Aditya Subramaniam, Ronald Ming Ren Tan, Derrick Chan, Zhi Min Ng, Chao Yan Dong, Jasmine Xun Yi Feng, Shu-Ling Chong
Background: Pediatric sports-induced concussions have become a topic of interest and concern in the scientific community. Already, the literature is rich with studies that have identified numerous short-term and long-term consequences of childhood sports-induced concussions. However, there are very few studies that have identified how well the students who participate in concussion-prone sports and their coaches understand these consequences and how they can be avoided. This study aimed to explore student athletes' and their coaches' understanding of the concept of concussion and how it is managed both immediately after the injury occurs and during long-term recovery...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Linda M Huynh, Mark P Burns, Daniel D Taub, Marc R Blackman, June Zhou
Glucose is an essential cellular fuel for maintaining normal brain functions. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases brain glucose utilization in both human and experimental animals during the acute or subacute phase of TBI. It remains unclear as to how the damages affect brain glucose utilization and its association with persistent neurobehavioral impairments in the chronic phase of mild TBI (mTBI). Accordingly, we compared expression of selected genes important to brain glucose utilization in different brain regions of mice during the chronic phase in mTBI vs...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sofie Hänni, Fredrik Vedung, Yelverton Tegner, Niklas Marklund, Jakob Johansson
Objective: There are growing concerns about the short- and long-term consequences of sports-related concussion, which account for about 5-9% of all sports injuries. We hypothesized there may be sex differences in concussion history and concussion-related symptoms, evaluated among elite soccer players in Sweden. Design: Retrospective survey study. Participants and Setting: Soccer players ( n = 1,030) from 55 Swedish elite soccer teams. Questionnaires were completed prior to the start of the 2017 season. Assessment of Risk Factors: Player history of soccer-related concussion (SoRC), symptoms and management following a SoRC were evaluated...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Boram Lee, Jungtae Leem, Hyunho Kim, Hee-Geun Jo, Chan-Young Kwon
Background: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness (functional outcomes and clinical symptoms) and safety (incidence of adverse events) of herbal medicine (HM) as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to conventional treatment (CT) for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: We comprehensively searched 14 databases from their inception until July 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using HM as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to treat TBI patients were included. The primary outcome was functional outcomes, consciousness state, morbidity, and mortality...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
Pulwasha M Iftikhar, Arsalan Anwar, Sidra Saleem, Saad Nasir, Arslan Inayat
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and its sequelae are becoming one of the most pressing public health concerns worldwide. It is one of the leading causes of increased morbidity and mortality. The primary insult to the brain can cause ischemic brain injury, paralysis, concussions, death, and other serious complications. Brain injury also involves other systems through a secondary pathway resulting in multiple complications during and after hospitalization. The focus of our article is to assess the literature available on traumatic brain injury and intestinal dysfunctional to highlight the aspects of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and different diagnostic approaches for early diagnosis of gut dysfunction...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Hélène Cassoudesalle, Maxime Bildet, Hervé Petit, Patrick Dehail
Soccer exposes players to head injuries and involves repeated intentional head impacts through heading the ball. Our objective was to investigate the rate of both intentional headers and involuntary head impacts in semiprofessional male soccer players during one season. In this prospective cohort study, we followed 54 men (16-35 years) playing in two soccer clubs participating in the same regional French championship throughout the 2017-2018 season. All head impacts that occurred in competitive games were analyzed using video recordings...
October 18, 2020: Brain Injury
William D Brown, Janette Baird, Peter K Kriz
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a non-proprietary, novel testing battery can identify recently concussed children within 8 weeks of injury. STUDY DESIGN: 568 clinic outpatients ages 10-18 years were sorted into three groups: 316 had never been concussed, 162 had ever been concussed prior to 8 weeks earlier, and 90 had been recently concussed within 8 weeks. At initial and any subsequent visits a neurological examination and four procedures were performed: Stick Drop, Wall Ball, Sharpened Modified Romberg (SMR), and Animal Naming...
October 14, 2020: Journal of Pediatrics
Tahnae Tarkenton, Todd Caze Ii, Cheryl H Silver, Linda S Hynan, Nyaz Didehbani, Shane Miller, Hunt Batjer, Kathleen Bell, C Munro Cullum
OBJECTIVE: To characterize potential differences in youth concussion sustained in motor vehicle accident (MVA) versus sport-related concussion (SRC), hypothesizing that youth who sustain concussion in a MVA would endorse higher initial and persistent symptom scores compared to those with SRC, despite similar injury severity levels. METHODS: Participants age 12-18 who sustained a concussion (i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale = 13-15) in a MVA (n = 35) were matched with SRC participants (n = 35) by sex, age, and days since injury...
October 17, 2020: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Kevin M Koch, Andrew S Nencka, Brad Swearingen, Anne H Bauer, Timothy Meier, Michael McCrea
Recent studies have demonstrated the promising capabilities of MRI-based quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) in producing biomarkers of brain injury. The present study aims to further explore acute QSM changes in athletes after sports concussion and investigate prognostication capabilities of QSM-derived imaging metrics. QSM were derived from neurological MRI data acquired on a cohort (n=78) of concussed male American football athletes within 48 hours of injury. MRI-derived QSM values in subcortical gray and white matter compartments after concussion showed differences relative to a matched uninjured control group (white matter: z = 3...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Neurotrauma
Cameron S Mang, Tara A Whitten, Madeline S Cosh, Sean P Dukelow, Brian W Benson
CONTEXT: Sport-related concussion (SRC) often presents with multidimensional and subtle neurologic deficits that are difficult to detect with standard clinical tests. New assessment approaches that efficiently quantify deficits across multiple neurologic domains are needed. OBJECTIVE: To quantify impairments in postural movements during an assessment of rapid, bimanual motor ability in athletes within 10 days of experiencing an SRC and evaluate relationships between impairments in upper extremity and postural performance...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Athletic Training
Joshua Auger, Justin Markel, Dimitri D Pecoski, Nicolas Leiva-Molano, Thomas M Talavage, Larry Leverenz, Francis Shen, Eric A Nauman
It has been documented that up to 22% of all soccer injuries are concussions. This is in part due to players purposely using their head to direct the ball during play. To provide a more complete understanding of head trauma in soccer athletes, this study characterized the effects of four soccer ball characteristics (size, inflation pressure, mass, velocity) on the resulting peak impact force as it relates to the potential for incurring neurophysiological changes. A total of six hundred trials were performed on size 4 and 5 soccer balls as well as a novel lightweight soccer ball...
2020: PloS One
Jessie R Oldham, David R Howell, Christopher A Knight, Jeremy R Crenshaw, Thomas A Buckley
PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine gait characteristics between collegiate athletes who did and did not sustain a lower-extremity musculoskeletal (LEMSK) injury in the year after concussion. METHODS: Thirty-four NCAA collegiate athletes with diagnosed concussions were divided into two groups based on if they did (n = 16) or did not (n = 18) sustain a LEMSK in the year after concussion. Participants completed baseline testing before the start of the season and again at return to play postconcussion...
November 2020: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jerry Hsu, Magdalena Stec, Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Nina Srdanovic, Sudhi P Kurup
AIM: To investigate the impact of concussion on pupillary function in children by examining pupillometric parameters and assessing for differences in children reporting photosensitivity. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of pediatric patients referred for visual symptoms after concussion from 2017 to 2018 seen in a single academic outpatient clinic. Pupillometry data of 92 patients were included. Outcomes were compared to normative pediatric data from the same institution by 2-sample t tests...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Child Neurology
Nikola Zivanovic, Shane Virani, Alysha A Rajaram, Catherine Lebel, Keith Owen Yeates, Brian L Brooks
OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects of pediatric concussion on brain morphometry remain poorly delineated. This study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate cortical volume and thickness in youth several years after concussion. METHODS: Participants aged 8-19 years old with a history of concussion (n = 37) or orthopedic injury (n = 20) underwent MRI, rated their postconcussion symptoms, and completed cognitive testing on average 2.6 years (SD = 1.6) after injury...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Child Neurology
David R Howell, Morgan N Potter, Aaron J Provance, Pamela E Wilson, Michael W Kirkwood, Julie C Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of sleep disturbances on concussion symptom recovery and to examine the effect of melatonin prescription on symptom improvement among concussed adolescents with sleep problems. DESIGN: Longitudinal test-retest. SETTING: Sports medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 8 to 18 years, diagnosed with a concussion, evaluated within 14 days after injury, and evaluated again 15 to 35 days after injury...
September 29, 2020: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
David William Kruse, Andrew Seiji Nobe, John Billimek
OBJECTIVES: To determine the injury incidence and characteristics for elite, male, artistic USA gymnasts during gymnastics competitions, held in the USA, from 2008 to 2018. METHODS: Injury documentation performed by lead physician and certified athletic trainers at elite junior and senior USA Gymnastics competitions from 2008 to 2018 were reviewed and compiled into an excel database. Injury incidence was computed per 1000 registered gymnasts by competition setting as well as injury location, type, cause, severity, and setting...
October 14, 2020: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jing Zhang, Kristina Safar, Zahra Emami, George M Ibrahim, Shannon E Scratch, Leodante da Costa, Benjamin Thomas Dunkley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is impossible to detect using standard neuroradiological assessment such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Injury does however disrupt the dynamic repertoire of neural activity indexed by neural oscillations. In particular, beta oscillations are reliable predictors of cognitive, perceptual and motor system functioning, as well as correlate highly with underlying myelin architecture and brain connectivity - all factors particularly susceptible to dysregulation after mTBI...
October 14, 2020: Journal of Neurophysiology
Emily E Kieffer, Mark T Begonia, Abigail M Tyson, Steve Rowson
Measuring head impacts in sports can further our understanding of brain injury biomechanics and, hopefully, advance concussion diagnostics and prevention. Although there are many head impact sensors available, skepticism on their utility exists over concerns related to measurement error. Previous studies report mixed reliability in head impact sensor measurements, but there is no uniform approach to assessing accuracy, making comparisons between sensors and studies difficult. The objective of this paper is to introduce a two-phased approach to evaluating head impact sensor accuracy...
October 13, 2020: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Nicole Phillips, Joseph J Crisco
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of regulations and behavioral interventions on head impacts and concussions in youth, high-school, and collegiate football, using a systematic search strategy to identify relevant literature. Six databases were searched using key search terms related to three categories: football, head-injuries, and interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were included in the study and underwent data extraction. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematized review...
October 13, 2020: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Camille Heslot, Mélanie Cogné, Elodie Guillouët, Valérie Perdrieau, Clémence Lefevre, Bertrand Glize, Isabelle Bonan, Philippe Azouvi
INTRODUCTION: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a public health issue with approximately 42 million people worldwide affected yearly. Most patients have a favorable short-term recovery but 10-20% are likely to develop post-concussive syndrome (association of physical, cognitive, and psychological difficulties after injury). Post-concussive syndrome can be associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There is to date no recommendation on the interventions that could be done to reduce post-concussive syndrome...
October 10, 2020: Neuro-Chirurgie
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