Katherine A J Daniels, Eleanor Drake, Enda King, Siobhán Strike
Cutting maneuvers can be executed at a range of angles and speeds, and these whole-body task descriptors are closely associated with lower-limb mechanical loading. Asymmetries in angle and speed when changing direction off the operated and nonoperated limbs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may therefore influence the interpretation of interlimb differences in joint-level biomechanical parameters. The authors hypothesized that athletes would reduce center-of-mass heading angle deflection and body rotation during the change-of-direction stance phase when cutting from the operated limb, and would compensate for this by orienting their center-of-mass trajectory more toward the new intended direction of travel prior to touchdown...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Daniella M DiGuglielmo, Mireille E Kelley, Mark A Espeland, Zachary A Gregory, Tanner D Payne, Derek A Jones, Tanner M Filben, Alexander K Powers, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban
To reduce head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football, further understanding of the context in which head impacts occur and the associated biomechanics is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contact characteristics on HIE during player versus player contact scenarios in youth football. Head impact data and time-synchronized video were collected from 4 youth football games over 2 seasons in which opposing teams were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Coded contact characteristics included the player's role in the contact, player speed and body position, contact height, type, and direction, and head contact surface...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Hayley M Carter, Kate E Webster, Benjamin E Smith
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are the most common ligament injury to the knee with surgical reconstruction considered standard treatment. This study aimed to explore the current physiotherapy management strategies used during the preoperative phase of rehabilitation for patients awaiting anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). METHODS: An anonymous survey was disseminated online via Twitter and the 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy' message board...
January 19, 2021: Knee
Ramzi Shawahna, Ahmad Batta, Mahmoud Asa'ad, Marwan Jomaah, Imad Abdelhaq
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a rapidly growing public health issue. This systematic review aimed to narrate and qualitatively synthesize evidence and recommendations of physical activity/exercise for patients with T2DM. METHODS: The databases Medline through Pubmed, Cochrane, and Scopus were systematically searched from inception to February 08, 2020 using MeSH terms related to "diabetes mellitus" and "physical activity/exercise"...
January 13, 2021: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Pi-I D Lin, Andres Cardenas, Russ Hauser, Diane R Gold, Ken P Kleinman, Marie-France Hivert, Antonia M Calafat, Thomas F Webster, Edward S Horton, Emily Oken
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitously detected in populations worldwide and may hinder kidney function. The objective of the study was to determine longitudinal associations of plasma PFAS concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and evaluate whether a lifestyle intervention modify the associations. We studied 875 participants initially randomized to the lifestyle or placebo arms in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, 1996-2002) trial and Outcomes Study (DPPOS, 2002-2014)...
January 19, 2021: Environment International
Christopher H Gibbons, Gustavo Silva, Roy Freeman
BACKGROUND: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder of orthostatic intolerance with few proven treatments. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of an unsupervised at-home training regimen for the treatment of POTS. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records including autonomic function testing, symptom scores and activities of daily living in individuals with POTS that were invited to participate in a 6-month outpatient cardiovascular exercise program...
January 19, 2021: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Carolina Luft, Isadora Perez Levices, Mariana Severo da Costa, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio
Studies have shown that an adverse environment in utero influences fetal growth and development, leading to several neuroendocrine and behavioral changes in adult life. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in the long-term benefits of pregestational exercise are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise before the gestational period on memory behavior and gene expression in the hippocampus of adult mice submitted to prenatal stress. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS), and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS)...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Hossein Shirvani, Reza Mirnejad, Mehdi Soleimani, Ehsan Arabzadeh
Exercise training with anti-inflammatory effects can improve insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of eight-week swimming exercises on lipid profile, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 200±20 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 each group): the control (C), aerobic exercise (E), HFD, and HFD + aerobic exercise (HFD & E)...
January 19, 2021: Gene
Ying Li, Salman Zafar, Rawya Mohamed Salih Ibrahim, Hong-Li Chi, Tong Xiao, Wen-Jie Xia, Hong-Bao Li, Yu-Ming Kang
AIMS: Exercise and food supplement of vitamin C (VC) are beneficial to human health, especially for those who suffer from hypertension. Here we tend to explore if gut microflora is involved in the anti-hypertensive effects of exercise and VC-supplement therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, the small intestine pathology and the fecal microbiota was analyzed along with the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AICs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and intestine...
January 19, 2021: Life Sciences
Emi Taniguchi, Ayako Tashiro, Ayumi Hattori, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shinobu Yasuo
Photoperiod alters affective behaviors and brain neuroplasticity in several mammalian species. We addressed whether neurogenesis and signaling pathways of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a key modulator of neuroplasticity, are regulated by photoperiod in C57BL/6 J mice, a putative model of seasonal affective disorder. We also examined the effects of photoperiod on plasma metabolomic profiles in relation to depression-like behavior to understand a possible linkage between peripheral metabolism and behavior...
January 19, 2021: Behavioural Brain Research
Philip McClure, Michael Tevald, Ryan Zarzycki, Shailesh Kantak, Philip Malloy, Kristen Day, Kshamata Shah, Amy Miller, Kathleen Mangione
The movement system has been adopted as the key identity for the physical therapy profession and recognition of physical therapists' primary expertise as managing movement dysfunction is an important achievement. However, existing movement system models seem inadequate for guiding education, practice, or research. Lack of a clear, broadly applicable model may hamper progress in physical therapists actually adopting this identity. We propose a model composed of 4 primary elements essential to all movement: motion, force, energy, and control...
January 22, 2021: Physical Therapy
Jamie L De Revere, Rasmus D Clausen, Todd A Astorino
Data obtained in primarily Caucasian (C) and African American adults show that ethnicity does not mediate responsiveness to exercise training. It is unknown if Hispanics (H), who face elevated health risks and are less active than C, exhibit a similar response to exercise training. This study compared cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic responses to high intensity interval training (HIIT) between C and H women. Twelve C and ten H women ages 19-35 yr who were non-obese and inactive completed nine sessions of HIIT over a 3 wk period...
2021: PloS One
Peter M Wayne, Brian J Gow, Fengzhen Hou, Yan Ma, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Justine Lo, Pamela M Rist, Chung-Kang Peng, Lewis A Lipsitz, Vera Novak, Brad Manor
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) mind-body exercise has been shown to reduce falls and improve balance and gait, however, few studies have evaluated the role of lower extremity muscle activation patterns in the observed benefits of TC on mobility. PURPOSE: To perform an exploratory analysis of the association between TC training and levels of lower extremity muscle co-contraction in healthy adults during walking under single-task (ST) and cognitive dual-task (DT) conditions...
2021: PloS One
Erlendur Egilsson, Ragnar Bjarnason, Urdur Njardvik
BACKGROUND: Majority of adolescents own smartphones though only 8% of them use health apps. Attrition rates from adolescent mHealth interventions treating mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, are an issue with high degree of variation and attrition rates. Attrition in mHealth interventions targeting adolescent populations is frequently presented in two-point fashion, from initiation of intervention to end of treatment, lacking more time-specific information on usage and times of attrition...
January 17, 2021: JMIR Formative Research
Patrícia Mota, Kari Bø
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2021: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Harris Syed, Tyler Slayman, Kate DuChene Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2021: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alessio Bellini, Andrea Nicolò, Ilenia Bazzucchi, Massimo Sacchetti
PURPOSE: We systematically investigated the effects of different exercise strategies on postprandial glycemia. METHODS: Six randomized repeated-measures crossover studies were performed. Study 1 compared the effects of 60 min of brisk walking started at 30, 60 or 90 min after breakfast on post-breakfast and post-lunch glycemic responses. Study 2 investigated the effects of 30 min of different exercise types (aerobic vs. resistance vs. combined). Study 3 compared the effects of 30 min of different aerobic exercise types (walking vs...
January 21, 2021: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Michael A Johnson, Graham R Sharpe, Robert S Needham, Neil C Williams
INTRODUCTION: The ergogenic effects of respiratory alkalosis induced by prior voluntary hyperventilation (VH) are controversial. This study examined the effects of prior VH on derived parameters from the 3-min all-out cycling test (3MT). METHODS: Eleven men ([Combining Dot Above]V˙O2max = 46 ± 8 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) performed a 3MT preceded by 15-min of rest (CONT) or voluntary hyperventilation (V˙E = 38 ± 5 L⋅min-1) with PETCO2 reduced to 21 ± 1 mmHg (HYP)...
January 21, 2021: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kristen C Cochrane-Snyman, Candelaria Cruz, Jacobo Morales, Michael Coles
No previous study has investigated the applications of isolated cannabidiol (CBD) as a recovery aid in untrained human subjects after a bout of exercise-induced muscle damage. PURPOSE: to investigate the effect of cannabidiol (CBD) oil on perceived muscle soreness, inflammation, and strength performance after eccentric exercise (ECC) of the elbow flexors. METHODS: Thirteen untrained men (mean ±SD age: 21.85±2.73a) performed 6 sets of 10 maximal ECC isokinetic muscle actions of the elbow flexors as part of a double-blind cross-over design...
January 21, 2021: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Phillip Bellinger, Matthew Bourne, Steven Duhig, Eline Lievens, Ben Kennedy, Andrew Martin, Christopher Cooper, Matthew Tredrea, Hal Rice, Wim Derave, Clare Minahan
PURPOSE: To identify the relationships between lower limb muscle characteristics and the mechanical variables derived from the vertical (jumping) and horizontal (sprinting) force-velocity-power (FVP) profiles. METHODS: Nineteen sub-elite male rugby league players performed a series of squat jumps and linear 30 m sprints to derive the vertical and horizontal FVP profiles, respectively. The theoretical maximal force (F0), velocity (V0) and power (Pmax) were derived from both the vertical (i...
January 21, 2021: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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