Martin Wainaina, Gabriel O Aboge, Isaac Omwenga, Catherine Ngaywa, Nicholas Ngwili, Henry Kiara, George Wamwere-Njoroge, Bernard Bett
INTRODUCTION: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease in Kenya, and identifying the bacteria in milk is important in assessing the risk of exposure in people. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that involved 175 households was implemented in the pastoral counties of Marsabit and Isiolo in Kenya. Pooled milk samples (n = 164) were collected at the household level, and another 372 were collected from domesticated lactating animals (312 goats, 7 sheep, 50 cattle and 3 camels)...
September 18, 2020: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rajeswari Shome, Sreenivasulu Kilari, Amol Sahare, Triveni Kalleshamurthy, Harish Heballi Niranjanamurthy, Bibek Ranjan Shome, Jagadish Hiremath, Jyoti Misri, Habibar Rahman
BACKGROUND: Brucella abortus S19 is the most widely used vaccine for the prevention of bovine brucellosis which remains the reference vaccine to which many other vaccine/s are compared. Considering the larger vaccination coverage by reduced dose of vaccine, the study aimed to compare reduced graded doses (1/10th, 1/20th and 1/100th) with standard dose of S19 vaccine (40 × 109 CFU /dose) to determine the effective immunizing dose in water buffaloes. METHODS: A total of 25 female buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) in the age group of 4-5 months were equally grouped into five animals each in four test and one control groups and given with specified vaccine dose...
September 14, 2020: Vaccine
Mostafa Meshref, Yara Amro, Mahmoud Ahmed Ebada
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a highly infectious multi-systemic zoonosis, and it is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, Brucella. Despite the low incidence of neurobrucellosis, it is the most dangerous consequence of brucellosis. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old Sudanese male patient presented to our hospital with a complaint of fever associated with confusion for three days. He had signs of meningeal irritation in the form of neck stiffness, positive Kernig's, and Lesage's sign...
September 17, 2020: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Jian-Yong Wu, Jian-Jun Li, Deng-Feng Wang, Yu-Rong Wei, Xiao-Xiao Meng, Gunuer Tuerxun, Hongduzi Bolati, Kang-Kang Liu, Masha Muhan, Ayiqiaolifan Shahan, Dilireba Dilixiati, Xue-Yun Yang
Wild ruminants are at risk for zoonotic pathogen infection as a result of interactions with domestic animals and humans. One way to assess the level of a wild ruminant disease in a population is to determine the seroprevalence of the pathogen of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of five zoonotic pathogens in wild ruminants in Xinjiang, Northwest China. In 2009 and 2011-2015, 258 wild ruminant sera samples were collected from various species. Samples were obtained from 30 Siberian ibexes, 94 goitered gazelles, 6 Tibetan antelopes, 32 argali sheep, 16 roe deer, 20 blue sheep, 56 red deer, and 4 wild yaks, in 10 regions of Xinjiang...
September 16, 2020: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Shu-Yi Ma, Zhi-Guo Liu, Xiong Zhu, Zhong-Zhi Zhao, Zhi-Wei Guo, Miao Wang, Bu-Yun Cui, Jun-Yan Li, Zhen-Jun Li
Although the prevalence of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region currently remains high, data available on the epidemiological of circulating Brucella abortus strains were limited. A total of 75 isolates obtained from cattle, sheep, and humans were analysed using both the classical method and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). There are at least three B. abortus biovars (1, 3 and 6) in this region, and B. abortus biovar 3 is the predominant one. Ten known MLVA-11 genotypes were identified, of which five genotypes (72, 75, 78, 82 and 210) were shared among strains from this study and others previously collected in two to seven different nations, suggesting that this population has multiple geographic origins...
June 29, 2020: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
James A Budnick, Lauren M Sheehan, Miranda J Ginder, Kevin C Failor, Julia M Perkowski, John F Pinto, Kirsten A Kohl, Lin Kang, Pawel Michalak, Li Luo, Jason E Heindl, Clayton C Caswell
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) are the most common type of transcriptional regulators in prokaryotes and function by altering gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. In the class Alphaproteobacteria, a conserved LTTR named VtlR is critical to the establishment of host-microbe interactions. In the mammalian pathogen Brucella abortus, VtlR is required for full virulence in a mouse model of infection, and VtlR activates the expression of abcR2, which encodes a small regulatory RNA (sRNA)...
September 11, 2020: Scientific Reports
V V Voitkova, K M Korytov, V I Dubrovina, N L Barannikova, A B Pyatidesyatnikova, T T Shkaruba, S V Balakhonov
We studied the expression of activation markers CD25 and CD69 by blood lymphocytes in white mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus 19 BA in antigen-specific tests in vitro. During incubation of blood lymphocytes with brucellosis polysaccharide-protein antigen, a statistically significant increase in the expression of CD25 by B cells and CD69 by T cells was observed; brucellin increased the expression of CD25 by B and T cells. Comparative analysis of the action of antigen preparations B. abortus showed that only brucellin has antigen-specific activity against CD19+ CD25+ cells...
September 10, 2020: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Juliana Clelia Cequinel, Keite da Silva Nogueira, Guilherme Nardi Becker
Laboratory exposures to Brucella spp. are preventable. After an outbreak in Brazil, human brucellosis was made statutorily reportable as well as laboratory accidents. After the implementation of this law, three laboratorial accidents with Brucella abortus were reported in a Brazilian city, and 58 workers were exposed from January 2019 to April 2020. We describe the exposure level, prophylaxis, and serosurvey after 6 months, and we highlight the importance of disease report.
September 8, 2020: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lesset Del Consuelo Ramos-Ramírez, Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Laura Morales-Lara, Ygnacio Martínez-Laguna, Elsa Iracena Castañeda-Roldán
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the Brucella genus. Any source of contamination that could be infectious must be monitored to reduce the risk of exposure to brucellosis, so the purpose of this work was to determine the presence of Brucella spp. on surface water and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin from a volcanic lake in Mexico. A seasonal sampling during 2016-2017 was carried out at fifteen specific sites for water sampling and five sites for the collection of tilapia fish. From all water and fish samples tested, we found only three isolates of Brucella species...
September 8, 2020: Current Microbiology
Ana María Rodríguez, Aldana Trotta, Agustina P Melnyczajko, M Cruz Miraglia, Kwang Sik Kim, M Victoria Delpino, Paula Barrionuevo, Guillermo Hernán Giambartolomei
Central nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder called neurobrucellosis. A common feature associated with this pathology is blood-brain barrier (BBB) activation. However, the underlying mechanisms involved with such BBB activation remain unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of Brucella abortus -stimulated platelets on human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) activation. Platelets enhanced HBMEC activation in response to B. abortus infection...
August 27, 2020: Pathogens
Aitbay Bulashev, Orken Akibekov, Alfiya Syzdykova, Zhanbolat Suranshiyev, Bakytkali Ingirbay
Background and Aim: Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonoses. The current anti-brucellosis measures are largely deemed ineffective due to a lack of specificity of conventional serological tests. This study evaluated the use of Brucella outer membrane protein (Omp)19 for serodiagnostic testing. Materials and Methods: The antigenicity of recombinant Brucella Omp19, Omp25, and Omp31 was examined in serum samples from mice and rabbits immunized with Omp19 or Brucella abortus 19 whole cell (WC) and 12 and 152 cows experimentally or naturally infected with brucellosis, respectively...
July 2020: Veterinary World
James A Budnick, Lauren M Sheehan, Angela H Benton, Joshua E Pitzer, Lin Kang, Pawel Michalak, R Martin Roop, Clayton C Caswell
The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain; however, it is becoming more evident that this non-proteinogenic amino acid plays multiple physiological roles in biology. In the present study, the transport and function of GABA is studied in the highly infectious intracellular bacterium Brucella abortus. The data show that 3H-GABA is imported by B. abortus under nutrient limiting conditions and that the small RNAs AbcR1 and AbcR2 negatively regulate this transport...
2020: PloS One
Amjad Hussain, Tariq Jamil, Abdul Malik Tareen, Falk Melzer, Muhammad Hammad Hussain, Iahtasham Khan, Muhammad Saqib, Ali Zohaib, Riaz Hussain, Waqas Ahmad, Mudassar Iqbal, Heinrich Neubauer
Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide. Equines are susceptible to the infection when in close contact with infected animals. The objective of our study was to update the existing knowledge and detect and differentiate the causative agent of brucellosis in breeding equines in Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and etiology of the infection in the equine population in three districts. A total of 448 equine sera were collected from three prefectures viz. Sahiwal, Khanewal, and Okara of the Punjab Province of Pakistan...
August 19, 2020: Pathogens
Carine Rodrigues Pereira, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Luciana Faria de Oliveira, Camila Stefanie Fonseca de Oliveira, Andrey Pereira Lage, Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles
Brucellosis is an important occupational disease, mainly among veterinarians, because of their frequent contact with sick animals, contaminated secretions and live attenuated anti-Brucella vaccines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of accidental exposure to S19 and RB51 vaccine strains and occupational brucellosis among veterinarians registered to administer vaccinations in Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to identify the risk factors associated with accidental exposure to anti-Brucella abortus vaccines...
August 18, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Chetna Gangwar, K Gururaj, A K Mishra, Anshuman Kumar, Anjali Pachoori, Sonia Saraswat, Narendra Pratap Singh, Suresh Dinkar Kharche
Infectious diseases and etiological agents related to female reproductive systems were extensively covered compared to its male counterpart. There needs a proper study to bridge this gap, where microflora and infectious agents of both male and female reproductive are mutually intelligible. With this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbial contamination of the preputial cavity and also screened for abortion causing agents which are zoonotic as well. In goats, such types of abortions are caused by Brucella melitensis, Chlamydophila, Campylobacter and Coxiella etc...
August 13, 2020: Reproduction in Domestic Animals
Mingjun Sun, Mengda Liu, Xiyue Zhang, Ge Zhang, Liangquan Zhu, Jiabo Ding, Zhicheng Zhang, Shixiong Sun, Shufang Sun, Weixing Shao, Peipei Zhang, Jiandong Zhang, Xiangxiang Sun, Xuezheng Fan, Rong Wei
Brucellosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases in the world. In China, understanding on its causative agent Brucella is still limited. Recently, we isolated a Brucella strain XZ19-1 from yak in Lhasa, Tibet. Phenotypical characterization proved that it belongs to B. abortus biovar 4, a biotype that has never been reported in China. MLVA-16 genotyping revealed a novel profile (4-5-3-12-2-2-3-3-8-32-8-5-4-3-3-3) in this strain, while MLST sequence typing demonstrated that it belongs to ST 71. Furthermore, the whole genome of XZ19-1 strain was sequenced...
August 2020: Veterinary Microbiology
Leonardo A Gómez, Francisco I Alvarez, Raúl E Molina, Rodrigo Soto-Shara, Carla Daza-Castro, Manuel R Flores, Yrvin León, Angel A Oñate
Brucella abortus is a pathogen that survives in macrophages. Several virulence factors participate in this process, including the open reading frame (ORF) BAB1_0270 codifying for a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase (ZnMP). Here, its contribution in the intracellular adaptation of B. abortus was analyzed by infecting RAW264.7 macrophages with the mutant B. abortus Δ270 strain. Results showed that this ZnMP did not participated in either the adherence or the initial intracellular traffic of B. abortus in macrophages...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lauren M Sheehan, James A Budnick, Jaquille Fyffe-Blair, Kellie A King, Robert E Settlage, Clayton C Caswell
RNases are key regulatory components in prokaryotes, responsible for the degradation and maturation of specific RNA molecules at precise times. Specifically, RNases allow cells to cope with changes in their environment through rapid alteration of gene expression. To date, few RNases have been characterized in the mammalian pathogen Brucella abortus In the present work, we sought to investigate several RNases in B. abortus and determine what role, if any, they have in pathogenesis. Of the 4 RNases reported in this study, the highly conserved endoribonuclease, RNaseE, was found to play an integral role in the virulence of B...
August 3, 2020: Journal of Bacteriology
C Wei, W H Yang, X X Hou, H Y Yang, L N Sun, D S Zhou, Z J Li
Objective: To evaluate the protective efficacy and safety of Brucella 104M against aerosol challenge in BALB/c mice and characterize its immunological effects. Methods: Female mice of 6-8 weeks old were immunized with Brucella abortus strain 104M by intratracheal aerosol delivery or intranasal instillation or subcutaneous injection route. Six mice of each group were sacrificed at 4, 8, 16, 24 weeks after immunization. At each time point, the clinical manifestations of mice were investigated, the serum, spleen and lung samples of mice were collected, body weight, spleen weight, bacteria loads in spleens, the anti- Brucella antibodies titers in serum and the cytokines concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-18 in serum or lung homogenate of the mice were detected...
July 10, 2020: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Beatriz Aragón-Aranda, María Jesús de Miguel, Leticia Lázaro-Antón, Miriam Salvador-Bescós, Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa, Ignacio Moriyón, Maite Iriarte, Pilar M Muñoz, Raquel Conde-Álvarez
Brucella is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that cause brucellosis. B. abortus and B. melitensis infect domestic ruminants while B. suis (biovars 1-3) infect swine, and all these bacteria but B. suis biovar 2 are zoonotic. Live attenuated B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev1 are effective vaccines in domestic ruminants, though both can infect humans. However, there is no swine brucellosis vaccine. Here, we investigated the potential use as vaccines of B. suis biovar 2 rough (R) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants totally lacking O-chain (Bs2ΔwbkF) or only producing internal O-chain precursors (Bs2Δwzm) and mutants with a smooth (S) LPS defective in the core lateral branch (Bs2ΔwadB and Bs2ΔwadD)...
July 23, 2020: Veterinary Research
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