Tareq Salous, Nabil Adra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the remarkable advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs), a significant number of patients relapse after first line treatment. This review aims to highlight the challenges in management of relapsed GCT, discuss treatment options, and review novel therapeutics in development. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with relapsed disease after first line cisplatin-based chemotherapy can still be cured and should be referred to centers with expertise in GCTs...
March 3, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Lalit Patel, Colin C Pritchard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personalizing prostate cancer therapy requires germline and tumor molecular tests that predict who will respond to specific treatments and who may not. The review covers molecular testing of DNA damage response pathways, the first biomarker-driven precision target with clinical utility for treatment selection in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). RECENT FINDINGS: Recurrent somatic and germline variants cause deficiency of the mismatch repair (MMR) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways in about a quarter of CRPC patients...
March 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Grégoire Marret, Edith Borcoman, Christophe Le Tourneau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the window-of-opportunity clinical trials that have been reported in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and discuss their challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited treatment options exist in HNSCC. Cetuximab, an mAb targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, and the PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are the only drugs that improved overall survival in the recurrent and/or metastatic setting. Both cetuximab and nivolumab improve overall survival by less than 3 months, potentially because of the lack of predictive biomarkers...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Angelica Ferrando-Díez, Miguel Angel Pavón, Beatriz Cirauqui, Laia Alemany, Ricard Mesía
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible of the increasing incidence rates of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in high-income countries. This significant epidemiological change requires several and diverse prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The cervical cancer prevention model is the paradigm of HPV-related cancer, and its success provides encouragement for the development of similar methods to prevent HPV-related OPSCC. However, there are some limitations that hinder its application in this disease...
March 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Ingeborg Tinhofer, Stephanie Staudte, Stephen George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bodily fluids of patients with solid cancers representing a minimally-invasive source of clinically exploitable biomarkers have attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years. In patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), cell-free tumour DNA (ctDNA) belongs to the most promising liquid biomarkers for monitoring disease burden and identifying patients at high risk of recurrence. In this review, we highlight recent studies, evaluating the analytical validity and clinical utility of ctDNA as a dynamic biomarker in HNSCC, especially as it relates to risk stratification and contrasting human papilloma virus (HPV+ and HPV-) and carcinomas...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Hédi Ben Yahia, François M Petit, Esma Saada-Bouzid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite recent advances, treatment personalization remains an issue for recurrent metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (RM HNSCC) patients. After human papilloma virus (HPV) and programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) expression, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) appears as an emerging target in this field. In this review, we summarize the features of HRAS-mutated HNSCC and its targeting by farnesyl transferase inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: HRAS mutations define a small subgroup of RM HNSCC patients with a poor prognosis and often refractory to the standard treatments...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Wei Shen Tan, Mae-Yen Tan, Omar Alhalabi, Matthew T Campbell, Ashish M Kamat, Jianjun Gao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bladder cancer is the 12th most common cancer worldwide. Historically, the systemic management of urothelial carcinoma has been confined to platinum-based chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the evolving landscape of systemic treatment for urothelial carcinoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2016, when the Food and Drug Administration approved the first immune checkpoint inhibitor (CPI), programmed cell death 1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors have been evaluated in the nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, localized muscle invasive bladder cancer as well as advanced/metastatic bladder cancer settings...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nikita Rednam, Vikas Kundra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrence post definitive local therapy by prostatectomy or radiation therapy is often detected via rise in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels; however, PSA rise does not localize the disease. Distinguishing local versus distant recurrence guides whether to choose subsequent local versus systemic therapy. The purpose of this article is to review imaging for prostate cancer recurrence post local therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Among imaging modalities, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is commonly used to assess for local recurrence...
March 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Agnes Ducoulombier, Joel Guigay, Marie-Christine Etienne-Grimaldi, Esma Saada-Bouzid
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Clinical data on salvage chemotherapy used after checkpoints inhibitors in oncology are reviewed, with a special focus on recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence is emerging about high response and/or disease control rates associated with salvage chemotherapy after immunotherapy failure in advanced solid tumours. This phenomenon is mainly reported in retrospective studies for "hot tumours" such as R/M HNSCC, melanoma, lung, urothelial or gastric cancers, but also in haematological malignancies...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Theodore Gourdin, Arash Velayati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is designed to highlight recent research examining treatment progress in advanced prostate cancer while identifying ongoing challenges to clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized trials suggest an overall survival advantage to treating some men with newly identified metastatic prostate cancer with a "triplet" of androgen deprivation therapy, docetaxel, and an androgen receptor axis-targeted agent. Questions remain about which men are best served by these combinations...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Selamawit Woldesenbet, Muhammad Musaab Munir, Timothy M Pawlik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2023: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Hasan Yilmaz, Naci Burak Cinar, Ibrahim Erkut Avci, Enes Malik Akdas, Kerem Teke, Ozdal Dillioglugil
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the benefits of Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) compared with the Clavien-Dindo Classification (CDC) in the reporting of radical cystectomy (RC) complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed post-operative complications of 251 consecutive RC patients between 2009 and 2021. Patient demographics and causes of mortality were noted. Oncologic outcomes included the recurrence, time to recurrence, cause of all deaths, and time to death...
March 26, 2023: International Urology and Nephrology
Luca Cevolani, Laura Campanacci, Eric Lodewijk Staals, Barbara Dozza, Giuseppe Bianchi, Francesca De Terlizzi, Davide Maria Donati
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases are frequent in patients with cancer. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a minimally invasive treatment based on a high-voltage electric pulse combined with an anticancer drug. Preclinical and clinical studies supported the use of ECT in patients with metastatic bone disease, demonstrating that it does not damage the mineral structure of the bone and its regenerative capacity, and that is feasible and efficient for the treatment of bone metastases. Year 2014 saw the start of a registry of patients with bone metastases treated with ECT, whose data are recorded in a shared database...
March 26, 2023: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Fengjiao Yao, Yacong An, Xialian Lai, Xundou Li, Zhen Yu, Xian-Da Yang
INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is a promising strategy for cancer treatment and has generated remarkable clinical results against multiple malignancies. Exploration of new technical approaches to further boost the therapeutic efficacy of ICB is of potential medical importance. In this study, we designed a novel nanotherapeutics for ICB immunotherapy. METHODS: CTLA-4 aptamers were conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticle to construct an aptamer-modified nanostructure (Apt-NP)...
March 26, 2023: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Christian Tibor Josef Magyar, Yogesh K Vashist, Deborah Stroka, Corina Kim-Fuchs, Martin D Berger, Vanessa M Banz
PURPOSE: Dysregulated expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) plays a fundamental role in tumor development and progression. Consequently, HSP90 may be an effective tumor target in oncology, including the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of data extracted from and, which included all studies available until January 1st, 2022. The published data was evaluated using primary and secondary endpoints, particularly with focus on overall survival, progression-free survival, and rate of stable disease...
March 26, 2023: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Rahul S Bhansali, Keith W Pratz, Catherine Lai
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. While survival for younger patients over the last several decades has improved nearly sixfold with the optimization of intensive induction chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), this effect has been largely mitigated in older and less fit patients as well as those with adverse-risk disease characteristics. However, the last 10 years has been marked by major advances in the molecular profiling of AML characterized by a deeper understanding of disease pathobiology and therapeutic vulnerabilities...
March 25, 2023: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Masoumeh Safdari-Molan, Esmat Mehrabi, Roghaiyeh Nourizadeh, Reza Eghdam-Zamiri
INTRODUCTION: Worry about cancer recurrence is identified as the most common psychological burdens experienced by cancer patients and survivors. The present study aimed to determine the predictors of worry about cancer recurrence among women with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 166 women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy, who referred to private and public oncology centers in Tabriz, Iran using the convenience sampling...
March 25, 2023: BMC Women's Health
Thomas Grinda, Elie Rassy, Barbara Pistilli
Antibody drug-conjugates (ADCs) have revolutionized the treatment of many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Recently, two new ADCs have been approved, trastuzumab deruxtecan and sacituzumab govitecan; both have demonstrated impressive improvements in overall survival, trastuzumab deruxtecan in all three subtypes of metastatic breast cancer and sacituzumab govitecan in luminal and triple negative metastatic breast cancer. These drugs are the results of significant progress and innovation in the construction of the three components of an ADC, the monoclonal antibody, the payload, and the linker, and of the discovery of new target antigens...
March 25, 2023: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Chen Wang, David A Sallman
Lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes are typically characterized by an indolent disease course with a relatively low risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. These patients are classically identified using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System and most likely its molecular version in the near future which may change the paradigm of treatment. The overall goals of care are symptomatic control to reduce transfusion requirements and improve quality of life. Symptomatic anemia is the most common indication to initiate disease-specific therapies after the optimization of supportive measures...
March 25, 2023: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Sk Kayum Alam, Li Wang, Zhu Zhu, Luke H Hoeppner
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% cases of lung cancer cases. Diagnosis at advanced stages is common, after which therapy-refractory disease progression frequently occurs. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control NSCLC progression is necessary to develop new therapies. Overexpression of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in NSCLC correlates with poor patient survival. IKKα is an NF-κB-activating kinase that is important in cell survival and differentiation, but its regulation of oncogenic signaling is not well understood...
March 25, 2023: NPJ Precision Oncology
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