K Liang Zeng, Arjun Sahgal, Zain A Husain, Sten Myrehaug, Chia-Lin Tseng, Jay Detsky, Arman Sarfehnia, Mark Ruschin, Mikki Campbell, Monica Foster, Sunit Das, Nir Lipsman, Georg A Bjarnason, Eshetu G Atenafu, Pejman Jabehdar Maralani, Hany Soliman
PURPOSE: The concept of a radioresistant (RR) phenotype has been challenged with use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). We compared outcomes following SBRT to RR spinal metastases to a radiosensitive cohort. METHODS: Renal cell, melanoma, sarcoma, gastro-intestinal, and thyroid spinal metastases were identified as RR and prostate cancer (PCA) as radiosensitive. The primary endpoint was MRI-based local failure (LF). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and vertebral compression fracture (VCF)...
January 16, 2021: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ashley R Deonarain, Robert V Harrison, Karen A Gordon, Thomas Looi, Anne M R Agur, Marvin Estrada, Nikolaus E Wolter, Evan J Propst
OBJECTIVE(S): To create and validate a synthetic simulator for teaching tracheostomy and laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR) using anterior costal cartilage and thyroid ala cartilage grafts. METHODS: A late adolescent/adult neck and airway simulator was constructed based on CT scans from a cadaver and a live patient. Images were segmented to create three-dimensional printed molds from which anatomical parts were casted. To evaluate the simulator, expert otolaryngologists - head and neck surgeons performed tracheostomy and LTR using anterior costal cartilage and thyroid ala cartilage grafts on a live anesthetized porcine model (gold standard) followed by the synthetic simulator...
January 16, 2021: Laryngoscope
Lunpan Mou, Liyan Liao, Yaping Zhang, Desong Ming, Jianjia Jiang
RATIONALE: Ursolic acid (UA) has exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative drug effects. OBJECTIVES: In the research, we assessed the effects of UA on Nthy-ori 3-1 cells stimulated by IL-1β and attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects. METHODS: Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) was simulated using Nthy-ori 3-1 cells by IL-1β (10 μM) treatment. UA (20 μM) was applied to ameliorate the injury of Nthy-ori 3-1 cells. The target of UA was predicted by TCMSP, BATMAN, and GEO database...
January 16, 2021: Psychopharmacology
Arif A Arif, Peter T W Kim, Adrienne Melck, Andrew Churg, Zachary Schwartz, Heather C Stuart
BACKGROUND Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-tumor syndrome in which affected patients develop malignancies that are rare in the overall population, such as tumors of neural or endocrine origin. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of NF1 presented with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum. She underwent small-bowel resections for a perforated jejunal lesion and a second lesion in the ileum; pathology showed a neurofibroma at the site of the perforation and a 1-cm low-grade GIST, respectively...
January 16, 2021: American Journal of Case Reports
S Arici, S S Karyagar, R U Erdemir, R Cekin, M M Atcı, O Güven, S Karyagar, Ş Cihan
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor. Calcitonin (Ctn) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are used as markers for medullary thyroid cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of serum Ctn and CEA levels in predicting total tumor volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ga-68 DOTA-TATE PET/CT findings such as whole-body somatostatin receptor-expressing metabolic tumor volume (SSR-E MTV) and total lesion volume (SSR-E TLV) were calculated and correlation analysis was done for tumor markers and whole-body SSR-E MTV and TLV...
January 12, 2021: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Qianqian Yuan, Yiqin Liao, Xing Liao, Jinxuan Hou, Lewei Zheng, Jiuyang Liu, Kun Wang, Gaosong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of amplitude reduction compared vagal stimulation at the end of thyroid dissection (V2) to the most distal RLN stimulation during thyroidectomy in predicting postoperative vocal cords paralysis (VCP). METHODS: Patients with intact preoperative RLN function who underwent monitored thyroidectomy between August 2017 and April 2018 were included. We routinely tested the exposed RLN at the lowest proximal end (R2p signal) and the most distal end near the laryngeal entry point (R2d signal), and then routinely detected the vagal nerve at the horizontal plane of the inferior pole of thyroid with 2mA stimulation current...
January 13, 2021: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Giulio Maurizi, Camilla Vanni, Erino Angelo Rendina, Anna Maria Ciccone, Mohsen Ibrahim, Claudio Andreetti, Federico Venuta, Antonio D'Andrilli
OBJECTIVE: Laryngotracheal resection is still considered a challenging operation and few high-volume institutions have reported large series of patients in this setting. During the 5 years, novel surgical techniques as well as new trends in the intra- and postoperative management have been proposed. We present results of our increased experience with laryngotracheal resection for benign stenosis. METHODS: Between 1991 and May 2019, 228 consecutive patients underwent laryngotracheal resection for subglottic stenosis...
December 14, 2020: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Tiphaine C Martin, Mirna Šimurina, Marta Ząbczyńska, Marina Martinic Kavur, Magdalena Rydlewska, Marija Pezer, Kamila Kozłowska, Andrea Burri, Marija Vilaj, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Milena Krnjajić-Tadijanović, Małgorzata Trofimiuk-Müldner, Ivo Ugrina, Anna Lityńska, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Irena Trbojevic-Akmacic, Ee Mun Lim, John P Walsh, Ewa Pocheć, Tim D Spector, Scott G Wilson, Gordan Lauc
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are the most common group of autoimmune diseases, associated with lymphocyte infiltration and the production of thyroid autoantibodies, like thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), in the thyroid gland. Immunoglobulins and cell-surface receptors are glycoproteins with distinctive glycosylation patterns that play a structural role in maintaining and modulating their functions. We investigated associations of total circulating IgG and peripheral blood mononuclear cells glycosylation with AITD and the influence of genetic background in a case-control study with several independent cohorts and over 3,000 individuals in total...
May 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Hye In Woo, Jisook Park, Shinn-Won Lim, Doh Kwan Kim, Soo-Youn Lee
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorder, lacks objective diagnostic and prognosis biomarkers. The objective of this study was to perform proteomic analysis to identify proteins with changed expression levels after antidepressant treatment and investigate differences in protein expression between MDD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 111 proteins obtained from literature review were subjected to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based protein quantitation...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Translational Medicine
Andra Piciu, Doina Piciu, Narcis Polocoser, Anita A Kovendi, Iulia Almasan, Alexandru Mester, Dragos-Stefan Morariu, Calin Cainap, Simona Sorana Cainap
INTRODUCTION: F18-FDG PET/CT is the most important hybrid imaging used in the diagnostic, staging, follow-up, and treatment evaluation response in cancer patients. However, it is well-known that in breast cancer the use of F18-FDG is not included in the first line protocol of initial diagnostic, both in female and male breast cancer patients. F18-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool to provide information on extra-axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and other occult primary cancers...
January 13, 2021: Diagnostics
James Peter L Lim, Mac Kevin E Braza, Ricky B Nellas
Ligand-based allostery has been gaining attention for its importance in protein regulation and implication in drug design. One of the interesting cases of protein allostery is the thyroid hormone receptor - retinoid x receptor (TR:RXR), which regulates the gene expression of important physiological processes, such as development and metabolism. It is regulated by the TR native ligand triiodothyronine (T3), which displays anticooperative behavior to the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid (9C). In contrast to this anticooperative behavior, 9C has been shown to increase the activity of TR:RXR...
January 3, 2021: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Schaida Schirwani, Sheila Fraser, Talat Mushtaq, Preetha Chengot, Lampros A Mavrogiannis, Rosalyn Jewell, Julian Adlard
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a dominantly inherited condition with defined correlations between the genetic variant and clinical presentations. The location of pathogenic variants in the RET gene is a significant determinant of disease presentation and is associated with variable gene activation. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in codon 634 result in earlier onset of medullary thyroid carcinoma and higher incidence of phaeochromocytoma. Here we describe a consanguineous family with MEN2A that includes two children homozygous for the established pathogenic variant p...
January 12, 2021: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Takayoshi Ubuka
The discovery of novel neurohormones is important for the advancement of neuroendocrinology. In early 1970s, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes gonadotropin release, was identified to be an endogenous neurohormone in mammals. In 2000, thirty years later, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), that inhibits gonadotropin release, was found in quail. GnIH acts via GPR147 and inhibits gonadotropin release and synthesis and reproductive function in birds through actions on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and pituitary gonadotrophs...
January 12, 2021: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Cristina Luongo, Lucile Butruille, Anthony Sébillot, Karine Le Blay, Markus Schwaninger, Heike Heuer, Barbara A Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
Adult neural stem cell (NSC) generation in vertebrate brains requires thyroid hormones (THs). How THs enter the NSC population is unknown, although TH availability determines proliferation and neuronal versus glial progenitor determination in murine subventricular zone (SVZ) NSCs. Mice display neurological signs of the severely disabling human disease, Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, if they lack both MCT8 and OATP1C1 transporters, or MCT8 and deiodinase type 2. We analyzed the distribution of MCT8 and OATP1C1 in adult mouse SVZ...
January 12, 2021: Stem Cell Reports
Nonhlanhla Chambara, Shirley Y W Liu, Xina Lo, Michael Ying
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer diagnosis has evolved to include computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approaches to overcome the limitations of human ultrasound feature assessment. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a CAD system in thyroid nodule differentiation using varied settings. METHODS: Ultrasound images of 205 thyroid nodules from 198 patients were analysed in this retrospective study. AmCAD-UT software was used at default settings and 3 adjusted settings to diagnose the nodules...
2021: PloS One
André Fischer, Gabriela Frehner, Markus A Lill, Martin Smieško
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play a critical role in human development, growth, and metabolism. Antagonists of TRs offer an attractive strategy to treat hyperthyroidism without the disadvantage of a delayed onset of drug action. While it is challenging to examine the atomistic behavior of TRs in a laboratory setting, computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have proven their value to elucidate ligand-induced conformational changes in nuclear receptors. Here, we performed MD simulations of TRα and TRβ complexed to their native ligand triiodothyronine (T3) as well as several antagonists...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Mayumi Endo, Jennifer A Sipos, Matthew D Ringel, Kyle Porter, Haikady N Nagaraja, John E Phay, Lawrence A Shirley, Clarine Long, Chadwick L Wright, Katie Roll, Fadi A Nabhan
BACKGROUND: 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) positive (PET+) cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) have variable cancer risk in the literature. The benign call rate (BCR) of Afirma Gene Classifier (Gene Expression Classifier, GEC, or Genome Sequence Classifier, GSC) in (PET +) ITNs is unknown. METHODS: This is a retrospective study at our institution of all patients with (PET+) ITNs (Bethesda III/IV) from 1 January 2010 to 21 May 2019 who underwent Afirma testing and/or surgery or repeat FNA with benign cytology...
January 15, 2021: Cancer Medicine
Bogusz Falkowski, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Aleksandra Krygier, Elzbieta Wrotkowska, Marek Ruchala
OBJECTIVE: Interleukins play an important role in the development of autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of interleukin 29 (IL-29) between healthy controls (CS) and patients with selected thyroid disorders: Graves' disease (GD), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and subacute thyroiditis (SAT). DESIGN AND METHODS: The following parameters were examined in the group of 95 individuals (45 with GD, 22 with HT, 28 with SAT) and 72 CS: thyroid hormones and autoantibodies, inflammatory markers and the concentration of IL-29 in serum...
January 15, 2021: Clinical Endocrinology
Hebah Alhumaidi, Rami Manochakian, Jordan Cochuyt, Ana Chindris, David Hodge, Mays F Abdulazeez, Shishir David, Suman Biswas, Chander Shekher Aggarwal, Robert C Smallridge, Sikander Ailawadhi
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with receiving initial care for thyroid cancer (TC) at academic centers (ACs) versus nonacademic centers (NACs) and their impact on patient outcomes have not been reported. METHODS: The National Cancer Database with TC cases from 2004 to 2013 was evaluated for association of type of center for initial care with socioeconomic factors and disease and treatment characteristics, as well as overall survival (OS; all-cause mortality). RESULTS: The patients with TC (n = 200,824) included were predominantly women (74%), non-Hispanic Whites (85%), and from metro areas (84%)...
January 15, 2021: Cancer
Haris Muhammad, Prasanna Santhanam, Jonathon O Russell
PURPOSE: In the thyroid gland, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is being applied to both benign nodules and cancers internationally, while interest is also growing in the West. Benign thyroid nodules (BTNs) may be candidates for intervention when symptoms develop. For differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC), surgery is currently the first-line treatment. However, for candidates with high surgical risk or those who refuse to undergo repeated surgery, newer techniques such as RFA are an option...
January 15, 2021: Endocrine
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