Kelly Chen, Shelley Phipps
Despite the compelling evidence of the long-run consequences of childhood inattention/hyperactivity and harmful side effects of stimulant medication, relatively little is known about accessible non-pharmacological options to reduce inattentive/hyperactive behaviours. This study evaluates the effect of daily exercise on inattentive/hyperactive behaviours among young children by leveraging evidence from a quasi-experiment generated when 3 Canadian provinces adopted mandatory requirements for all students in grades 1 through 6 to participate in 20-30 min of daily physical activity at school between 1994 and 2009...
July 16, 2021: Social Science & Medicine
Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Uri Gabbay, Doron Carmi, BatEl Goldstein, Lital Keinan-Boker, Stav Bloch, Joseph Meyerovitch
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sex-specific effects of stimulants in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on body mass index (BMI)-Z and Height-Z trajectories. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study utilizing the database of Israel Clalit Health Services. Participants included 5-18-year-old insureds with documentation of at least two consecutive prescriptions of stimulant drugs for ADHD. Participants were further compared with sex and age matched non-ADHD insureds...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Pediatrics
Thea S Skogheim, Kjell Vegard F Weyde, Heidi Aase, Stephanie M Engel, Pål Surén, Merete G Øie, Guido Biele, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Line S Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Bonnie Auyeung, Gro D Villanger
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental deficits and disorders, but evidence is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFAS were associated with childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study and included n = 821 ADHD cases, n = 400 ASD cases and n = 980 controls...
July 19, 2021: Environmental Research
Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Håkan Jarbin, Markus Andersson, Tord Ivarsson
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) are widely used measures of psychiatric symptoms and lately also adapted to the DSM. The incremental validity of adding the scales to each other has not been studied. We validated the DSM subscales for affective, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), oppositional defiant (ODD), conduct problems (CD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients (n = 267) against LEAD DSM-IV diagnoses based on the K-SADS-PL and subsequent clinical work-up...
2021: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2021: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Yingqi Gu, Yi Zhu, Kirk Warren Brown
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of mindfulness has been a hot topic in recent years, not only in clinical fields but also in neuroscience. Most neuroimaging findings demonstrate that critical brain regions involved in mindfulness are responsible for cognitive functions and mental states. However, the brain is a complex system operating via multiple circuits and networks, rather than isolated brain regions solely responsible for specific functions. Mindfulness-based treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches...
July 20, 2021: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Eric E Coris, Byron Moran, Kevin Sneed, Gianluca Del Rossi, Bradford Bindas, Shaan Mehta, Dusty Narducci
CONTEXT: There are 3.8 million mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) that occur each year in the United States. Many are left with prolonged life-altering neurocognitive deficits, including difficulties in attention, concentration, mental fatigue, and distractibility. With extensive data on the safety and efficacy of stimulant medications in treating attention deficit, concentration difficulties and distractibility seen with attention deficit disorder, it is not surprising that interest continues regarding the application of stimulant medications for the persistent neurocognitive deficits in some mTBIs...
July 22, 2021: Sports Health
Nicole K Schatz, Gregory A Fabiano, Joseph S Raiker, Timothy B Hayes, William E Pelham
In an effort to understand teachers' perceptions of best practices for treatment of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and how those may have shifted over the past 20 years, general education elementary school teachers completed surveys regarding their opinions of evidence-based interventions in the classroom. Two independent and anonymous samples of general education, elementary school teachers were collected: One in 1999 (n = 598) and a second in 2019 (n = 661). Teachers responded to questions about their interactions with students with ADHD as well as their beliefs about best practices for these students...
July 2021: School psychology
Leonhard H Drescher, C Nico Boehler, Jan R Wiersema
OBJECTIVE: According to the state regulation deficit account, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with difficulties in maintaining an optimal level of cognitive arousal. As the precise locus of this problem is yet unknown, the present study investigated this through behavioral and pupillometry indices. METHOD: Adults scoring high versus low on ADHD symptomatology carried out a target detection task at three event rate (ER) levels. Phasic pupil dilation was used as an index of cognitive effort, and tonic pupil size as an index of tonic arousal...
July 2021: Neuropsychology
Faisal A Nawaz, Meshal A Sultan
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of low birth weight and other perinatal risk factors in children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. This is one of the first studies in the Arabian Gulf region focused on the contribution of these factors toward the development of various disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and other mental disorders. This descriptive study was based on qualitative data analysis. We reviewed retrospective information from the electronic medical records of 692 patients in Dubai, United Arab Emirates...
2021: Global Pediatric Health
Maliheh Ahmadi, Kamran Kazemi, Katarzyna Kuc, Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz, Mohammad Sadegh Helfroush, Ardalan Aarabi
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In this study, we investigated group differences in dynamic functional connectivity between 113 children with inattentive (46 ADHDI) and combined (67 ADHDC) ADHD and 76 typically developing (TD) children using resting state fMRI data. For dynamic connectivity analysis, the data were first decomposed into 100 independent components, among which 88 were classified into eight well-known resting state networks...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Neural Engineering
Maria Wingren, Kajsa Lidström-Holmqvist, Afsaneh Hayat Roshanai, Patrik Arvidsson, Gunnel Janeslätt, Suzanne White, Marie Holmefur
BACKGROUND: Time management skills are essential to maintain occupations in everyday life. People with neurodevelopmental or mental disorders often experience persistent difficulties with managing time and organizing daily life, consequently, there is a need to establish interventions with sustainable results. AIM: The aim was to perform a one-year post-intervention follow-up after the intervention Let's Get Organized (LGO-S) for people with neurodevelopmental or mental disorders...
July 21, 2021: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
You Bin Lim, Kukju Kweon, Bung-Nyun Kim
Objectives: Childhood adversity is a risk factor for anxiety symptoms, but it affects anxiety symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to examine the association between childhood adversity and anxiety symptoms in participants with and without ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from a school-based epidemiological study of 1017 randomly selected children and adolescents. The ADHD and non-ADHD groups were divided using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale (DPS)...
July 1, 2021: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
Yeon Jung Lee, Minjae Kim, Ji-Sun Kim, Yun Sung Lee, Jeong Eun Shin
The purpose of this review is to examine the clinical use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Many studies have been conducted using objective evaluation tools for psychiatric evaluation, such as predicting psychiatric symptoms and treatment responses. Compared to other tools, fNIRS has the advantage of being a noninvasive, inexpensive, and portable method and can be used with patients in the awake state. This study mainly focused on its use in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder...
July 1, 2021: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
Ji Sun Kim, Yeon Jung Lee, Se-Hoon Shim
Electroencephalography (EEG) measures neural activation due to various cognitive processes. EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in studies investigating psychopathology and neural substrates of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to review recent ERP studies in child and adolescent psychiatry. ERPs are non-invasive methods for studying synaptic functions in the brain. ERP might be a candidate biomarker in child-adolescent psychiatry, considering its ability to reflect cognitive and behavioral functions in humans...
July 1, 2021: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
Su Hyun Bong, Jun Won Kim
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) leads to functional decline in academic performance, interpersonal relationships, and development in school-aged children. Early diagnosis and appropriate intervention can significantly reduce the functional decline caused by ADHD. Currently, there is no established biological marker for ADHD. Some studies have suggested that various indicators from the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) may be useful biological markers for the diagnosis of ADHD. Until the 2010s, theta/beta ratio (TBR) was a biomarker candidate for ADHD that consistently showed high diagnostic value...
July 1, 2021: Soa--chʻŏngsonyŏn chŏngsin ŭihak, Journal of child & adolescent psychiatry
Sanja Josef-Golubić
The generally accepted model of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli assumes two major parallel processing streams, ventral and dorsal, which comprise functionally and anatomically distinct but interacting processes in which the ventral stream supports stimulus identification, and the dorsal stream is involved in recognizing the stimulus spatial location and sensori-motor integration functions. However, recent studies suggest the existence of a third, very fast sensory processing pathway, a gating stream that directly links the primary auditory cortices to the executive prefrontal cortex within the first 50 milliseconds after presentation of a stimulus, bypassing hierarchical structure of the ventral and dorsal pathways...
December 2020: Acta Clinica Croatica
Kao-Ping Chua, Anna Volerman, Rena M Conti
BACKGROUND: After the US coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, overall prescription dispensing declined but then rebounded. Whether these same trends occurred for children is unknown. METHODS: Using the IQVIA National Prescription Audit, which contains monthly dispensing counts from 92% of US retail pharmacies, we assessed changes in the monthly number of prescriptions dispensed to US children aged 0 to 19 years during 2018-2020. We compared dispensing totals in April to December 2020 and April to December 2019 overall, by drug class, and among drug classes that typically treat acute infections (eg, antibiotics) or chronic diseases (eg, antidepressants)...
July 20, 2021: Pediatrics
Le Gao, Kenneth K C Man, Esther W Chan, Celine S L Chui, Xue Li, David Coghill, Kam Lun Hon, Man Li Tse, Terry Y S Lum, Kirstie H T W Wong, Patrick Ip, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of all-cause poisoning by drugs and chemicals (intentional or accidental). Currently, there is limited data on whether medication treatment for ADHD can reduce the risk of all-cause poisoning. METHODS: Patients aged 5-18 years with a methylphenidate (MPH) prescription and an incident poisoning diagnosis between January 2001 and June 2020 were identified from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System...
July 20, 2021: CNS Drugs
Steffen Barra, Daniel Turner, Marcus Müller, Priscilla Gregorio Hertz, Petra Retz-Junginger, Oliver Tüscher, Michael Huss, Wolfgang Retz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2021: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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