Nuria Romero-Parra, Victor Manuel Alfaro-Magallanes, Beatriz Rael, Rocío Cupeiro, Miguel A Rojo-Tirado, Pedro J Benito, Ana B Peinado
CONTEXT: The indirect markers of muscle damage have been previously studied in females. However, inconclusive results have been found, possibly explained by the heterogeneity regarding monitoring and verification of menstrual-cycle phase. PURPOSE: To determine whether the fluctuations in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle influence muscle damage. METHODS: A total of 19 well-trained eumenorrheic women (age 28.6 [5.9] y; height 163.4 [6...
July 13, 2020: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Timo Kuehl, Thomas Tietz, Dominik Reim, Kai Fehske, Richard Latzel, Ralph Beneke
PURPOSE: To analyze the energetic profiles of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Tests 1 and 2 (YYIR1 and YYIR2). METHODS: Intermittent running distance (IR1D and IR2D), time to exhaustion (IR1T and IR2T), and total recovery time between shuttles (IR1R and IR2R) were measured in 10 well-trained male athletes (age 24.4 [2.0] y, height 182 [1] cm, weight 75.8 [7.9] kg). Respiratory gases and blood lactate (BLC) were obtained preexercise, during exercise, and until 15 min postexercise...
July 13, 2020: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Petar Radanliev, David De Roure, Rob Walton
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a global and integrated response of all national medical and healthcare systems. Covid-19 exposed the need for timely response and data sharing on fast spreading global pandemics. In this study, we investigate the scientific research response from the early stages of the pandemic, and we review key findings on how the early warning systems developed in previous epidemics responded to contain the virus. METHODS: We conducted data mining of scientific literature records from the Web of Science Core Collection, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, immunity, and vaccine...
July 4, 2020: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Florian Monjo, Jonathan Shemmell
The monoaminergic bulbospinal pathways from the brainstem are central to motor functions by regulating the gains of spinal motoneurons and represent, in that respect, probably the primary control system for motoneuron excitability. Yet, the efficiency of this system is few, if not never, assessed in the fields of sports and exercise sciences. In this review paper, we propose a methodological approach intended to assess how this neuromodulatory system affects motoneuron excitability. This approach is based on the use of tendon vibration which can, in certain circumstances, induce the generation of the so-called tonic vibration reflex through the stimulation of muscle spindles...
July 7, 2020: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
M Schnitzer, S E Schöttl, M Kopp, M Barth
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the frequency and types of engagement in sports before, during and after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stay-at-home order in Tyrol, Austria. STUDY DESIGN: A representative population survey was conducted. METHODS: A sample of Tyroleans (N = 511) was questioned by a market research institute via an online questionnaire or telephone survey. RESULTS: During the stay-at-home order, participants engaged less in sports than before and after the restrictions...
June 26, 2020: Public Health
Luiz F Farias-Junior, Rodrigo A V Browne, Todd A Astorino, Eduardo C Costa
Previous results reveal a decline in affective valence in response to progressive exercise in adults. However, this similar decline is not universally observed in response to high intensity interval exercise (HIIE), which may be due to its intermittent nature. The aim of the current study was to examine potential predictors of the in-task affective valence to low-volume HIIE (LV-HIIE; 10 × 60 s high-intensity intervals at 90% of maximal treadmill velocity interspersed by 60 s at 30% of maximal treadmill velocity)...
July 10, 2020: Physiology & Behavior
Marco Guzman, Teresa Bertucci, Constanza Pacheco, Fernando Leiva, Felipe Quintana, Romina Ansaldi, Camilo Quezada, Daniel Muñoz
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a physiologic voice therapy program based on different semioccluded vocal tract exercises in subjects with behavioral dysphonia. METHODS: Thirty-four participants with behavioral dysphonia were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: 1) voice treatment with physiologic voice therapy plus vocal hygiene program (n=20), and 2) vocal hygiene program only (n=14). Laryngoscopic assessment was performed in all subjects...
July 7, 2020: Journal of Communication Disorders
Carmel Bennett, Alex Copello, Christopher Jones, Jackie Blissett
OBJECTIVES: Food neophobia limits dietary variety in children and adults. Interventions to alleviate the impact of neophobia on children's dietary variety have had varying success. The potential effectiveness of mindfulness, a process of bringing awareness to the present moment, has received little attention. This trial aimed to explore the effectiveness of two mindfulness exercises on novel food acceptance for children. METHODS: A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three trial arms compared the impact of two mindfulness exercises (mindful breathing and mindful raisin-eating) and a non-mindful control task on anticipated liking and intake of a novel fruit...
July 10, 2020: Appetite
Alfonso Moreno-Cabañas, Juan Fernando Ortega, Felix Morales-Palomo, Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Laura Alvarez-Jimenez, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
We sought to determine the effects of substituting parts of aerobic training (AT) by resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors. MetS patients (56±7 years old; BMI 33±5 kg·m-2 and 3.9±0.8 MetS factors) were randomized to undergo one of the following isocaloric, 16-week long exercise programs: i) cycling 4 bouts of 4-min at 90% of HRmax followed by 3 sets of 12 repetitions of 3 lower limb free-weight exercises (HIIT+RT group; n=33), ii) cycling 5 bouts of 4-min at 90% of HRmax (HIIT+HIIT group; n=33) or iii) no exercise control group (CONT group; n=21)...
July 13, 2020: Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
Christian W Schmidt, Traci R Snedden, Kristen M Malecki, Ronald E Gangnon, Shoshannah I Eggers, Marty S Kanarek
INTRODUCTION: Bicycles are a source of transportation, recreation, and exercise throughout the world. Bicycling is associated with both health and environmental benefits but also poses a risk of injury. The use of bicycle helmets has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cycling. It is unknown if helmet use differs across Wisconsin geographic areas and sociodemographic groups. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW)...
June 2020: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Carlos Pérez-Arques, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Laura Murcia, Eusebio Navarro, Victoriano Garre, Francisco Esteban Nicolás
Epimutations in fungal pathogens are emerging as novel phenomena that could explain the fast-developing resistance to antifungal drugs and other stresses. These epimutations are generated by RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms that transiently silence specific genes to overcome stressful stimuli. The early-diverging fungus Mucor circinelloides exercises a fine control over two interacting RNAi pathways to produce epimutants: the canonical RNAi pathway and a new RNAi degradative pathway. The latter is considered a non-canonical RNAi pathway (NCRIP) because it relies on RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) and a novel ribonuclease III-like named R3B2 to degrade target transcripts...
July 13, 2020: PLoS Genetics
Radostina Vl Cherneva, Stefan Veselinov Denchev, Zheina Vl Cherneva
Objectives Autonomic dysfunction (AD) and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) have been implicated as pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Their association, however, remains elusive: The aims of the study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of AD and DH in non-severe COPD patients, with exertional dyspnea, without clinically overt cardio-vascular (CV) comorbidities; (2) to analyze the correlation and clinical significance between DH, AD, and maksed HFpEF...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Christian Sloane, Deborah C Mash, Theodore C Chan, Fred Kolkhorst, Tom Neuman, Edward M Castillo, Daniel Lasoff, Gabriel Wardi, Xiaobin Xie, Gary M Vilke
INTRODUCTION: Law enforcement and pre-hospital care personnel often confront individuals who must be physically restrained. Many are under the influence of illicit substances, and law enforcement officers may need to use a controlled electrical device (CED) to gain control of the individual and they are often placed into the prone maximum restraint (PMR) position. These techniques have previously been evaluated for their physiologic effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effects of anticipating and experiencing a sham CED activation in healthy human subjects who were exercised and restrained compared with no sham activation by assessing the differences in a panel of several known biomarkers of stress...
June 26, 2020: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Jing-Jing Lü, Guang-Tao Zhang, Zeng-Xia Zhao
Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) enrichment accompanied by silicate deficiency in seawater can promote dinoflagellate growth over diatom growth and induce further negative ecological consequences. Here, we propose an easily exercisable method for silicate fertilization as a remedy of eutrophication. In the laboratory, rice husk ash (RHA) released silicate and phosphate in an atomic ratio range of 38-113 without a significant influence on DIN. During incubations of silicate-limited waters, low-dose fertilization increased the diatom/dinoflagellate ratio by 1-5 times...
August 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Andrew N L Buskard, Kirk B Roberson, Joseph F Signorile
Accurate determinations of individuals' one-repetition maximum (1RM) are critical when evaluating the effectiveness of an exercise intervention involving progressive resistance training (RT). Traditional ("bottom-up"; BT) testing methods involve progressions from low to maximal loads and are commonly used in clinical and laboratory environments. Concerns about the reliability of BT testing in certain populations suggest a different technique may be more effective. Purpose : To compare the reliability and effectiveness of traditional 1RM testing to a novel technique (TDT) involving progressive load reductions and a starting intensity equal to 130% of exercisers' estimated 1RM...
July 13, 2020: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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July 2020: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Mimi Secor
The dramatic increase in overweight and obesity rates poses a public health threat a mandate for nurse practitioners to address this challenge in clinical practice. Exercise plays an essential role in prevention, initial weight loss, and maintenance of weight loss and recommendations for physical activity differ for each category. Intensity of exercise, duration, and effectiveness of various types of physical activity are reviewed. Possible reasons why exercise-focused weight loss goals are not attained are also explored...
July 2020: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Jennifer A Otmanowski, Jo-Ana D Chase
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity in the older adult is associated with functional decline, increased fall risk, and threatens the ability of the older adult to live independently. Nurse practitioners, with their expertise in health promotion and chronic disease management, are well positioned to provide physical activity (PA) counseling. However, there is a gap in the literature describing a practical formula for providing PA counseling and PA prescriptions for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this integrative review was to synthesize the literature related to counseling interventions designed to increase PA among older adults and provide practical recommendations for incorporating recommendations into practice...
July 2020: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Yusuke Hashimoto, Kazuya Nishino, John B Reid, Shinya Yamasaki, Junsei Takigami, Tomohiro Tomihara, Shinji Takahashi, Nagakazu Shimada, Hiroaki Nakamura
PURPOSE: The purpose was to assess the incidence of postoperative osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and the related epidemiologic factors following meniscal surgery for juvenile discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of 103 knees in 89 patients with a mean age of 12.1 years who underwent arthroscopic meniscal surgery for DLM. Mean follow-up was 4.2 years. The surgical procedures were either saucerization, saucerization with repair or subtotal meniscectomy, depending on the type of DLM tear...
July 10, 2020: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Kristian Vissing, Thomas Groennebaek, Mathias Wernbom, Per Aagaard, Truls Raastad
Low-load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) can stimulate whole-muscle growth and improve muscle function. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects at the myocellular level. We hypothesize that BFRRE possesses the ability to produce concurrent skeletal muscle myofibrillar, mitochondrial, and microvascular adaptations, thus offering an alternative strategy to counteract decay in skeletal muscle health and function in clinical populations.
July 8, 2020: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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