Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Susan Calhoun, Kristina Puzino, Cynthia K Snyder, Fan He, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Duanping Liao, Edward Bixler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors associated with the persistence, remission, and incidence of insomnia symptoms in the transition from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: The Penn State Child Cohort is a random, population-based sample of 700 children (5-12 years at baseline), of whom 421 were followed up as adolescents (12-23 years at follow-up). Subjects underwent polysomnography, clinical history, physical exam, and parent- and self-reported scales at baseline and follow-up...
September 15, 2020: Sleep
Felipe Salech, Carlos Marquez, Lydia Lera, Bárbara Angel, Rodrigo Saguez, Cecilia Albala
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of osteosarcopenia and its association with falls, fractures, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Follow-up of ALEXANDROS cohorts designed to study disability associated with obesity in older adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older living in Chile. MEASURES: At baseline, 1119 of 2372 participants had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and the measurements for the diagnosis of sarcopenia...
September 10, 2020: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
A H Abdelhafiz, D Emmerton, A J Sinclair
Frail older people are largely excluded from clinical trials and therefore glycaemic targets and optimum hypoglycaemic therapy in this group has not been fully investigated. Guidelines generally recommend tight glycaemic control in functionally fit individuals and relaxed targets in frail ones mainly due to the fear of hypoglycaemia. The newly introduced sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown benefit that is independent of glycaemic control and a minimal risk of hypoglycaemia...
September 10, 2020: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Federico Carbone, Agostino Di Ciaula, Sabrina Pagano, Silvia Minetti, Anna Maria Ansaldo, Daniele Ferrara, Anna Belfiore, Edoardo Elia, Stefania Pugliese, Vincenzo Ostilio Palmieri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Piero Portincasa
The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last half-century and continues to rise globally. However, a clear definition of this pathological condition, based on standardized clinically relevant variables, is still missing. Even the body mass index (BMI), which has been used for decades, has never emerged over traditional risk factors. Rather, the fall of BMI has contributed to reveal the heterogeneity of obesity 1 . Indeed, patients with similar BMI values - and body weight also - display different metabolic profiles and consequent cardiovascular (CV) risk...
September 12, 2020: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhi Cao, Chenjie Xu, Hongxi Yang, Shu Li, Fusheng Xu, Yuan Zhang, Yaogang Wang
CONTEXT: Recent studies suggested that higher BMI and serum urate levels were associated with lower risk of developing dementia. However, these reverse relationships remain controversial, and whether serum urate and BMI confound each other is not well established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent associations of BMI and urate, as well as their interaction with the risk of developing dementia. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: We analyzed a cohort of 502,528 individuals derived from the UK Biobank that included people aged 37 to 73 years for whom BMI and urate were recorded between 2006 and 2010...
September 12, 2020: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Julie Jesson, Egnon Kv Kouakou, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Laurence Adonis, Stephanie V Wrottesley, Valériane Leroy, Caroline Fall
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents living in resource-limited settings remain a neglected population regarding their nutritional health. We reviewed what studies on nutrition have been conducted for adolescents living in Côte d'Ivoire. DESIGN: A scoping literature review, searching for any quantitative studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 May 2019, referenced in PubMed and grey literature, related to adolescent nutritional status and diet, written in English or French...
September 4, 2020: Public Health Nutrition
Peng Jia, Shaoqing Dai, Kristen E Rohli, Robert V Rohli, Yanan Ma, Chao Yu, Xiongfeng Pan, Weiqi Zhou
The associations between built and food environments and childhood obesity have been studied extensively. However, the association between the natural environment and childhood obesity has received too little scholarly attention. This study reviewed the literature published before 1 January 2019, which described associations between a full range of natural environmental factors (e.g., rainfall, temperature, sunlight, natural disasters, flood and drought) and weight-related behaviours and childhood obesity. Five cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study were identified...
September 1, 2020: Obesity Reviews
Manan Shah, Dia R Halalmeh, Aubin Sandio, R Shane Tubbs, Marc D Moisi
Spine surgery at the wrong level is an undesirable event and unique pitfall in spine surgery. It is detrimental to the relationship between the patient and the surgeon and typically results in profound medical and legal consequences. It falls under the wrong-site surgery sentinel events reporting system. This error is most frequently observed in lumbosacral spine. Several risk factors are implicated; however, anatomical variations of the lumbosacral spine are a major risk factor. The aim of this article was to provide a detailed description of these high-risk anatomical variations, including transitional vertebrae, lumbar ribs, butterfly vertebrae, hemivertebra, block/fused vertebrae, and spinal dysraphism...
July 28, 2020: Curēus
Ygor Hermenegildo-López, Helena Sandoval-Insausti, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Jose Ramón Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Pilar Guallar-Castillón
OBJECTIVES: to examine the association of general and abdominal obesity with falls, falls requiring medical care and falls with fractures in older women. DESIGN: a population-based prospective cohort of 1,185 women aged ≥60 in Spain, followed up from 2008 to 2010 through 2012. MEASURES: weight, height and waist circumference were measured at baseline using standardised techniques. Participants were classified according to body mass index as normal weight (<25), overweight (25-29...
August 25, 2020: Age and Ageing
Patrícia Azevedo Garcia, Letícia Lopes de Queiroz, Mônica Batista Duarte Caetano, Karla Helena Coelho Vilaça E Silva, Tânia Cristina Dias da Silva Hamu
BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fear of falling and body balance, especially on unstable surfaces. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether obesity is associated with worse postural balance and fear of falling in older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 older adults, classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese according to BMI. Postural balance was evaluated on stable and unstable surfaces on the Biodex Balance System platform under three visual conditions: with and without visual feedback and with eyes closed...
August 13, 2020: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Bárbara Patrício, Gessica Lioci, Maria Paula Macedo, Amalia Gastaldelli
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common form of chronic liver disease worldwide. Due to its association with obesity and diabetes and the fall in hepatitis C virus morbidity, cirrhosis in NAFLD is becoming the most frequent indication to liver transplantation, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are still not completely understood. The so-called gut-liver axis has gained enormous interest when data showed that its alteration can lead to NAFLD development and might favor the occurrence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
August 13, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wael Maktouf, Sébastien Boyas, Bruno Beaune, Sylvain Durand
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity is associated with deterioration in postural control that may reduce obese adults' autonomy and increase risks of falls. However, neuromuscular mechanisms through which postural control alterations occur in obese adults remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of obesity on muscle coactivation at the ankle joint during static and dynamic postural control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A control group (CG; n = 20; age = 32...
September 2020: Gait & Posture
Hilda O Hounkpatin, S Harris, Simon D S Fraser, Julie Day, Jennifer S Mindell, Maarten W Taal, Donal O'Donoghue, Paul J Roderick
OBJECTIVES: To identify recent trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence in England and explore their association with changes in sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical factors. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Health Survey for England 2003, 2009/2010 combined and 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 17 663 individuals (aged 16+) living in private households. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1...
August 13, 2020: BMJ Open
Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Sébastien Boyas, Bruno Beaune
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the combined effects of age and obesity on gait and to analyze the relationship between age and obesity on ankle muscle activities during walking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4 groups; the young non-obese control group (CG, n = 50, age = 31.8 ± 4.5 years; BMI = 21.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2 ), the young obese group (OB, n = 30, age = 35.4 ± 4.1 years; BMI = 38.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ), the non-obese older adults group (OA, n = 20, age = 76...
August 10, 2020: Experimental Gerontology
Eugenie R Lumbers, Yoga Kandasamy, Sarah J Delforce, Amanda C Boyce, Karen J Gibson, Kirsty G Pringle
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can have an insidious onset because there is a gradual decline in nephron number throughout life. There may be no overt symptoms of renal dysfunction until about two thirds or more of the nephrons have been destroyed and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls to below 25% of normal (often in mid-late life) (Martinez-Maldonaldo et al., 1992). Once End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) has been reached, survival depends on renal replacement therapy (RRT). CKD causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease; and hypertension causes CKD...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle C Krzyzanowski, Paul N Kizakevich, Vanessa Duren-Winfield, Randall Eckhoff, Joel Hampton, Loneke T Blackman Carr, Georgia McCauley, Kristina B Roberson, Elijah O Onsomu, John Williams, Amanda Alise Price
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of mobile devices to access the internet and as the main computing system of apps, there is a growing market for mobile health apps to provide self-care advice. Their effectiveness with regard to diet and fitness tracking, for example, needs to be examined. The majority of American adults fail to meet daily recommendations for healthy behavior. Testing user engagement with an app in a controlled environment can provide insight into what is effective and not effective in an app focused on improving diet and exercise...
August 5, 2020: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Caroline Hd Fall, Mubarek Abera, Harsha Chopra, Polly Hardy-Johnson, Ramatoulie E Janha, Julie Jesson, Charudutta Joglekar, Shama Joseph, Sarah H Kehoe, Gudani Mukoma, Kejal Joshi-Reddy, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Mary E Barker
OBJECTIVE: To describe the anthropometry, socioeconomic circumstances, diet and screen time usage of adolescents in India and Africa as context to a qualitative study of barriers to healthy eating and activity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey, including measured height and weight and derived rates of stunting, low BMI, overweight and obesity. Parental schooling and employment status, household assets and amenities, and adolescents' dietary diversity, intake of snack foods, mobile/smartphone ownership and TV/computer time were obtained via a questionnaire...
August 5, 2020: Public Health Nutrition
Silvia G R Neri, Anne Tiedemann, André B Gadelha, Ricardo M Lima
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls in older women; however, it is not certain how body fat distribution affects this relationship. This study examined the association between android and gynoid obesity and the incidence of falls in women aged 60 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were recruited from the community in Brasilia, Brazil. At baseline, participants underwent obesity screening using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
September 2020: Maturitas
Tim Adair, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been adverse trends in premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates (35-74 years) in the USA and Australia. Following long-term declines, rates in the USA are now increasing while falls in Australia have slowed rapidly. These two countries also have the highest adult obesity prevalence of high-income countries. This study investigates the role of overweight and obesity in their recent CVD mortality trends by using multiple cause of death (MCOD) data-direct individual-level evidence from death certificates-and linking the findings to cohort lifetime obesity prevalence...
August 4, 2020: BMC Medicine
Zeev Meiner, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
Changes in gait, especially decreased gait velocity, may be a harbinger of cognitive decline in aging. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a pre-dementia syndrome combining slow gait and cognitive complaints, is a powerful clinical tool used to identify older adults at a high risk of developing dementia. The mean prevalence of MCR worldwide, including in a Korean cohort, was around 10%. The reported risk factors for incident MCR include older age, low education, cardiovascular disease, obesity, physical inactivity, and depression...
March 2020: Annals of geriatric medicine and research
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