Hiba K Anis, Jared A Warren, Alison K Klika, Suparna M Navale, Guangjin Zhou, Wael K Barsoum, Carlos A Higuera, Nicolas S Piuzzi
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of mental health conditions among patients undergoing (1) primary total knee arthroplasty (pTKA), (2) septic revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA), and (3) aseptic revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The State Inpatient Databases were queried for all TKAs from 2005 to 2014 yielding 563,144 patients. Patients were separated into the following cohorts: primary, septic revision, and aseptic revision. Diagnoses of any mental health condition and the following specific conditions were compared between the three cohorts: schizophrenia/delusion, bipolar disorder, depression/mood disorder, personality disorder, anxiety/somatic/dissociative disorder, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder /conduct/impulse control, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Knee Surgery
Maria Paraskevopoulou, Daan van Rooij, Aart H Schene, Anouk P J Scheres, Jan K Buitelaar, Arnt F A Schellekens
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD) often co-occur. Both disorders are characterized by impulsive choice. However, little is known about the effects of substance misuse (SM) and family history of SUD (FH) on impulsive choice in ADHD-SUD comorbidity. Impulsive choice is also linked to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, which are suggested to play a role in ADHD-SUD comorbidity. Our aim was to examine the effects of (1) FH and (2) SM on impulsive choice, while exploring the role of CU traits...
July 13, 2020: European Addiction Research
Shoou-Lian Hwang-Gu, Hsing-Chang Ni, Sophie Hsin-Yi Liang, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Li Tsao, Chiao-Fan Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Objective: This study examined preschoolers with teacher-reported or parent-reported situational hyperactivity, and whether they differed in terms of behavioral problems, attentional problems, and parenting perceptions. Method: We used the Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test and the Color Flanker Task to assess 99 preschoolers with pervasive high-ADHD-symptoms (42), school-situational high-ADHD-symptoms (30), or home-situational high-ADHD-symptoms (27), plus 111 preschoolers with pervasive low-ADHD-symptoms...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jenny A B M Houtepen, Jelle J Sijtsema, Rosalind Van der Lem, Anouk Scheres, Stefan Bogaerts
OBJECTIVES: To provide more insight into treatment and research responsivity in offenders with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Via self-reports and patients' scores on cognitive computer tasks, it was examined whether poorer cognitive-motivational, interpersonal, and behavioral functioning were related to treatment no-shows, longer treatment time duration intervals, and no-show at the research appointment in 52 forensic outpatients with ADHD (Mage  = 35...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Nancy Lu, Devyn C Rigsby, Sarah A Keim, Eli Rapoport, Andrew Adesman
Researchers have long been interested in whether lateral preference is associated with giftedness, season of birth, and/or ADHD constructs (short attention span, high level of activity, and impulsivity). The objective of this study was to examine these associations in a large, longitudinal sample of U.S. children (National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), 1959-1973). Children born to women in this pregnancy cohort underwent a neonatal exam and an exam at age 7 years to assess lateral preference of the hand and eye, IQ on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and ADHD symptoms...
July 13, 2020: Laterality
Joseph F McGuire, Nathaniel Ginder, Kesley Ramsey, Joey Ka-Yee Essoe, Emily J Ricketts, James T McCracken, John Piacentini
Tourette's Disorder (TD) is characterized by tics that cause distress and impairment. While treatment guidelines recommend behavior therapy as a first-line intervention, patients with TD may exhibit limited therapeutic response. Given the need to improve treatment outcomes, this study examined the efficacy of augmenting behavior therapy with D-cycloserine (DCS) to reduce tic severity in a placebo-controlled quick-win/fast-fail trial. Twenty youth with TD completed a baseline assessment to characterize tic severity, premonitory urges, medical history, and psychiatric comorbidity...
July 12, 2020: Neuropsychopharmacology
Mathias Luderer, Iris Reinhard, Agnes Richter, Falk Kiefer, Tillmann Weber
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence (AD) is frequently associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to investigate whether in patients with AD, ADHD is associated with an increased rate of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and PTSD, with increased PTSD severity and higher impact on daily functioning. METHODS: Patients with AD were thoroughly assessed for ADHD during long-term residential treatment...
July 10, 2020: European Addiction Research
Takayoshi Mamiya, Shota Tanase, Shino Takeuchi, Shunsuke Kato, Ai Ito, Masayuki Hiramatsu, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) causes behavioral abnormalities in offspring, such as an enhancement of impulsivity and decrease in attention at adolescence. Here we examined the effects of galantamine (GAL) on the behavioral and electrophysiological changes induced by PNE in mice. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to nicotine (0.2 mg/mL) dissolved in sweetened (2% saccharin) drinking water during gestational day 14 and perinatal day 0 (P0). At the ages of postnatal days 42-49 (P42-P49), female offspring displayed impulsivity in the cliff avoidance test and impairment of visual attention in the object-based attention test...
July 8, 2020: Biochemical Pharmacology
Torbjörn Tomson, Giulia Muraca, Neda Razaz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between paternal use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and major congenital malformations (MCM) in the offspring. METHODS: Using nationwide Swedish registries, we included 1 144 795 births to 741 726 fathers without epilepsy and 4544 births to 2955 fathers with epilepsy. Of these, 2087 (45.9%) were born to fathers with epilepsy who had dispensed an AED during the conception period. Children who had both parents with epilepsy were excluded...
July 10, 2020: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Isabelle Le Ray, Chen Wang, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, Brian M D'Onofrio, Stefan Johansson, Henrik Larsson, Mina A Rosenqvist
AIM: Neonatal jaundice is associated with higher risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it is unclear if the association is influenced by genetic and other familial factors. In this large population-based study, we investigated the association between neonatal jaundice and ADHD while adjusting for familial factors. METHODS: We linked several Swedish registers to identify all singleton births without congenital malformations between 1992 and 2000 (n=814,420, including 384,290 full siblings) and followed them up until 2009...
July 10, 2020: Acta Paediatrica
Josefa Canals Sans, Paula Morales Hidalgo, Joana Roigé Castellví, Núria Voltas Moreso, Carmen Hernández Martínez
Objective: To report the ADHD estimated prevalence in Spain, considering differences in sex, age, presentation, and severity. Method: This study has a two-phase design and forms part of the Neurodevelopmental Disorders Epidemiological Research Project (EPINED). The ADHD screening was conducted through parent ( N  = 3,727) and teacher ( N  = 6,894). To perform ADHD diagnosis (DSM-5), screen positive and a subsample of the screen negative children and their parents were assessed using neuropsychological tests and a semi-structured psychiatric interview...
July 10, 2020: Journal of Attention Disorders
Frances L Wang, Sarah L Pedersen, Bernie Devlin, Elizabeth M Gnagy, William E Pelham, Brooke S G Molina
The literature is inconsistent regarding whether childhood ADHD confers risk for adulthood problematic alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence. These inconsistencies could be due to meaningful heterogeneity in the adulthood outcomes of children with ADHD that were obscured in traditional group-based analyses. The current study tested this possibility, as well as the contribution of adulthood ADHD symptom persistence, in order to clarify long-term risk in this population. Children diagnosed with ADHD and demographically-similar children without ADHD were followed longitudinally into adulthood and repeatedly assessed on heavy drinking, alcohol problems, and depressive symptoms from ages 21-29 (84...
July 9, 2020: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Nils Opel, Janik Goltermann, Marco Hermesdorf, Klaus Berger, Bernhard T Baune, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have consistently reported similar brain structural abnormalities across different psychiatric disorders. Yet, the extent and regional distribution of shared morphometric abnormalities between disorders remains unknown. METHODS: Here, we conducted a cross-disorder analysis of brain structural abnormalities in 6 psychiatric disorders based on effect size estimates for cortical thickness and subcortical volume differences between healthy control subjects and psychiatric patients from 11 mega- and meta-analyses from the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis) consortium...
May 11, 2020: Biological Psychiatry
Tian Wang, Jie Zhang, Yi Xu
Environmental lead (Pb) exposure is closely associated with pathogenesis of a range of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), etc. Epigenetic machinery modulates neural development and activities, while faulty epigenetic regulation contributes to the diverse forms of CNS (central nervous system) abnormalities and diseases. As a potent epigenetic modifier, lead is thought to cause neurological disorders through modulating epigenetic mechanisms...
July 7, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Deborah A Pearson, Cynthia W Santos, Michael G Aman, L Eugene Arnold, David M Lane, Katherine A Loveland, Rosleen Mansour, Anthony R Ward, Charles D Casat, Susan Jerger, Russell J Schachar, Oscar G Bukstein, Lynne A Cleveland
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH (IR-MPH) in the afternoon, on cognitive task performance. Method: The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys and 5 girls) who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule , and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
July 9, 2020: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Zahir Vally
The addictive use of internet video games is now recognized as a valid diagnostic construct by both the World Health Organization and the American Psychiatric Association. A burgeoning body of preliminary evidence points to a relationship between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as being a risk factor for behaviors indicative of internet gaming disorder (IGD), however, studies have rarely examined ADHD's two diagnostic constructs, inattention and impulsivity, separately. Moreover, IGD research is non-existent in Middle Eastern contexts...
July 8, 2020: Psychiatric Quarterly
Maede Hosseinnia, Maryam Amidi Mazaheri, Zahra Heidari
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in child psychiatry, which has a greater impact on the future life of the children affected in case of being untreated and undiagnosed. Given the undeniable role of teachers in improving this disorder and preventing its destructive consequences on children, the present research has examined the knowledge, attitude, and practice of elementary school teachers regarding ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in 2019...
2020: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Lukas Wilenius, Markku Partinen
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have many comorbidities. Narcoleptic patients have a big prevalence of ADHD (15%-30%). Both groups suffer from similar symptoms and benefit from the same class of medications. As such, narcolepsy could be masked in ADHD patients. Low serum ferritin has been found both in ADHD patients as well as in patients with narcolepsy. Materials & methods We enrolled 26 participants (14 ADHD patients and 12 controls). They answered several questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained from 20 participants...
June 4, 2020: Curēus
Mary F Seideman, Travis A Seideman
Tourette syndrome is a hyperkinetic movement disorder that presents before age 18 years and involves motor and phonic tics that may present with a wide range of severity. The severity and presentation of tics in an individual may fluctuate over time. Tourette syndrome may affect social relationships and school attendance, and may result in depression. Comorbidities are common, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common. The literature supporting optimal treatment is limited but provides a framework for clinical decision-making...
2020: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Margaret H Sibley, Stefany J Coxe
BACKGROUND: The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Teen Integrative Data Analysis Longitudinal (TIDAL) dataset integrates data from four randomized trials. METHOD: Participants with ADHD (N = 854; 72.5% male, 92.5% racial/ethnic minority, ages 10-17) were assessed three times across 12 months. Data includes parent, self, and teacher ratings, observations, and school records. The battery was harmonized using an Integrative Data Analysis (IDA) approach to form variables that assign unique values to all participants...
July 8, 2020: BMC Psychiatry
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