized assessment of iron status in the diagnostic work-up and iron supplementation as treatment have not been considered in clinical practice. We investigated associations of ID with type and severity of sleep disorders and whether iron supplementation improves sleep-related symptoms. In 2017, we conducted a scoping review for the period 1972-2016 using the terms "iron deficiency anemia" and "sleep" on biomedical database search engines, and in 2019, we updated our review with an ad-hoc search...
February 8, 2020: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Christopher Bosworth, Jonathan N Dodd
This study examined failure rates on the Nonverbal-Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) and its impact on cognitive performance in a sample of youths with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Participants were 184 children and adolescents who presented to a multidisciplinary concussion clinic for a targeted neuropsychological evaluation. Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were a part of the standard battery, including the NV-MSVT. Twenty-eight participants (15.2%) failed the NV-MSVT, none of whom displayed a genuine memory impairment profile (GMIP)...
March 28, 2020: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Ahmet O Ceceli, Joman Y Natsheh, Daniel Cruz, Elizabeth Tricomi
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) poses debilitating impairments in the neurobehavioral systems governing reward-related processes-key to the control of motivated behaviors. Individuals with ADHD may rely on a motivational control system that favors cue-driven habits-rooted in the posterior putamen-over caudate and prefrontal cortex-driven goal-directed behaviors. We examined the neurobehavioral correlates of motivational control in ADHD. Twenty-five adults with ADHD and 25 neurotypicals underwent fMRI while training on two stimulus-response-outcome associations...
February 29, 2020: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Guy A Higgins, Matt Brown, Jessica St John, Cam MacMillan, Leo B Silenieks, Sandy Thevarkunnel
Drug repositioning has gained strategic value as a reaction to high attrition rates of new drugs as they pass through the clinical development process. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin (Belviq®), and the selective NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (Strattera®) represent two drugs FDA approved for obesity and ADHD respectively. Although both drugs are of differing pharmacological class, each share a property of regulating impulsive behaviours in preclinical studies, and thus represent candidates for consideration in clinical conditions labelled as 'impulsive-compulsive disorders'...
March 25, 2020: Neuropharmacology
Alexandra Hendry, Emily J H Jones, Rachael Bedford, Linn Andersson Konke, Jannath Begum Ali, Sven Bӧlte, Karin C Brocki, Ellen Demurie, Mark Johnson, Mirjam K J Pijl, Herbert Roeyers, Tony Charman
Autism is frequently associated with difficulties with top-down attentional control, which impact on individuals' mental health and quality of life. The developmental processes involved in these attentional difficulties are not well understood. Using a data-driven approach, 2 samples (N = 294 and 412) of infants at elevated and typical likelihood of autism were grouped according to profiles of parent report of attention at 10, 15 and 25 months. In contrast to the normative profile of increases in attentional control scores between infancy and toddlerhood, a minority (7-9%) showed plateauing attentional control scores between 10 and 25 months...
March 27, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Anna R Docherty, Andrey A Shabalin, Daniel E Adkins, Frank Mann, Robert F Krueger, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Andrew M McIntosh, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: Subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms in the general population may be associated with molecular genetic risk for psychosis. This study sought to optimize the association of risk symptoms with genetic risk for psychosis in a large population-based cohort in the UK (N = 9104 individuals 18-65 years of age) by properly accounting for population stratification, factor structure, and sex. METHODS: The newly expanded Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study includes 5391 females and 3713 males with age M [SD] = 45...
March 27, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Edward D Huey
The theory of "disinhibition" has been very influential in psychiatry and neurology for over a century. Disinhibition has been used to explain clinical findings in many neurological and psychiatric disorders including dementia, traumatic brain injury, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity in personality disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, disinhibition has been used as a unifying theory to link clinical observations with cognitive findings, and even cellular findings...
April 2020: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Elham Shareghfarid, Zohreh Sadat Sangsefidi, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent chronic psychiatric condition in children world wide. This study was aimed to provide an overview of food groups and dietary patterns in ADHD children as a systematic review. METHODS: The relation between dietary patterns and this disorder was also investigated through meta-analysis. Databases including Google Scholar, SCOPUS, ISI Web of science, and PubMed were searched up to June 2017...
April 2020: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Frederick W Reimherr, Michael Roesler, Barrie K Marchant, Thomas E Gift, Wolfgang Retz, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Matthew L Reimherr
OBJECTIVE: Research supports the importance of emotional symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which are not reflected in the DSM-5 or ICD-10 criteria. The Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) assesses these symptoms, plus inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This scale allowed us to divide adult ADHD into 2 subtypes in a 2015 publication: ADHD inattentive presentation and ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation...
March 17, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Michaela Cordova, Kiryl Shada, Damion V Demeter, Olivia Doyle, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Anders Perrone, Emma Schifsky, Alice Graham, Eric Fombonne, Beth Langhorst, Joel Nigg, Damien A Fair, Eric Feczko
BACKGROUND: Those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention, causing significant hardships for families and society. A potential mechanism involved in these conditions is atypical executive function (EF). Inconsistent findings highlight that EF features may be shared or distinct across ADHD and ASD. With ADHD and ASD each also being heterogeneous, we hypothesized that there may be nested subgroups across disorders with shared or unique underlying mechanisms...
March 16, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jan Uter, Marcus Heldmann, Berenike Rogge, Martina Obst, Julia Steinhardt, Georg Brabant, Carla Moran, Krishna Chatterjee, Thomas F Münte
Resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ) is a syndrome of reduced responsiveness of peripheral tissue to thyroid hormone, caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB). Its cognitive phenotype has been reported to be similar to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study used electrophysiological biomarkers of performance monitoring in RTHβ to contribute further evidence on its phenotypical similarity to ADHD. Twenty-one participants with RTHβ aged 18-67 years and 21 matched healthy controls performed a modified flanker task during EEG recording...
March 19, 2020: NeuroImage: Clinical
Roger W Simmons, Tenille C Taggart, Jennifer D Thomas, Sarah N Mattson, Edward P Riley
The current profile of gait control in children with ADHD is incomplete and predominately based on children walking forward at a self-selected pace. There are no studies of potential gait deficits in this clinical population when walking in different directions in combination with varying rates of stepping that are freely selected and entrained to an external stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to address this lack of information by assessing gait of children aged 7-17 years with (n = 17) and without (n = 26) ADHD...
April 2020: Human Movement Science
Steve Lukito, Luke Norman, Christina Carlisi, Joaquim Radua, Heledd Hart, Emily Simonoff, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormalities in frontal, temporal, parietal and striato-thalamic networks. It is unclear to what extent these abnormalities are distinctive or shared. This comparative meta-analysis aimed to identify the most consistent disorder-differentiating and shared structural and functional abnormalities. METHODS: Systematic literature search was conducted for whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cognitive control comparing people with ASD or ADHD with typically developing controls...
March 27, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Florine Dellapiazza, Cécile Michelon, Christelle Vernhet, Filippo Muratori, Nathalie Blanc, Marie-Christine Picot, Amaria Baghdadli
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are early neurodevelopmental conditions that share clinical characteristics, raising important issues in clinical diagnosis. We aimed to compare (1) sensory processing in four groups of children: ASD alone, ASD + ADHD, ADHD alone, and typical development (TD) and (2) the association between sensory processing and attention in the three groups with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our sample included 120 children aged from 6 to 12 years divided into four groups: ASD alone (N = 43), ASD + ADHD (N = 18), ADHD alone (N = 28), and TD (N = 31)...
March 25, 2020: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Ferhat Yaylacı, Begüm Şahbudak, Önder Küçük
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, characterized by attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The most effective treatment in ADHD is drug treatment. Stimulant and nonstimulant drug treatments are preferentially used. Atomoxetine is one of the nonstimulant treatments. Although sexual side effects of atomoxetine in adults are reported, there is limited knowledge about sexual side effects in children and adolescents. In this case report, we aimed to describe an adolescent 16-year old with spontaneous ejaculation, a rare sexual side effect, that started at the third day of the treatment and ended by discontinuing atomoxetine...
March 12, 2020: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Torunn Stene Nøvik, Anne-Lise Juul Haugan, Stian Lydersen, Per Hove Thomsen, Susan Young, Anne Mari Sund
INTRODUCTION: Persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adolescence is a significant burden to patients. Clinical guidelines recommend non-pharmacological therapies, but the evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a 12-week group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for adolescents with ADHD aged 14-18 years, who still have impairing symptoms after treatment with medication. We will study the effect of the treatment on ADHD symptoms and examine moderators and mediators of the effect of the treatment on ADHD...
March 25, 2020: BMJ Open
Shirley Hershko, Samuele Cortese, Eyal Ert, Anna Aronis, Adina Maeir, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: Previous research on adults with ADHD revealed high rates of overweight and obesity, as well as unhealthy diet habits. Other studies demonstrated that social-affective contexts can influence food choice. This study examines the sensitivity of adults with ADHD to cues of food attractiveness and convenience, for healthy and unhealthy foods. METHOD: One hundred and seventy-two university students with (n = 59) and without (n = 113) ADHD, aged 19-40, participated in the study...
March 22, 2020: Appetite
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