Shih-Yao Lin, Jen-Fan Hang, Yen-Yu Lin, Chiung-Ru Lai, Hsiang-Ling Ho, Teh-Ying Chou
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is an aggressive chemotherapy-resistant cancer with limited treatment options, and some OCCCs have mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (MMRD). Emerging evidence has revealed that various cancers with MMRD are susceptible to anti-programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy, and certain histologic features are associated with MMRD. However, few studies have addressed this in OCCC. We reviewed 76 OCCCs for tumor-associated inflammation (intratumoral stromal inflammation and peritumoral lymphocytes) and performed immunohistochemistry for 4 MMR proteins and PD-L1...
September 4, 2020: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Justin Taylor, Mark Ta Donoghue, Caleb Ho, Kseniya Petrova-Drus, Hikmat A Al-Ahmadie, Samuel A Funt, Yanming Zhang, Umut Aypar, Pavitra Nagesh Rao, Shweta S Chavan, Michael Haddadin, Roni Tamari, Sergio Giralt, Martin S Tallman, Raajit K Rampal, Priscilla Baez, Rajya Kappagantula, Satyajit Kosuri, Ahmet Dogan, Satish K Tickoo, Victor E Reuter, George J Bosl, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, David B Solit, Barry S Taylor, Darren R Feldman, Omar Abdel-Wahab
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common cancer in men between the ages of 15-40. While most patients are cured, those with disease arising in the mediastinum have distinctly poor outcomes. One in every 17 patients with primary mediastinal non-seminomatous GCTs develop an incurable hematologic malignancy and prior data intriguingly suggests a clonal relationship exists between hematologic malignancies and GCTs in these cases. To date however, the precise clonal relationship between GCTs and the diverse additional somatic malignancies arising in such individuals has not been determined...
September 8, 2020: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Armine Darbinyan, Raffaella Morotti, Guoping Cai, Manju Lata Prasad, Emily Christison-Lagay, Catherine Dinauer, Adebowale J Adeniran
BACKGROUND: Germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 have been identified in various types of neoplastic lesions, with germline DICER1 mutation being linked to autosomal dominant hereditary pleiotropic tumor syndrome (DICER1 syndrome). Patients with DICER1 syndrome are at increased risk of developing thyroid disease, including thyroid cancer. The goal of this study was to identify diagnostic cytologic features in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples from patients with DICER1 mutation...
September 8, 2020: Cancer Cytopathology
Ghadeer Almuhaisen, Yazan Alhalaseh, Razan Mansour, Amer Abu-Shanab, Sura Al-Ghnimat, Maysa Al-Hussaini
Central nervous system tumors in adolescents and young adults (AYA) are rarely reported in the literature. The association with cancer predisposition syndrome is not established. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) can predict the potential response of patients to immunotherapy. A link between mismatch repair protein deficiency (MMRP-D) and response to immunotherapy is established. P53 is reported to be positive in MMRD-D cases. We aim to investigate the frequency of MMRP-D in AYA with high-grade glioma and any potential association with PD-L1...
September 8, 2020: Brain Tumor Pathology
Ömer Özçağlayan, Tuğba İlkem Kurtoğlu Özçağlayan, Mücahit Doğru, Rafet Mete
BACKGROUND/AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the functional gastrointestinal disorder which has closely relationship with Central Nervous System (CNS). VN is the major connector between CNS and Enteric Nervous System (ENS). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible changes of dimension of Vagus Nerve (VN) with Vagus ultrasonography (VU) in IBS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total 119 patients which is consisted of 66 IBS patients appropriated with Rome IV criterias and 53 patients of control group were enrolled to the study...
July 2020: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Courtney D DiNardo, Abhishek Maiti, Caitlin R Rausch, Naveen Pemmaraju, Kiran Naqvi, Naval G Daver, Tapan M Kadia, Gautam Borthakur, Maro Ohanian, Yesid Alvarado, Ghayas C Issa, Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Nicholas J Short, Musa Yilmaz, Prithviraj Bose, Elias J Jabbour, Koichi Takahashi, Jan A Burger, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Nitin Jain, Steven M Kornblau, Philip A Thompson, Zeev Estrov, Lucia Masarova, Koji Sasaki, Srdan Verstovsek, Alessandra Ferrajoli, William G Weirda, Sa A Wang, Sergej Konoplev, Zhining Chen, Sherry A Pierce, Jing Ning, Wei Qiao, Farhad Ravandi, Michael Andreeff, John S Welch, Hagop M Kantarjian, Marina Y Konopleva
BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups...
September 4, 2020: Lancet Haematology
Antonella Pietragalla, Martina Arcieri, Claudia Marchetti, Giovanni Scambia, Anna Fagotti
Several genes associated with hereditary ovarian cancer have been discovered as a result of the work done with next generation sequencing. It is estimated that approximately 23% of ovarian carcinomas have a hereditary predisposition. The most common hereditary condition is represented by germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes that account for 20-25% of high grade serous ovarian cancer. A number of other hereditary ovarian cancers are associated with different genes, with a crucial role in the DNA damage response pathway, such as the mismatch repair genes in Lynch syndrome, TP53 in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2...
September 6, 2020: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Songyuan Zheng, Shixian Chen, Lisheng Wu, Di Zhao, Feilong Chen, Junqing Zhu, Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) based on clinical manifestations and myositis- specific antibodies using cluster analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with IIM admitted in Nanfang Hospital in 2015-2019. The clinical data of the patients including serum creatine kinase (CK), interstitial lung disease (ILD), cancer, and myositis-specific antibodies were collected for two-step cluster analysis to identify the distinct clusters of patients, whose clinical characteristics were subsequently analysed...
July 30, 2020: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Jacob A McPhail, John E Burke
The lipid kinases that generate the lipid signalling phosphoinositides have been established as fundamental signalling enzymes that control numerous aspects of how cells respond to their extracellular environment. In addition, they play critical roles in regulating membrane trafficking and lipid transport within the cell. The class I phosphoinositide kinases which generate the critical lipid signal PIP3 are hyperactivated in numerous human pathologies including cancer, overgrowth syndromes, and primary immunodeficiencies...
2020: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Christopher J D Wallis, James W F Catto, Antonio Finelli, Adam W Glaser, John L Gore, Stacy Loeb, Todd M Morgan, Alicia K Morgans, Nicolas Mottet, Richard Neal, Tim O'Brien, Anobel Y Odisho, Thomas Powles, Ted A Skolarus, Angela B Smith, Bernadett Szabados, Zachary Klaassen, Daniel E Spratt
CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated rapid changes in medical practice. Many of these changes may add value to care, creating opportunities going forward. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-informed, expert-derived review of genitourinary cancer care moving forward following the initial COVID-19 pandemic. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A collaborative narrative review was conducted using literature published through May 2020 (PubMed), which comprised three main topics: reduced in-person interactions arguing for increasing virtual and image-based care, optimisation of the delivery of care, and the effect of COVID-19 in health care facilities on decision-making by patients and their families...
September 3, 2020: European Urology
Kari L Ring
Our understanding of cancer risks associated with Lynch syndrome (LS) has evolved since Dr. Warthin first identified family G in 1913. The current study by Ryan et al provides insight into provider and patient knowledge about gynecologic cancer care options in LS and found that counseling, surveillance, and risk reduction (RR) for these patients vary widely across providers in the UK (BJOG 2020 xxxx). The current study highlights two important points regarding care in LS.
September 5, 2020: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Marcelo Augusto Duarte Silveira, José Manuel Cóndor Capcha, David De Jong
Propolis, a resinous material produced by honey bees from plant exudates, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine and is widely consumed as a health aid and immune system booster. The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest in propolis products worldwide; fortunately, various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism are potential targets for propolis compounds. SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is characterized by viral spike protein interaction with cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and serine protease TMPRSS2...
August 17, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Sung Hyouk Choi, Kyoung-Eun Kim, Yujin Park, Young Wook Ju, Ji-Gwang Jung, Eun Shin Lee, Han-Byoel Lee, Wonshik Han, Dong-Young Noh, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Hyeong-Gon Moon
BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the preferred endocrine treatment for postmenopausal hormonal receptor-positive breast cancer. However, there is controversy on the long-term cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of AIs over that of tamoxifen. METHODS: We analyzed the National Health Information Database (NHID) of 281,255 women over a 20-year-old diagnosed with breast cancer between 2009 and 2016. Cardiovascular events (CVEs) were defined as the development of the following, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, defined by using insurance claim records...
August 19, 2020: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Keila Navarro I Batista, Marissa Schraner, Thomas Riediger
Up to 80% of cancer patients are affected by the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS), which leads to excessive body weight loss, reduced treatment success and increased lethality. The area postrema/nucleus of the solitary tract (AP/NTS) region emerged as a central nervous key structure in this multi-factorial process. Neurons in this area are targeted by cytokines and signal to downstream sites involved in energy homeostasis. NTS neurons expressing prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) are implicated in the control of energy intake and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which contributes to muscle wasting...
September 2, 2020: Neuropharmacology
Elena A Morozova, Olga Yu Olisova, Eugene A Nikitin
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignant lymphoproliferative disease characterized by the accumulation of immature monoclonal B lymphocytes in blood cells, bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. This is the most common type of leukemia among the Caucasoid race. When CLL skin lesions occur in about 25% of patients, they are extremely diverse. These lesions can be divided into specific, including infiltration of the skin by leukemic cells and the skin form of Richter's syndrome, secondary skin tumors, nonspecific lesions and associated skin diseases...
September 5, 2020: International Journal of Hematology
Belinda L Sun
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. In the past decade, mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), manifested as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), has been recognized as a distinct mechanism promoting tumorigenesis in 15% of CRCs including 3% Lynch syndrome and 12% sporadic CRCs. As the molecular classifications of CRCs are continuously evolving, MSI-H CRCs appear to be the most homogeneous CRCs with distinct molecular, morphologic, and clinical features. MSI-H CRCs have dMMR causing MSI-H and genetic hypermutation but with diploid chromosomes...
August 10, 2020: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jeremy S Abramson, M Lia Palomba, Leo I Gordon, Matthew A Lunning, Michael Wang, Jon Arnason, Amitkumar Mehta, Enkhtsetseg Purev, David G Maloney, Charalambos Andreadis, Alison Sehgal, Scott R Solomon, Nilanjan Ghosh, Tina M Albertson, Jacob Garcia, Ana Kostic, Mary Mallaney, Ken Ogasawara, Kathryn Newhall, Yeonhee Kim, Daniel Li, Tanya Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: Lisocabtagene maraleucel (liso-cel) is an autologous, CD19-directed, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell product. We aimed to assess the activity and safety of liso-cel in patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas. METHODS: We did a seamless design study at 14 cancer centres in the USA. We enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas. Eligible histological subgroups included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade B-cell lymphoma with rearrangements of MYC and either BCL2, BCL6, or both (double-hit or triple-hit lymphoma), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from any indolent lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma grade 3B...
September 1, 2020: Lancet
Adil Soualy, David Deutsch, Mourad Benallaoua, Amal Ait-Omar, Florence Mary, Sabine Helfen, Marouane Boubaya, Vincent Levy, Robert Benamouzig
Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common cause of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) and confers a high lifetime risk of CRC estimated to be up to 60%. Colonoscopy is recommended every 2 years in LS patients above the 20-25-year-old age bracket, and every year when colonic neoplasia has been detected. Efficient chemoprevention has the potential to represent a cost-effective intervention in these high-risk patients and could allow a delay in colonoscopy surveillance. Several epidemiological studies have shown that regular use of low dose aspirin is associated with a 20 to 30% reduction in the risk of sporadic colonic adenomas and colorectal cancer regardless of family risk...
September 4, 2020: Trials
Umberto Malapelle, Paola Parente, Francesco Pepe, Caterina De Luca, Pellegrino Cerino, Claudia Covelli, Mariangela Balestrieri, Gianluca Russo, Antonio Bonfitto, Pasquale Pisapia, Fabiola Fiordelisi, Maria D'Armiento, Dario Bruzzese, Fotios Loupakis, Filippo Pietrantonio, Maria Triassi, Matteo Fassan, Giancarlo Troncone, Paolo Graziano
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragment separation by capillary electrophoresis represent the current clinical laboratory standard for the evaluation of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. The importance of reporting MSI status in colorectal cancer is based on its potential for guiding treatment and as a prognostic indicator. It is also used to identify patients for Lynch syndrome testing. Our aim was to evaluate pre-analytical factors, such as age of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) block, neoplastic cell percentage, mucinous component, and DNA integrity, that may influence the accuracy of MSI testing and assess the concordance between three different MSI evaluation approaches...
September 2, 2020: Cells
Alexandra O Sokolova, Brian H Shirts, Eric Q Konnick, Ginger J Tsai, Bernardo H L Goulart, Bruce Montgomery, Colin C Pritchard, Evan Y Yu, Heather H Cheng
With the promise and potential of clinical next-generation sequencing for tumor and germline testing to impact treatment and outcomes of patients with cancer, there are also risks of oversimplification, misinterpretation, and missed opportunities. These issues risk limiting clinical benefit and, at worst, perpetuating false conclusions that could lead to inappropriate treatment selection, avoidable toxicity, and harm to patients. This report presents 5 case studies illustrating challenges and opportunities in clinical next-generation sequencing interpretation and clinical application in solid tumor oncologic care...
September 2020: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
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