Sinéad Lydon, Emily O'Dowd, Chloe Walsh, Angela O'Dea, Dara Byrne, Andrew W Murphy, Paul O'Connor
Women are substantially underrepresented in senior and leadership positions in medicine and experience gendered challenges in their work settings. This systematic review aimed to synthesise research that has evaluated interventions for improving gender equity in medicine. English language electronic searches were conducted across MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Reference list screening was also undertaken. Peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and March 2020 that evaluated interventions to improve gender equity, or the experiences of women, in academic or clinical medicine were reviewed...
February 26, 2021: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Charitha Gowda, Rose Y Hardy, Steven Traylor, Gilbert C Liu
OBJECTIVE: To examine healthcare utilisation for all firearm-related injuries among publicly insured children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of firearm injury medical claims among paediatric (<21 years) Medicaid beneficiaries in Ohio from 2010 to 2018. Factors associated with unintentional and intentional firearm injury were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Average annual patient healthcare costs were determined in 2019 US$. RESULTS: There were 1061 firearm injury-related claims (853 (80%) unintentional; 154 (15%) intentional; 54 (5%) unknown) occurring in 663 children over 2 736 517 available person-years...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Wei Liu, Jia Liu
OBJECTIVES: To describe experiences of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 following family cluster transmission of the infection and the meaning of these experiences for them. DESIGN: A descriptive phenomenological design was used to construct themes depicting patients' experiences of living with COVID-19. SETTING: This study was conducted in a major teaching hospital in Wuhan, China, in March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients involved in family cluster transmission of COVID-19 were recruited into the study...
February 26, 2021: BMJ Open
Tessa Yap, Mark Quick, Paige Moore
Glottic stenosis can be an unexpected finding during an intubation, causing difficulties that may result in a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' situation. We present a case of a patient who required an emergency tracheostomy, in the setting of a failed intubation secondary to glottic stenosis. The patient underwent open laryngotracheal reconstruction, followed by tracheostomy decannulation 2 months post-surgery. This paper highlights the importance of awareness of laryngeal pathology masquerading as respiratory conditions...
February 26, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Rommel Ramesh, Mariam Assi, Zerelda Esquer Garrigos, Muhammad Rizwan Sohail
Lawsonella clevelandensis, an emerging pathogen, was first described in 2016, and has been implicated in abdominal, breast and spinal abscesses in a limited number of cases. Being a fastidious organism, it is primarily identified with molecular methods. With the incorporation of broad-range PCR testing in clinical diagnostics, L. clevelandensis has been increasingly reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with bilateral psoas abscesses secondary to aorto-bi-iliac vascular graft infection with L...
February 26, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Zachary Ginsberg, Summer Ghaith, Jordan R Pollock, Angelina S Hwang, Skye A Buckner-Petty, Ronna L Campbell, Douglas E Rappaport, Rachel A Lindor
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that opioid use for patients with acute low back pain does not improve functional outcomes and contributes to long-term opioid use. Little is known about the impact of opioid administration in the emergency department (ED) for patients with low back pain. OBJECTIVES: This study compares 30-day return rates after administration of various pain management modalities for emergency department (ED) patients with low back pain. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter observational study of patients in the ED who were diagnosed with low back pain and discharged home in 21 EDs between November 2018 and April 2020...
February 23, 2021: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Binbin Zheng-Lin, Eileen M O'Reilly
The paradigm for treatment of PDAC is shifting from a "one size fits all" of cytotoxic therapy to a precision medicine approach based on specific predictive biomarkers for a subset of patients. As the genomic landscape of pancreatic carcinogenesis has become increasingly defined, several oncogenic alterations have emerged as actionable targets and their use has been validated in novel approaches such as targeting mutated germline DNA damage response genes (BRCA) and mismatch deficiency (dMMR/MSI-H) or blockade of rare somatic oncogenic fusions...
February 11, 2021: Seminars in Oncology
Janbernd Kirschner, Toni Cathomen
BACKGROUND: New gene therapy approaches have emerged as promising treatment options for rare congenital disorders and certain tumor entities for which previously only procedures of limited curative potential had been available, if at all. METHODS: Based on a selective literature search, the principles of gene therapy, the current status of clinical application, and the methods and results of gene therapy approaches are discussed. RESULTS: In vivo gene therapy relies mostly on the use of vectors based on modified adeno-associated viruses to introduce a functioning copy of the missing or defective genetic information into the target cells...
December 21, 2020: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Holger Gässler, Matthias Helm, Björn Hossfeld, Matthias Fischer
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation by laypersons is important in bridging the time between the occurrence of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and the arrival of emergency rescue service personnel. Depending on the reason for the cardiac arrest, however, the effectiveness of chest compressions is uncertain. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of lay resuscitation on survival following OHCA of different causes. METHODS: The data set for analysis comprised all cases of cardiac arrest before the arrival of emergency rescue service personnel that were fully documented in the German Resuscitation Registry in the period 2007-2019...
December 21, 2020: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Miryam Mebarki, Camille Abadie, Jérôme Larghero, Audrey Cras
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (UC-MSCs) emerge as a perspective for therapeutic use in immune and inflammatory diseases. Indeed, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, associated to fewer ethical, availability, and safety issues, position UC-MSCs as a promising active substance to develop medicinal products. Since 2007, UC-MSC-based products are classified as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) according to the European Regulation 1394/2007/EC. This new regulatory status required a total adaptation of stakeholders wishing to develop UC-MSC-based ATMPs...
February 26, 2021: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ed J Spoelder, Marijn C T Tacken, Geert-Jan van Geffen, Cor Slagt
BACKGROUND: During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Netherlands, the demand for intensive care beds exceeded availability within days. Initially, patients were redistributed regionally by ground transport. When transport over longer distances became necessary, we initiated a new Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) operation. We hypothesize that the transport of contagious COVID-19 patients is feasible and safe for patients and HEMS personnel. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-centre observational study, flight and monitor data were used to calculate the exposure time of the retrieval team to COVID-19 patients...
February 26, 2021: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Mehrdad Sahranavard, Arash Akhavan Rezayat, Mohammad Zamiri Bidary, Alireza Omranzadeh, Farahnaz Rohani, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Ebrahim Hazrati, Seyyed Hossein Mousavi, Mohamed Afshar Ardalan, Saeed Soleiman-Meigooni, Seyyed-Javad Hosseini-Shokouh, Zia Hejripour, Ehsan Nassireslami, Reza Laripour, Amirahmad Salarian, Abbas Nourmohammadi, Reza Mosaed
BACKGROUND: The newly emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to involve different organs, including the cardiovascular system. We systematically reviewed COVID-19 cardiac complications and calculated their pooled incidences. Secondarily, we compared the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level between the surviving and expired patients. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for manuscripts published from December 1, 2019 to April 16, 2020. Cardiovascular complications, along with the levels of cTnI, creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) in hospitalized PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were extracted...
February 1, 2021: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Asghar Aghamohammadi, Hassan Abolhassani, Nima Rezaei
Clinical immunology and its subset topics are rather newly emerging medical fields in Iran as well as other developing countries. Primary immunodeficiency diagnosis and treatment were revolutionized in the late 1970s; a period of time that coincided with the establishment of the Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy at the Children's Medical Center, Tehran. Subsequently, the launch of fellowship training programs (in 1988), the development of a national Iranian Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Registry (in 1999), the inauguration of Research Center for Immunodeficiencies (in 2009), and recently, the national primary immunodeficiency network (in 2016) significantly changed the picture of disease management during the last 40 years...
February 1, 2021: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Jane Yardley, Mikko Kärppä, Yuichi Inoue, Kate Pinner, Carlos Perdomo, Kohei Ishikawa, Gleb Filippov, Naoki Kubota, Margaret Moline
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Lemborexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the United States, Japan, and Canada for the treatment of insomnia in adults. We report effectiveness and safety outcomes in subjects with insomnia who received up to twelve months of continuous lemborexant treatment in Study E2006-G000-303 (Study 303; SUNRISE-2). PATIENTS/METHODS: Study 303 was a twelve-month, global, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, Phase 3 study divided into two treatment periods...
February 1, 2021: Sleep Medicine
Yvette Efevbera, Paul Farmer
Guinea has the eighth highest rate of girl child marriage, as 1 in 2 girls marry before age 18. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore how women married as children in Conakry, Guinea see their marriage as related to their health and their children's health. This study draws from grounded theory. The primary data sources were in-depth interviews collected from August 2016 to January 2017; during that time, we also conducted brief ethnographic interviews, observation, and participant observation...
February 16, 2021: Social Science & Medicine
Desana Kocevska, Nicola L Barclay, Wichor M Bramer, Philip R Gehrman, Eus J W Van Someren
Epidemiological and interventional research has highlighted sleep as a potentially modifiable risk factor associated with poor physical and mental health. Emerging evidence from (behavioral) genetic research also shows that sleep characteristics are under strong genetic control. With this study we aimed to meta-analyze the literature in this area to quantify the heritability of sleep duration and sleep quality in the general population. We conducted a systematic literature search in five online databases on January 24th 2020...
January 27, 2021: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Jane Tucker, Joanne Salas, Zidong Zhang, Richard Grucza, Jeffrey F Scherrer
The CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain cautioned against high dose prescribing but did not provide guidance on type of opioid for new pain episodes. We determined if new prescriptions for Schedule II opioids vs. tramadol decreased in the 18 months after vs. before the CDC guideline and if this decrease was associated with physician specialty. New opioid prescriptions, provider type and covariates were measured using a nationally distributed, Optum® de-identified Electronic Health Record (EHR) data base...
February 23, 2021: Preventive Medicine
N Jeanie Santaularia, Majel R Baker, Darin Erickson, Patricia Frazier, Melissa N Laska, Katherine Lust, Susan M Mason
The aim of this paper was to better understand how child and adult adversities cluster together into classes, and how these classes relate to body weight and obesity. Analyses included 2015 and 2018 data from emerging adults (18-25 years old) who participated in a state surveillance system of 2- and 4-year college students in Minnesota (N = 7475 in 2015 and N = 6683 in 2018). Latent Class Analyses (LCA) of 12 child and adult adversities were run stratified by gender and replicated between 2015 and 2018...
February 23, 2021: Preventive Medicine
David N Alter
CONTEXT.—: Point-of-care test (POCT) instruments produce lab results with rapid turnaround times. Based on that fact, emergency department (ED) POCT requests are predicated on the belief that rapid test turnaround times lead to improved care, typically a decreased ED length of stay (LOS). OBJECTIVE.—: To compile the available peer-reviewed data regarding use of POCT in the ED with an emphasis on ED-LOS. DATA SOURCES.—: An English-language PubMed search using the following free text terms: ("EMERGENCY" AND "POINT OF CARE") NOT ULTRASOUND as well as "RAPID INFECTIOUS DISEASE TESTING...
March 1, 2021: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Hendy Hendarto, Muhammad Ardian Cahya Laksana, Hanifa Erlin Damayanti, Mohammad Hud Suhargono, Rizki Pranadyan, Kohar Hari Santoso, Kartika Sri Redjeki, Baksono Winard, Budi Prasetyo, Jorien Vercruyssen, John Robert Moss, Peng Bi, Syarifah Masitah, Warsiti, Aldilia Wyasti Pratama, Erni Rosita Dewi, Charity Hartika Listiyani, Ismi Mufidah
Despite most Indonesian women now receiving antenatal care on the nationally recommended four occasions and being delivered by skilled birth attendants, the nation's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is estimated as 177 per 100,000 live births. Recent research in a rural district of Indonesia has indicated that poor service quality due to organizational and personnel factors is now a major determinant of this high MMR. The present research is an in-depth analysis of possible health service organizational and quality of care related causes of death among 30 women admitted to a peak referral hospital in a major Indonesian city...
2021: PloS One
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