Stacey E Aaron, J W Hamner, Erin D Ozturk, Danielle L Hunt, Mary Alexis Iaccarino, William P Meehan, David R Howell, Can Ozan Tan
OBJECTIVE: To assess acute cerebrovascular function in concussed adolescents (14-21 years of age), whether it related to resting cerebral hemodynamics, and whether it recovered chronically. METHODS: Cerebral vasoreactivity and autoregulation, based on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, were assessed in 28 concussed participants (≤14 days of injury) and 29 matched controls. The participants in the concussion group returned for an 8-week follow-up assessment...
April 14, 2021: Annals of Neurology
Adam A Norton, John J Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a known risk of contact sports and strategies to minimize risk have been used. We aimed to determine if an independent medical spotter (IMS) identified more SRCs than would otherwise be detected by trained sideline medical staff (SMS). DESIGN: Prospective review of SRCs during competition in the 2019 season and retrospective review of SRCs in the 2015 to 2018 seasons, which also used an IMS. SETTING: Division I football games (home and away) of a Big 10 Conference institution...
March 1, 2021: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Lin Zhang, Cathy W Levenson, Valentina Cea Salazar, Deirdre M McCarthy, Joseph Biederman, Ross Zafonte, Pradeep G Bhide
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk for concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). At the same time, recommendations for the management of ADHD include participation in sports and other organized physical activities, including those that carry an increased risk of mTBI. Very little work has been done to determine the extent to which untreated ADHD adversely impacts behavioral outcomes of repeated mild concussions. Here, we used a perinatal nicotine exposure (PNE) mouse model of ADHD combined with a closed-head, repetitive mTBI model...
April 13, 2021: Developmental Neuroscience
Lindsey L Perea, Madison E Morgan, Eric H Bradburn, Kellie E Bresz, Amelia T Rogers, Barbara A Gaines, Alan D Cook, Frederick B Rogers
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the secondary overtriage rate of pediatric trauma patients admitted to pediatric trauma centers. We hypothesized that pediatric secondary overtriage (POT) would constitute a large percentage of admissions to PTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database was retrospectively queried from 2003 to 2017 for pediatric (age ≤ 18 y) trauma patients transferred to accredited pediatric trauma centers in Pennsylvania (n = 6)...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Surgical Research
Jacquie van Ierssel, Andrée-Anne Ledoux, Ken Tang, Roger Zemek
CONTEXT: Current evidence regarding the protective effect of mouthguard use on symptom severity in children and adolescents who sustain sport-related concussions is insufficient to make clinical recommendations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the association between mouthguard-use and symptoms stratified by sex in the first 4-weeks after pediatric sport-related concussion. We hypothesized that mouthguard-use would be associated with lower symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Athletic Training
(no author information available yet)
CONTEXT: Secondary schools that offer school-sponsored athletic events should follow best-practice guidelines to provide policies that promote student health and safety. OBJECTIVE: To assess emergency preparedness from the perspective of athletic administrators (AAs) in [State] secondary schools. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-eight AAs from [State] completed the survey (age=45...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Athletic Training
Antti Huovinen, Ivan Marinkovic, Harri Isokuortti, Antti Korvenoja, Kaisa Mäki, Taina Nybo, Rahul Raj, Susanna Melkas
The main objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) are a significant prognostic factor of return to work (RTW), post-traumatic symptoms and overall recovery in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One hundred and thirteen (n=113) patients with MTBI were recruited from the Helsinki University Hospital emergency units. All patients underwent multicontrast 3T MRI imaging 3-17 days after MTBI. Patients were evaluated in the Traumatic Brain Injury Outpatient Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital one month after injury...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Neurotrauma
Carolina Carmona R, Pablo Villanueva G, Isidro Huete, Juan Pablo Cruz, Sebastián Bravo, Francisco J Guarda V, Flavia Nilo C
Hypopituitarism after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually underdiagnosed and therefore undertreated. Its course can be divided in an acute phase during the first 14 days after TBI with 50 to 80% risk of hypopituitarism, and a chronic phase, beginning three months after the event, with a prevalence of hypopituitarism that ranges from 2 to 70%. Its pathophysiology has been addressed in several studies, suggesting that a vascular injury to the pituitary tissue is the most important mechanism during the acute phase, and an autoimmune one during chronic stages...
December 2020: Revista Médica de Chile
Danielle Toccalino, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Dora M Zalai
BACKGROUND: Sleep and wakefulness disturbances are common with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there are no condition-specific measures to evaluate sleep following TBI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the convergent validity of the Sleep and Concussion Questionnaire (SCQ), a condition-specific (TBI) measure is compared to polysomnography and existing self-report sleep questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED: Thirty-two adults diagnosed with mild TBI, 3-24 months post-injury, average age, 38...
April 11, 2021: Brain Injury
Maryam Tayebi, Samantha J Holdsworth, Allen A Champagne, Douglas J Cook, Poul Nielsen, Tae-Rin Lee, Alan Wang, Justin Fernandez, Vickie Shim
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. The majority of TBIs are in the form of mild TBI (also known as concussion) with sports-related concussion (SRC) receiving public attention in recent years.Here we have performed a systematic review of the literature on the use of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) on sports-related concussion and subconcussive injuries. Our review found different patterns of change in DTI parameters between concussed and subconcussed groups. The Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was either unchanged or increased for the concussion group, while the subconcussed group generally experienced a decrease in FA...
April 11, 2021: Brain Injury
Helene L Søberg, Nada Andelic, Birgitta Langhammer, Anne-Lise Tamber, Kari A Bruusgaard, Ingerid Kleffelgaard
OBJECTIVE: Secondary analysis, testing the effect on change in health-related quality of life of group-based vestibular rehabilitation in patients with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury, dizziness and -balance problems. DESIGN: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 65 patients aged 16-60 years with a Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire dizziness score ≥ 2, and Dizziness Handicap Inventory score > 15 points...
March 31, 2021: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Sean M Collins, Monica R Lininger, Thomas G Bowman
Background: Sports-related concussions are prevalent in the United States. Various diagnostic tools are utilized in order to monitor deviations from baseline in memory, reaction time, symptoms, and balance. Evidence indicates that dehydration may also alter the results of diagnostic tests. Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of exercise-induced dehydration on performance related to concussion examination tools. Study Design: Repeated measures design...
April 2, 2021: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Keir Alexander Ross, Jordan Fried, David A Bloom, Guillem Gonzalez-Lomas
Objective : Young players experience pressure to focus on ice hockey at the exclusion of other sports in order to improve chances of success. Early specialization in other sports has been associated with increased injury without the benefit of improved success. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether earlier specialization results in increased injury without higher rates of career success. This study also aimed to compare rates of injury in athletes at various levels of competition. Methods : An original survey was issued to men's ice hockey players at the juniorA, collegiate, and professional levels...
April 12, 2021: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Janet C Rucker, John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Anja K E Horn, Jean A Buettner-Ennever, R John Leigh, Lance M Optican
Voluntary rapid eye movements (saccades) redirect the fovea toward objects of visual interest. The saccadic system can be considered as a dual-mode system: in one mode the eye is fixating, in the other it is making a saccade. In this review, we consider two examples of dysfunctional saccades, interrupted saccades in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease and gaze-position dependent opsoclonus after concussion, which fail to properly shift between fixation and saccade modes. Insights and benefits gained from bi-directional collaborative exchange between clinical and basic scientists are emphasized...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Emily K Wiecek, Tawna L Roberts, Ankoor S Shah, Aparna Raghuram
Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients...
April 7, 2021: Vision Research
Tian Renton, Brian Petersen, Sidney Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a scoping review that (1) describes what is known about the relationship between athletic identity and sport-related injury outcomes and (2) describes the relationship that an injury (as an exposure) has on athletic identity (as an outcome) in athletes. DESIGN: Scoping review. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n=1852 athletes from various sport backgrounds and levels of competition. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary measure used within the studies identified was the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale...
April 9, 2021: BMJ Open
Richard Weiler, Cheri Blauwet, David Clarke, Kristine Dalton, Wayne Derman, Kristina Fagher, Vincent Gouttebarge, James Kissick, Kenneth Lee, Jan Lexell, Peter Van de Vliet, Evert Verhagen, Nick Webborn, Osman Hassan Ahmed
Concussion is a frequent injury in many sports and is also common in para athletes. However, there is a paucity of concussion research related to para sport, and prior International Concussion in Sport (CIS) consensus papers have not substantively addressed this population. To remedy this and to improve concussion care provided to para athletes, the concussion in para sport (CIPS) multidisciplinary expert group was created. This group analysed and discussed in-depth para athlete-specific issues within the established key clinical domains of the current (2017) consensus statement on CIS...
April 9, 2021: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Sean C Rose, Keith Owen Yeates, Joseph T Nguyen, Patrick M Ercole, Natalie M Pizzimenti, Matthew T McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between repetitive subconcussive head impacts and neurobehavioral outcomes in youth tackle football players. METHODS: Using helmet-based sensors, we measured head impacts for 3 consecutive seasons of play in 29 male players age 9-11. Cumulative impact g 's were calculated. Players completed a battery of outcome measures before and after each season, including neuropsychological testing, vestibular-ocular sensitivity, and self- and parent-reported measures of symptoms and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Child Neurology
Michael K Ghiam, Shrey D Patel, Alan Hoffer, Warren R Selman, Barry J Hoffer, Michael E Hoffer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of morbidity among trauma patients; however, an effective pharmacological treatment has not yet been approved. Individuals with TBI are at greater risk of developing neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The approval process for treatments can be accelerated by repurposing known drugs to treat the growing number of patients with TBI. This review focuses on the repurposing of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a drug currently approved to treat hepatotoxic overdose of acetaminophen...
2021: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brent Pickett, Jeffrey R Bytomski, Ross D Zafonte
Sports related concussion (SRC) is a common condition evaluated by healthcare professionals. In an article entitled "Return to Play After Concussion: Clinical Guidelines for Young Athletes" published in the December 2019 issue of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association , guidelines for the management of SRC were presented to assist healthcare professionals in the management of patients with SRC. However, much of the information presented in that article is contradicted by current expert recommendations and evidence based practice guidelines...
April 8, 2021: Journal of osteopathic medicine
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