Kaja Plucińska, Naja Z Jespersen, Erin L Brown, Patricia S Petersen, Kaja Rupar, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Brice Emanuelli
Activation of thermogenic adipose tissue is linked to improved metabolic outcomes in mice and humans. Dissipation of energy as heat during thermogenesis relies on sufficient innervation of fat by sympathetic nerve fibers, a process recently proposed to be regulated by the adipose-specific calsyntenin3β (Clstn3β)-S100b axis. Here we aimed 1) to assess enrichment patterns of CLSTN3β , S100b as well as the previously annotated neuronal CLSTN3α in perirenal brown and subcutaneous white human fat specimens, and 2) to investigate if the novel Clstn3β is dynamically regulated by changes in environmental temperatures and nutritional stress in thermogenic adipose tissues in mice...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Leticia Maria de Souza Cordeiro, Arwa Elsheikh, Nagavardhini Devisetty, Donald A Morgan, Steven N Ebert, Kamal Rahmouni, Kavaljit H Chhabra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutation is the most common cause of known monogenic obesity in humans. Unexpectedly, humans and rodents with MC4R deficiency do not develop hyperglycaemia despite chronic obesity and insulin resistance. To explain the underlying mechanisms for this phenotype, we determined the role of MC4R in glucose homeostasis in the presence and absence of obesity in mice. METHODS: We used global and hypothalamus-specific MC4R-deficient mice to investigate the brain regions that contribute to glucose homeostasis via MC4R...
October 14, 2020: Diabetologia
Wei He, Xiao-Shuang Shi, Zhi-Yun Zhang, Yang-Shuai Su, Hong-Ye Wan, Yi Wang, Xiao-Chun Yu, Bing Zhu, Xiang-Hong Jing
The effect of acupuncture-moxibustion on respiratory system and systemic immune inflammatory response were reviewed to explore the possible role of neuroimmunomodulation in the control of inflammatory response and the effect mechanism of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Acupuncture-moxibustion could produce the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effect on COVID-19 through the activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Compared with humoral anti-inflammatory pathway, the neuronal anti-inflammatory pathway has earlier initiation, rapider action, and more localization, which play a more important role in the initial stage of inflammatory response...
August 12, 2020: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Eugenijus Kaniusas, Jozsef C Szeles, Stefan Kampusch, Nuria Alfageme-Lopez, Daniela Yucuma-Conde, Xie Li, Julio Mayol, Christoph Neumayer, Michele Papa, Fivos Panetsos
Background: Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by an invasion of the alveolar epithelial cells by coronavirus 19. The most severe outcome of the disease is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) combined with hypoxemia and cardiovascular damage. ARDS and co-morbidities are associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, sympathetic hyperactivity, and respiratory dysfunction. Hypothesis: In the present paper, we present and justify a novel potential treatment for Covid19-originated ARDS and associated co-morbidities, based on the non-invasive stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Koichi Wakabayashi
In Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal alpha-synuclein aggregates are distributed throughout the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, submandibular gland, enteric nervous system, cardiac and pelvic plexuses, adrenal medulla, and skin. Thus, PD is a progressive multiorgan disease clinically associated with various motor and nonmotor symptoms. The earliest PD-related lesions appear to develop in the olfactory bulb, dorsal vagal nucleus, and possibly also the peripheral autonomic nervous system...
August 4, 2020: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Toni Kulju, Ryan Verner, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Atte Eronen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Joonas Haapasalo, Jukka Peltola
BACKGROUND: Responsive vagus nerve stimulation (rVNS) utilizes an electrocardiograph (ECG)-based algorithm to detect rapid sympathetic activations associated with the onset of a seizure. Abrupt sympathetic activation may also be associated with nocturnal arousals between sleep cycles or transitioning from sleep to wakefulness, a period in which many patients with epilepsy experience seizures. Because of circadian changes in autonomic function, we hypothesized that the autostimulation feature might also behave in a circadian fashion...
May 27, 2020: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Elin Pauwels, Matthias van Aerde, Guy Bormans, Christophe M Deroose
The human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) is a transmembrane protein responsible for reuptake of norepinephrine in presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals and adrenal chromaffin cells. Neural crest tumors, such as neuroblastoma, paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma often show high hNET expression. Molecular imaging of these tumors can be done using radiolabeled norepinephrine analogs that target hNET. Currently, the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for hNET imaging is meta-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine ([123I]MIBG) and this has been the case since its development several decades ago...
May 12, 2020: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Keisuke Ikegami, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Satoru Masubuchi
Purpose: Elevated IOP can cause the development of glaucoma. The circadian rhythm of IOP depends on the dynamics of the aqueous humor and is synchronized with the circadian rhythm pacemaker, that is, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The suprachiasmatic nucleus resets peripheral clocks via sympathetic nerves or adrenal glucocorticoids. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying IOP rhythmicity remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to verify this regulatory pathway. Methods: Adrenalectomy and/or superior cervical ganglionectomy were performed in C57BL/6J mice...
March 9, 2020: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Larisa A Fedoseeva, Leonid O Klimov, Nikita I Ershov, Vadim M Efimov, Arcady L Markel, Yuriy L Orlov, Olga E Redina
BACKGROUND: The development of essential hypertension is associated with a wide range of mechanisms. The brain stem neurons are essential for the homeostatic regulation of arterial pressure as they control baroreflex and sympathetic nerve activity. The ISIAH (Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension) rats reproduce the human stress-sensitive hypertensive disease with predominant activation of the neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal axes. RNA-Seq analysis of the brain stems from the hypertensive ISIAH and normotensive control WAG (Wistar Albino Glaxo) rats was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the main central mechanisms (biological processes and metabolic pathways) contributing to the hypertensive state in the ISIAH rats...
May 8, 2019: BMC Genomics
Masumi Inoue, Keita Harada, Hidetada Matsuoka
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) acts on adrenal medullary (AM) cells as a neurotransmitter of the sympathetic preganglionic nerve. In guinea-pig AM cells, PACAP induces little catecholamine secretion, but enhances secretion evoked by stimulants, whereas in other animals, such as mouse, PACAP itself induces depolarization and/or catecholamine secretion. The present studies aim to explore the physiological implication of these species differences in PACAP actions, the ion channel mechanism for PACAP-induced depolarization, and the mechanism for facilitation of muscarinic receptor-mediated cation currents in mouse and guinea-pig AM cells...
January 27, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Bing Zhang, Sai Ma, Inbal Rachmin, Megan He, Pankaj Baral, Sekyu Choi, William A Gonçalves, Yulia Shwartz, Eva M Fast, Yiqun Su, Leonard I Zon, Aviv Regev, Jason D Buenrostro, Thiago M Cunha, Isaac M Chiu, David E Fisher, Ya-Chieh Hsu
Empirical and anecdotal evidence has associated stress with accelerated hair greying (formation of unpigmented hairs)1,2 , but so far there has been little scientific validation of this link. Here we report that, in mice, acute stress leads to hair greying through the fast depletion of melanocyte stem cells. Using a combination of adrenalectomy, denervation, chemogenetics3,4 , cell ablation and knockout of the adrenergic receptor specifically in melanocyte stem cells, we find that the stress-induced loss of melanocyte stem cells is independent of immune attack or adrenal stress hormones...
January 2020: Nature
Jeanette M Metzger, Helen N Matsoff, Alexandra D Zinnen, Rachel A Fleddermann, Viktoriya Bondarenko, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Colleen F Moore, Marina E Emborg
Cardiac dysautonomia is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with loss of sympathetic innervation to the heart and decreased plasma catecholamines. Disease-modifying strategies for PD cardiac neurodegeneration are not available, and biomarkers of target engagement are lacking. Systemic administration of the catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) recapitulates PD cardiac dysautonomia pathology. We recently used positron emission tomography (PET) to visualize and quantify cardiac sympathetic innervation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) challenged with 6-OHDA (50mg/kg; i...
2020: PloS One
Alexandra E Soto-Piña, Cynthia Franklin, C S Sheela Rani, Elizabeth Fernandez, Elías Cardoso-Peña, Alejandra D Benítez-Arciniega, Helmut Gottlieb, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Randy Strong
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used to treat inflammatory conditions. However, chronic use of GCs can lead to hypertension. The cause of this undesired side effect remains unclear. Previously, we developed an in vivo rat model to study the mechanisms underlying hypertension induced by the chronic administration of the potent synthetic GC, dexamethasone (DEX) and found that the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway plays an important role. In the current study, we used this model to investigate the role of the adrenal medulla, renal nerves, and other peripheral sympathetic nerves in DEX-induced hypertension...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuting Liu, Han Yin, Huan Ma, Xueju Yu, Guihao Liu, Lan Guo, Qingshan Geng
Individuals with anxiety disorder often exhibit as imbalance in response to stressors.We sought to explore the relationship between physiological as well as psychological responses under acute mental stress and the severity of the disease.20 Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD) patients (14 males,mean age 46 ± 10 years) were confronted with the stroop test,during which salivary-α-amylase(sAA),salivary cortisol,and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed.The results showed that stroop test as a stressor induced autonomic nervous response in GAD patients,which was mainly manifested as the increase in HRV representing sympathetic nervous system and the decrease in HRV representing vagal nerve activity...
November 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Emilio Carbone, Ricardo Borges, Lee E Eiden, Antonio G García, Arturo Hernández-Cruz
Chromaffin cells (CCs) of the adrenal gland and the sympathetic nervous system produce the catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine; EPI and NE) needed to coordinate the bodily "fight-or-flight" response to fear, stress, exercise, or conflict. EPI and NE release from CCs is regulated both neurogenically by splanchnic nerve fibers and nonneurogenically by hormones (histamine, corticosteroids, angiotensin, and others) and paracrine messengers [EPI, NE, adenosine triphosphate, opioids, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), etc...
September 19, 2019: Comprehensive Physiology
Mamoru Tanida, Yusaku Iwasaki, Naoki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND/AIM: Leptin, one of the hormones produced in white adipose tissue, is an efferent sympathetic stimulator. Actually, an injection of leptin into the brain has been shown to activate sympathetic nerve activities innervating the kidney, adrenal gland, adipose tissues, liver, and lumbar in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated the effects of an intracerebroventricular injection of leptin on the activities of sympathetic nerves innervating the stomach and spleen in anesthetized rats...
November 2019: In Vivo
Feng Ifrim Chen, Andreea Daniela Antochi, Adrian Gheorghe Barbilian
Acupuncture is one of the oldest medical practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This method of treatment was discovered when primitive Chinese people discovered that pain in one part of the body can be alleviated if it stings in a particular area of the body. Acupuncture has achieved to a climax in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), when many famous doctors specialized in this field emerged with a lot of exclusive books on acupuncture, but the most important one was Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Yang Jizhou, which represented a new milestone in the history of acupuncture's evolution...
2019: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology
Candace M Reno, Justin Bayles, Yiqing Huang, Milan Oxspring, Annie M Hirahara, Derek J Dosdall, Simon J Fisher
The contribution of the sympathetic (SNS) versus parasympathetic (PSNS) nervous system in mediating fatal cardiac arrhythmias during insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia is not well understood. Therefore, experimental protocols were performed in non-diabetic, Sprague Dawley rats to test SNS with 1) adrenal demedullation and 2) chemical sympathectomy, and to test PSNS with 3) surgical vagotomy, 4) nicotinic receptor (mecamylamine) and muscarinic receptor (AQ-RA 741) blockade, and 5) ex vivo heart perfusions with normal or low glucose, acetylcholine and/or mecamylamine...
August 22, 2019: Diabetes
Reza Afrisham, Maliheh Paknejad, Omid Soliemanifar, Sahar Sadegh-Nejadi, Reza Meshkani, Damoon Ashtary-Larky
Context: Psychological stress can be considered a risk factor for the initiation and progression of many pathological conditions, including type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. Objectives: The aim of this review article was to evaluate the molecular and cellular mechanisms linking psychological stress to the onset and progression of diabetes and cancer. Evidence Acquisition: The current review was conducted to survey and analyze studies related to the effects of psychological stress on diabetes and cancer...
April 2019: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yan-Bin Tan, Jin-Fan Li, Wen-Shan Li, Run-Lin Yang
RATIONALE: Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in childhood, which mainly occurs in adrenal glands and peripheral sympathetic nerve system. Neuroblastoma occurring in adulthood is rare, and adults with neuroblastoma arising from thorax are exceedingly rare. A case of neuroblastoma that originated from thorax was reported, and was treated by resection operation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with left side chest pain for 5 days...
July 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
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