Ming Sun, Jiaxing Zhao, Qing Mao, Chengda Yan, Bing Zhang, Yuwei Yang, Xiwen Dai, Jun Gao, Fengwei Lin, Yulin Duan, Tingjian Zhang, Shaojie Wang
Xanthine oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for the synthesis of uric acid, and therefore xanthine oxidase inhibitors are considered as one of the promising therapies for hyperuricemia and gout. In our previous study, series of 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids and 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-imino-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids were synthesized that presented excellent in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potency. Interestingly, molecular docking studies revealed that the interaction behavior of these compounds with xanthine oxidase was changed after the conversion from a hydroxy group to amine group...
April 2, 2021: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Kadir Küçükceran, Mustafa Kürşat Ayrancı, Abdullah Sadık Girişgin, Sedat Koçak, Zerrin Defne Dündar
INTRODUCTION: Due to the high mortality and spread rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are currently serious challenges in emergency department management. As such, we investigated whether the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/albumin ratio (BAR) predicts mortality in the COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. METHODS: A total of 602 COVID-19 patients who were brought to the emergency department within the period from March to September 2020 were included in the study...
April 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jesse T T McLaren, Ahmed K Taher, Monika Kapoor, Soojin L Yi, Lucas B Chartier
BACKGROUND: Limits to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) criteria may lead to prolonged diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion. We aimed to reduce ECG-to-Activation (ETA) time through audit and feedback on STEMI-equivalents and subtle occlusions, without increasing Code STEMIs without culprit lesions. METHODS: This multi-centre, quality improvement initiative reviewed all Code STEMI patients from the emergency department (ED) over a one-year baseline and one-year intervention period...
March 25, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ekrem Taha Sert, Kamil Kokulu, Hüseyin Mutlu
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is to prevent delayed neurological sequelae (DNS). However, today there is still no objective screening tool to identify patients at high risk of developing DNS. The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors that could predict DNS after acute charcoal-burning CO poisoning. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from September 1, 2019 to August 31, 2020 in a single academic medical center...
April 3, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nicholas B Sajjadi, William Nowlin, Ross Nowlin, David Wenger, John Martin Beal, Matt Vassar, Micah Hartwell
CONTEXT: On December 1, 2020, Drs. Wolfgang Wodarg and Micheal Yeadon petitioned to withhold emergency use authorization of the BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manufactured by BioNTech and Pfizer, raising concern for female infertility risks but acknowledging the lack of evidence. The European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration ultimately issued emergency use authorizations, but misinformation claiming that COVID-19 vaccines cause female infertility began circulating on social media, potentially influencing public perception and medical decision making among pregnant patients or those seeking to become pregnant...
April 12, 2021: Journal of osteopathic medicine
Marc P Allard-Ratick, Bryan R Kindya, Jay Khambhati, Marc C Engels, Pratik B Sandesara, Robert S Rosenson, Laurence S Sperling
The measurement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is highly utilized by clinicians to help predict cardiovascular risk, but this measure is not causally associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. The use of Mendelian randomization studies has led to a change in investigative attention from the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to its physiological functions. High-density lipoprotein plays key roles in important pathways related to the development of atherosclerotic disease including reverse cholesterol transport, oxidation and inflammation, and endothelial function as well as in other physiological systems including immune system modulation, cellular apoptosis, and endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis...
April 10, 2021: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Chung-Tso Chen, Yen-Chieh Wang, Chih-Ming Lin
BACKGROUND Primary aldosteronism, also known as Conn's syndrome, is a clinical condition caused by excessive production of aldosterone. The classic presenting signs of primary aldosteronism are hypertension and hypokalemia. However, rhabdomyolysis induced by severe hypokalemia is a rare manifestation of primary aldosteronism. There were only a few cases presented in the English literature over the last 4 decades. CASE REPORT We present 2 cases, a 53-year-old man and a 46-year-old man, with severe hypokalemia-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by adrenal tumor-related primary aldosteronism...
April 10, 2021: American Journal of Case Reports
Nicholas M Levin, Megan L Fix, Michael D April, Allyson A Arana, Calvin A Brown
BACKGROUND: The recommended rocuronium dose for rapid sequence intubation is 1.0 mg/kg; however, the optimal dose for emergency airway management is not clear. We assessed the relationship between rocuronium dose and first-attempt success among emergency department (ED) patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the National Emergency Airway Registry (NEAR), an observational 25-center registry of ED intubations. Ninety percent recording compliance was required from each site for data inclusion...
April 10, 2021: CJEM
Mandana Pouladzadeh, Mehdi Safdarian, Peyman Eshghi, Hassan Abolghasemi, Alireza Ghorbani Bavani, Behnam Sheibani, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Abdolaziz Feghhi, Mehri Ghafourian Boroujerdnia, Arash Forouzan, Mohammad Ali Jalali Far, Gholam Abbas Kaydani, Elham Rajaei, Mansour Amin, Mehdi Torabizadeh, Farid Yousefi, Reza Hadaddezfuli
Evaluating the effect of convalescent plasma (CP) on some cytokine storm indices in severe COVID-19 patients. Totally, 62 patients were randomly assigned into two groups for this clinical trial. Patients in the intervention group received one unit (500 mL) plasma on the admission day plus standard drugs while the controls merely received standard treatments. Eventually, primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated. In the CP group, compared with controls, the mean levels of lymphocytes and IL-10 significantly increased while the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ decreased (p < 0...
April 10, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Carolyn J Hullick, Rosa McNamara, Brittany Ellis
The new edition of the Silver Book, Silver Book II, provides a framework for the urgent care of older people in the first 72 hours from illness or injury. It incorporates principles of geriatric medicine, quality improvement (including patient reported outcome measures) and interdisciplinary care in a balanced, practical and evidence-rich manual on unscheduled and emergent care for older adults. Silver Book II shows how frailty, comprehensive geriatric assessment and shared decision-making can be locally adapted according to national practice and policy across the world...
April 9, 2021: Age and Ageing
Kantha Rao Bhimala, Gopal Krishna Patra, Rajashekar Mopuri, Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni
Advanced and accurate forecasting of COVID-19 cases plays a crucial role in planning and supplying resources effectively. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have proved their capability in time series forecasting non-linear problems. In the present study, the relationship between weather factor and COVID-19 cases was assessed, and also developed a forecasting model using long short-term memory (LSTM), a deep learning model. The study found that the specific humidity has a strong positive correlation, whereas there is a negative correlation with maximum temperature, and a positive correlation with minimum temperature was observed in various geographic locations of India...
April 10, 2021: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Leonard Schuele, Erley Lizarazo-Forero, Hayley Cassidy, Katrin Strutzberg-Minder, Jan Boehmer, Sabine Schuetze, Sandra Loebert, Claudia Lambrecht, Juergen Harlizius, Alex W Friedrich, Silke Peter, John W A Rossen, Natacha Couto
Porcine respirovirus 1, also referred to as porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1), was first detected in deceased pigs from Hong Kong in 2013. It has since then been found in the USA, Chile, and most recently in Hungary. Information on the pathogenicity and global spread is sparse. However, it has been speculated to play a role in the porcine respiratory disease complex. To investigate the porcine virome, we screened 53 pig samples from 26 farms within the Dutch-German border region using shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMg)...
April 9, 2021: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Amaresh Das, Yin Wang, Shawn Babiuk, Jianfa Bai, Kimberly Dodd, Wei Jia
This study reports the development of multiplex real-time PCR assays for differential detection of capripoxvirus (CaPV), parapoxvirus (PaPV), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in sheep, goats and cattle. Three multiplex assays were developed, a capripox (CaP) rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of CaPV and PaPV, a FMD rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of FMDV and PaPV, and a FMD/CaP rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of CaPV, PaPV and FMDV...
April 10, 2021: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yi-Fei Zhang, Yu Zhang, Dong-Dong Jia, Hong-Yu Yang, Meng-Die Cheng, Wen-Xiu Zhu, Hui Xin, Pei-Feng Li, Yin-Feng Zhang
Plexin D1 (PLXND1), which was previously thought to mediate semaphorin signalling, belongs to the Plexin family of transmembrane proteins. PLXND1 cooperates mostly with the coreceptor neuropilin and participates in many aspects of axonal guidance. PLXND1 can also act as both a tumour promoter and a tumour suppressor. Emerging evidence suggests that mutations in PLXND1 or Semaphorin 3E, the canonical ligand of PLXND1, can lead to serious cardiovascular diseases, such as congenital heart defects, CHARGE syndrome and systemic sclerosis...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Frank R Wendt, Dora Koller, Gita A Pathak, Daniel Jacoby, Edward J Miller, Renato Polimanti
Studying drug-metabolizing enzymes, encoded by pharmacogenes, may inform biological mechanisms underlying the diseases for which a medication is prescribed. Until recently, pharmacogenes could not be studied at biobank scale. In 7,649 unrelated African-ancestry (AFR) and 326,214 unrelated European-ancestry (EUR) participants from the UK Biobank, we associated pharmacogene haplotypes from 50 genes with 265 (EUR) and 17 (AFR) medication use phenotypes using generalized linear models. In EUR, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) metabolizer phenotype and activity score were associated with simvastatin use...
April 10, 2021: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Davide Marotta, Chandrika Rao, Valentina Fossati
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have emerged as an invaluable resource for basic research, disease modeling, and drug discovery over recent years. Given the numerous advantages of iPSCs over alternative models-including their human origin, their ability to be differentiated into almost any cell type, and the therapeutic potential of patient-specific iPSCs in personalized medicine-many labs are now considering iPSC models for their studies. As the quality of the starting population of iPSCs is a key determinant in the success of any one of these applications, it is crucial to adhere to best practices in iPSC culture...
April 10, 2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hyojeong Kwon, Youn-Jung Kim, Eun-Ju Her, Bora Chae, Yoon-Seon Lee
Recent guidelines for diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are based on clinical decision rules and D-dimer. D-dimer measurement is recommended only for patients who are 'PE-unlikely'. We aimed to assess the current guidelines for cancer patients and to determine an optimal D-dimer cut-off level. This retrospective observational study was conducted in the emergency department of Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) between 02/2017 and 09/2017 for the development cohort and between 06/2018 and 02/2019 for the validation cohort...
April 10, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
James H Nichols, Ethan S Brandler, Corinne R Fantz, Kimberley Fisher, Michael D Goodman, Gary Headden, Debra Hoppensteadt, Ryan Matika, W Frank Peacock, John Rodrigo, Andre Schützenmeister, Jonathan R Swanson, Cristina Canada-Vilalta, Gabrielle Miles, Nam Tran
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to evaluate the performance of the ACCU-CHEK® Inform II blood glucose monitoring system (Roche Diagnostics GmbH) compared with the perchloric acid hexokinase (PCA-HK) comparator method on the cobas® 6000 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics International Ltd) in critically ill patients. METHODS: Overall, 476 arterial (376 pediatric/adult, 100 neonate), 375 venous, and 100 neonatal heel-stick whole-blood samples were collected and evaluated from critical care settings at 10 US hospitals, including the emergency department, medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs), and neonatal and pediatric ICUs...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine
Tsvetelina Nilsson, Erik Johannesson, Jakob Lundager Forberg, Arash Mokhtari, Ulf Ekelund
BACKGROUND/AIM: In ED chest pain patients, a 0-hour/1-hour protocol based on high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) tests combined with clinical risk stratification in diagnosing acute coronary syndrome is recommended. Two of the most promising risk stratification tools are the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors and Troponin (HEART) and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain (EDAC) scores. Few studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol when combined with HEART score, and none with EDACS...
April 9, 2021: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Umma-Kulthum Abdullahi Umar, Aysha Najim Alremeithi, Hasan Qayyum
A 30-year-old man of African origin presented to our emergency department (ED) with subjective fever and abdominal pain which started on the day of attendance. Vital signs and systemical examination were within normal limits. As part of his evaluation in ED, a 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed which showed features consistent with dextrocardia later confirmed on a chest X-ray as well. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen was performed which showed mirror imaging of the abdominal viscera, all of which were otherwise structurally normal...
April 9, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
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