Ramdas Ransing, Prerna Kukreti, Pracheth Raghuveer, Mahesh Mahadevaiah, Manju Puri, Harish Pemde, Ravichandra Karkal, Suvarna Patil, Abhay Nirgude, Dinesh Kataria, Shraddha Sagvekar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Lack of recognition in national programs, poor referral system, and non-availability of trained human resources are the important barriers for the delivery of perinatal depression (PND) services in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). To address this there is an urgent need to develop an integrative and non-specialist-based stepped care model. As part of its research thrust on target areas of India's National Mental Health Programme (NMHP), the Indian Council of Medical Research funded a research project on the outcome of PND at four sites...
October 24, 2020: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Lavender A Otieno, John G Semmler, Simranjit K Sidhu
Ageing is accompanied by neuromuscular changes which may alter fatigue in older adults. These changes may include changes in corticospinal excitatory and inhibitory processes. Previous research has suggested that single joint fatiguing exercise decreases short-(SICI) and long-(LICI) interval intracortical inhibition in young adults. However, this is yet to be established in older adults. In 19 young (23 ± 4 years) and 18 older (69 ± 5 years) adults, SICI (2 ms interstimulus interval; ISI) and LICI (100 ms ISI) were measured in a resting first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after a 15 min sustained submaximal contraction at 25% of their maximum EMG...
October 24, 2020: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Fabrizio Bert, Erika Pompili, Giuseppina Lo Moro, Alessio Corradi, Angelica Sagrawa Caro, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Roberta Siliquini
INTRODUCTION: The gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a public health issue for its prevalence and association with low life quality and substantial costs. Since most of Italian data refer to over a decade ago, the aim was to provide an updated estimate of GERD symptoms prevalence. Knowledge about appropriate nutrition and behaviours in presence of GERD was assessed. Predictors for symptoms presence and knowledge were explored. METHODS: This study was an online cross-sectional survey that investigated socio-demographics, knowledge about nutrition/behaviours in case of GERD (Knowledge Score KS: percentage of right answers), nutrition/lifestyle attitudes...
October 24, 2020: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Christina Scharmer, Kimberly Martinez, Sasha Gorrell, Erin E Reilly, Joseph M Donahue, Drew A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has led to disruptions in daily living and increased uncertainty about physical, financial, social, and psychological consequences, which may contribute to anxiety, eating disorder (ED) pathology, and compulsive exercise. Individual factors, such as intolerance of uncertainty, may impact risk for ED pathology and CE in response to COVID-19 anxiety. The current study examined associations between COVID-19 anxiety, trait intolerance of uncertainty, and COVID-19 intolerance of uncertainty and ED pathology and compulsive exercise...
October 24, 2020: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Matthew P Harber, Allison McCurry, Nicholas Carlini, Brandon Kistler, Bradley S Fleenor
PURPOSE: To examine the acute influence of caffeine on post-exercise central blood pressures, arterial stiffness, and wave reflection properties. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design, ten middle-aged males (55 ± 5 year) completed two exercise trials after ingestion of caffeine (400 mg) or placebo. Measurements were taken before and 30 min post-ingestion via cuff-based pulse wave analysis (PWA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
October 24, 2020: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Vidal Haddad Junior, Luana Moraes Campos, Gabriela Roncada Haddad, Ana Letícia Rossetto, André Luiz Rossetto
Folliculitis is a common skin disease, usually benign, which causes inflammation and eventual infections of hair follicles. They may have an infectious etiology, mainly due to the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus; it also occurs due to localized irritation, such as in areas of skin friction and for long periods of immersion in water, as in athletes and workers who are continuously exposed to the aquatic environment. Herein, we report on two fishermen, from fluvial and maritime environments, who presented with chronic aseptic folliculitis associated with daily immersion of their lower extremities while exercising the profession and that regressed when there was a decrease in their contact with water...
October 2020: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Laura McMahon, Catherine Blake, Olive Lennon
BACKGROUND: Respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease (PD) is often an under-diagnosed and untreated impairment associated with the disease. Clinically, a reactive approach to respiratory morbidity is taken, rather than preventative approaches that address underlying impairment/s. This systematic review identifies the current evidence to support non-pharmacological interventions to improve respiratory impairments in individuals with PD. METHODS: The relevant literature was searched using a customised and systematic strategy...
October 24, 2020: European Journal of Neurology
Giancarlo Sadoti, Stephanie A McAfee, E Fleur Nicklen, Pamela J Sousanes, Carl A Roland
Gridded historical climate products (GHCPs) are employed with increasing frequency when modeling ecological phenomena across large scales and predicting ecological responses to projected climate changes. Concurrently, there is an increasing acknowledgement of the need to account for uncertainty when employing climate projections from ensembles of global circulation models (GCMs) and emissions scenarios. Despite the growing usage and documented differences among GHCPs, uncertainty characterization has primarily focused on GCM and emissions scenario choice, while the consequences of using a single GHCP to make predictions over space and time has received less attention...
October 23, 2020: Ecological Applications
Meghan L Butryn, Mary K Martinelli, Nicole T Crane, Kathryn Godfrey, Savannah R Roberts, Fengqing Zhang, Evan M Forman
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study tested counselor access to participants' digital self-monitoring (SM) data as a means of improving long-term lifestyle modification (LM) outcomes. METHODS: After 12 weeks of weight-loss treatment, participants (N = 77) were randomized to LM or LM+SHARE for weeks 13 to 52. All participants received monthly phone calls and weekly text messages from weeks 13 to 52 and were instructed to engage in daily digital SM of weight, eating, and exercise...
October 23, 2020: Obesity
Lesley Pritchard, Olaf Verschuren, Michelle Roy, Cara Kaup, Dax G Rumsey
OBJECTIVE: While the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is increasingly being used in research to evaluate functional exercise capacity of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), psychometric properties with this population have not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility (agreement and test re-test reliability) and to determine standard error of measurement and smallest detectable difference in children and youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis...
October 23, 2020: Arthritis Care & Research
Ana Myriam Lavín-Pérez, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Xian Mayo, Liam Humphreys, Gary Liguori, Robert James Copeland, Fernando Del Villar Álvarez, Alfonso Jiménez
Improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRFit) in cancer patients is crucial to increase survivorship, promote health and improve quality of life. High-intensity training (HIT) has the potential to increase CRFit, perhaps better than other exercise modalities, but the extant evidence has yet to be fully explored. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of HIT on CRFit in cancer patients and survivors and to identify the optimal characteristics of the interventions (e.g. cancer type, intervention timing, exercise modality, intervention's duration and the number of minutes of high-intensity exercise in each session)...
October 23, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Mohamed Kazamel, Amro Maher Stino, Albert Gordon Smith
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both global health challenges with well-established diagnostic criteria and significant impacts on quality of life. Clinical observations, epidemiologic evidence, and animal models of disease have strongly suggested MetS is associated with an elevated risk for cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). MetS neuropathy preferentially affects small unmyelinated axons early in its course, and it may also affect autonomic and large fibers. CSPN risk is linked to MetS and several of its components including obesity, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes...
October 24, 2020: Muscle & Nerve
Katherine A J Daniels, Enda King, Chris Richter, Éanna Falvey, Andy Franklyn-Miller
Athletic groin pain (AGP) is a chronic, painful condition which is prevalent in players of field sports that require rapid changes of direction. Following successful rehabilitation, systematic changes have been observed in the kinetics and kinematics of pre-planned change of direction manoeuvres, providing insight into potential foci for rehabilitation monitoring and for the assessment of interventions. However, changing direction in field sports is often reactive rather than pre-planned, and it is not known whether such post-rehabilitation changes are seen in reactive manoeuvres...
October 23, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Erin Smith, Caitriona Cunningham, Barry R Greene, Ulrik McCarthy Persson, Catherine Blake
BACKGROUND: The Quantitative Timed Up and Go (QTUG) test uses wearable sensors, containing a triaxial accelerometer and an add-on triaxial gyroscope, to quantify performance during the TUG test with potential to capture more minor changes in mobility. AIMS: To examine the responsiveness, minimum detectable change (MDC) and observed effect size of QTUG in a cohort of socially active adults aged 50 years and over participating in a structured community exercise program...
October 23, 2020: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Khushboo Gala, Viral Desai, Nanlong Liu, Endashaw M Omer, Stephen A McClave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Decades of research on nutrition and exercise on athletes and bodybuilders has yielded various strategies to promote anabolism and improve muscle health and growth. We reviewed these interventions in the context of muscle loss in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: For critically ill patients, ensuring optimum protein intake is important, potentially using a whey-containing source and supplemented with vitamin D and leucine. Agents like hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate and creatine can be used to promote muscle synthesis...
October 24, 2020: Current Nutrition Reports
Haniel Soares Fernandes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During a soccer season, athletes tend to play intense and light matches such as decisive and qualifying games. The amount of muscle glycogen stores is a determining factor of performance during exercise, and manipulation of carbohydrate intake during the soccer season to enhance muscle glycogen stores can improve the performance of elite soccer players. The purpose of this review is to provide a holistic view of the periodization of carbohydrates and their effects on sports performance, based on what the literature recommends for the periodization of carbohydrates for endurance athletes, and of muscle glycogen recovery and compensation among professional soccer players...
October 24, 2020: Current Nutrition Reports
Jonathan G Stine, Christopher Soriano, Ian Schreibman, Gloriany Rivas, Breianna Hummer, Esther Yoo, Kathryn Schmitz, Christopher Sciamanna
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are the cornerstones of the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). For unclear reasons, most NAFLD patients do not achieve the recommended amount of weekly activity. AIMS: Our aim was to measure perceived barriers to physical activity and enablers to exercise intervention. METHODS: Consecutive subjects aged 18-70 with NAFLD were prospectively enrolled. An exercise motivation questionnaire was administered to assess current behaviors and perceived barriers...
October 23, 2020: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Vinutha B Shetty, Paul A Fournier, Nirubasini Paramalingam, Wayne Soon, Heather C Roby, Timothy W Jones, Elizabeth A Davis
CONTEXT: Under basal insulin levels, there is an inverted U relationship between exercise intensity and exogenous glucose requirements to maintain stable blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D), with no glucose required for intense exercise (80% V̇O2 peak), implying that high intensity exercise is not conducive to hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a similar inverted U relationship exists under hyperinsulinemic conditions, with high intensity aerobic exercise not being conducive to hypoglycemia...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Keisuke Nakamura, Tomohiro Sasaki, Shuhei Yamamoto, Hiroto Hayashi, Shinji Ako, Yuu Tanaka
Patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at greater risk of early mortality and decreased physical function with an advance in the stage of CKD. However, the effect of exercise in these patients is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of physical exercise training on the risk of mortality, kidney and physical functions, and adverse events in patients with non-dialysis CKD. The meta-analysis conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement and the Cochrane Handbook recommendations...
October 23, 2020: Scientific Reports
Maximilian Kiener
This paper focuses on voluntary consent in the context of living organ donation. Arguing against three dominant views, I claim that voluntariness must not be equated with willingness, that voluntariness does not require the exercise of relational moral agency, and that, in cases of third-party pressure, voluntariness critically depends on the role of the surgeon and the medical team, and not just on the pressure from other people. I therefore argue that an adequate account of voluntary consent cannot understand voluntariness as a purely psychological concept, that it has to be consistent with people pursuing various different conceptions of the good and that it needs to make the interaction between the person giving consent and the person (or people) receiving consent central to its approach...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Medical Ethics
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