Stacey Li Hi Shing, Jasmin Lope, Rangariroyashe H Chipika, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of cerebral neuroimaging studies in post-polio syndrome (PPS), despite the severity of neurological and neuropsychological sequelae associated with the condition. Fatigue, poor concentration, limited exercise tolerance, paraesthesia and progressive weakness are frequently reported, but the radiological underpinnings of these symptoms are poorly characterised. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate cortical and subcortical alterations in a cohort of adult polio survivors to explore the anatomical substrate of extra-motor manifestations...
February 26, 2021: Neurological Sciences
Massimo Sacchetti, Jonida Haxhi, Paolo Sgrò, Alessandro Scotto di Palumbo, Andrea Nicolò, Alessio Bellini, Ilenia Bazzucchi, Luigi di Luigi
PURPOSE: Exercise plays an important role in preventing and treating postprandial dysmetabolism. We investigated the postprandial metabolic responses to a standard lunch when a session of aerobic exercise is performed in the early postprandial phase or divided between the pre- and postprandial period. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers consumed a standardised mixed lunch and rested for the following 3 h (Con) or performed 40 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2 max after lunch (CPPEx), or two 20-min sessions, one before (SplitEx1) and the other after lunch (SplitEx2), at the same intensity...
February 26, 2021: European Journal of Nutrition
Tobias Saueressig, Patrick J Owen, Jochen Zebisch, Maximilian Herbst, Daniel L Belavy
Importance: Preoperative and postoperative exercise interventions are commonly used in patients with total hip arthroplasty despite a lack of established efficacy. Objective: To explore clinical outcomes associated with exercise training before and after hip arthroplasty. Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched from their inception to March 2020...
February 1, 2021: JAMA Network Open
Felwah Alqahtani, Andrea Winn, Rita Orji
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in mobile technology have created opportunities to develop mobile apps to aid and assist people in achieving various health and wellness goals. Mental health apps hold significant potential to assist people affected by various mental health issues at any time they may need it, considering the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones. However, there is a need for research to explore and understand end users' perceptions, needs, and concerns with respect to such technologies...
February 26, 2021: JMIR Formative Research
Nancy Schoenberg, Madeline Dunfee, Hannah Yeager, Matthew Rutledge, Angela Pfammatter, Bonnie Spring
BACKGROUND: Compared with national averages, rural Appalachians experience extremely elevated rates of premature morbidity and mortality. New opportunities, including approaches incorporating personal technology, may help improve lifestyles and overcome health inequities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to gather perspectives on whether a healthy lifestyle intervention, specifically an app originally designed for urban users, may be feasible and acceptable to rural residents...
February 26, 2021: JMIR Formative Research
Chen Ma, Xie Fei, Ding Wei Hao, Zong Wei Xiao
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular heart disease, which can be classified into primary and secondary, according to the cause. Primary mitral regurgitation (PMR) is caused by rheumatic fever, degenerative changes, valve prolapse, etc. The appearance of clinical symptoms has always been the best indicator of surgical intervention in patients with severe PMR, but for asymptomatic patients, the best treatment has been controversial. The choice of follow-up observation or early surgery has different results in different randomized studies...
February 15, 2021: Heart Surgery Forum
Jude Robinson, Olivia Howland
Shifting environmental conditions and poor or insufficient hygiene facilitates the transmission of bacteria and viruses between and within species of animals; between humans; and between humans and animals. Taking a One Health perspective, we used interviews to explore with 20 women living on low income in Kenya: their gendered hygiene practices and daily contact with animals; how and why they access water and sanitation facilities for themselves, their families, and any livestock; and their understandings of (zoonotic) health risks and disease transmission within their local environments...
February 26, 2021: Global Public Health
Brittany O Aicher, Jackie Zhang, Selen Muratoglu, Rebeca Galisteo, Allison L Arai, Vicki L Gray, Brajesh K Lal, Dudley K Strickland, Areck A Ucuzian
Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a deadly disease characterized by intimal disruption induced by hemodynamic forces of the circulation. The effect of exercise in patients with TAAD is largely unknown. β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) is an irreversible inhibitor of lysyl oxidase that induces TAAD in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on BAPN-induced TAAD. Upon weaning, mice were given either BAPN-containing water or standard drinking water and subjected to either conventional cage activity (BAPN-CONV) or forced treadmill exercise (BAPN-EX) for up to 26 weeks...
February 26, 2021: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ann-Katrin Grotle, Yu Huo, Michelle L Harrison, Kai M Ybarbo, Audrey J Stone
Emerging evidence suggests the exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated in early-stage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Piezo channels may play a role in this exaggeration since blocking these channels attenuates the exaggerated pressor response to tendon stretch in T1DM rats. However, tendon stretch constitutes a different mechanical and physiological stimuli than that occurring during muscle contraction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of Piezo channels in evoking the pressor reflex during an intermittent muscle contraction in T1DM...
February 26, 2021: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Bhaven Modha
PURPOSE: This case study aims to explore how leadership and management applies to a hypothetical scenario, focussing on a dental practice. As a teaching exercise, it may enable dentists and allied workers to reflect on the leadership and management styles used within their workplaces, and on their own abilities. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The hypothetical scenario considers a dental practice, its organisational structure, and leadership and management practices...
September 18, 2020: Leadership in Health Services
Anna Eliason, Marita Harringe, Björn Engström, Suzanne Werner
BACKGROUND: Graded resistance training is the recommended treatment for patients with subacromial pain syndrome. It is debated whether adding joint mobilization will improve the outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of guided exercises with or without joint mobilization, compared with controls who did not receive any treatment. METHODS: A 3-armed controlled trial in a primary care setting. A total of 120 patients, with clinically diagnosed subacromial pain syndrome, were randomized into a guided exercise group with and without additional joint mobilization, and a control group that did not receive any treatment...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Catherine F Notarius, John S Floras
The sympathetic nervous system coordinates the cardiovascular response to exercise. This regulation is impaired in both experimental and human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), resulting in a state of sympathoexcitation which limits exercise capacity and contributes to adverse outcome. Exercise training can moderate sympathetic excess at rest. Recording sympathetic nerve firing during exercise is more challenging. Hence, data acquired during exercise are scant and results vary according to exercise modality...
February 26, 2021: Clinical Science (1979-)
Stein Gerrit Paul Menting, Brian Hanley, Marije Titia Elferink-Gemser, Florentina Johanna Hettinga
The current study analysed the pacing behaviour of athletes competing in the middle-long track event finals of the IAAF Under 18 and Under 20 World Championships between 2015 and 2018. Official finishing times, 1000-m split times and positioning data of 116 female and 153 male athletes, competing in the middle-long distance running (3000m, 5000m and 10,00 m) and race walking (5000m and 10,000m) events, were gathered. Repeated measures analysis of variance, with 1000-m speed as within-subjects factor and final ranking (medallist, Top 8 or Top 12, rest of the field) as between-subjects factor, was performed to compare the pacing behaviour between athletes...
February 26, 2021: European Journal of Sport Science
Mingzhu Hu, Zhaowei Kong, Shengyan Sun, Liye Zou, Qingde Shi, Bik Chu Chow, Jinlei Nie
This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of sprint interval training (SIT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak ), body composition and physical activity enjoyment in overweight young women. Sixty-six participants (age 21.2 ± 1.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 26.0 ± 3.0 kg·m-2 , body fat percentage 39.0 ± 2.8%) were randomly assigned to non-exercise control (CON), thrice-weekly SIT (80 × 6 s "all-out" cycling interspersed with 9 s rest), and HIIT (4 min cycling at 90% VO2peak followed with 3 min recovery for ~ 60 min) or MICT (~ 65 min continuous cycling at 60% VO2peak ) with equivalent mechanical work (200/300 KJ)...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Sports Sciences
Hui-Ying Luk, Margaret T Jones, Jakob L Vingren
This investigation examined the effect of rest- redistribution (RR) on the circulating cytokine response to resistance exercise in resistance- trained women. Participants (n = 13; 24 ± 4y; 65.0 ± 10.6 kg; 160.5 ± 5.1 cm) completed two sessions of back squats at 70% of 1- repetition maximum: Traditional sets (TS: 4x10, 120-s inter- set rest) and RR (4x 2x5) with 30-s intra- set rest after 5 repetitions and 90-s inter- set rest. Serum creatine kinase (CK), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, and IL-6/IL-10 were determined before (PRE), immediately- post (IP), and 5, 15, 30, 60 min, 24 h, and 48 h post- exercise...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel A CorrÊa, Felipe A Brigatto, Tiago V Braz, Júlio B DE Carmargo, Marcelo S Aoki, Paulo H Marchetti, Charles R Lopes
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the mid-term effects of training muscle groups once- versus twice-daily on morphofunctional adaptations in trained men. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: 1 daily session per muscle group (1S, n = 11), where every muscle group was trained once a day or 2 daily sessions per muscle group (2S, n = 12), where every muscle group was trained twice. Testing was conducted before intervention and after 8 weeks for maximal strength (1RM) and muscular endurance (60%1RM) for bench press and parallel back squat exercises, and muscle thickness (MT) of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, anterior quadriceps and pectoralis major...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Lin Sun, You-Ping Bai, Wei-Qi Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2020: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Megan O Bensignor, Eric M Bomberg, Carolyn T Bramante, T V S Divyalasya, Paula M Hale, Chethana K Ramesh, Kyle D Rudser, Aaron S Kelly
BACKGROUND: Weight loss in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with improved glycaemic control. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of liraglutide vs placebo on body mass index (BMI) and weight parameters in children and adolescents with T2D using data from the ellipse trial (NCT01541215). METHODS: The ellipse trial randomized participants (10-<17 years old, BMI >85th percentile, T2D, glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c ] 7...
February 25, 2021: Pediatric Obesity
Abidan Abulimiti, Miho Nishitani-Yokoyama, Kazunori Shimada, Mitsuhiro Kunimoto, Tomomi Matsubara, Kei Fujiwara, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Yurina Sugita, Kosuke Fukao, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Akie Shimada, Taira Yamamoto, Tetsuya Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Tohru Asai, Atsushi Amano, Hiroyuki Daida, Tohru Minamino
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2 ) and heart rate reserve (HRR) are independent prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of peak VO2 and HRR on long-term prognosis after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OP-CABG) remains unclear. HYPOTHESIS: To determine the prognostic impact of peak VO2 and HRR in patients after OP-CABG. RESULTS: We enrolled 327 patients (mean age, 65.1 ± 9.3 years; male, 80%) who underwent OP-CABG and participated in early phase II cardiac rehabilitation...
February 25, 2021: Clinical Cardiology
Patrick J Owen, Clint T Miller, Niamh L Mundell, Paul Buntine, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability and affects 16% of the Australian population. Pain that lasts more than 12 weeks and is presumed lumbar musculoskeletal in origin is deemed non-specific chronic LBP. Managing LBP requires a multidisciplinary approach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide evidence for incorporating exercise training into the multidisciplinary treatment plans of patients with non‑specific chronic LBP...
March 2021: Australian Journal of General Practice
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