Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 7th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This series focuses on personal behavior patterns, including substance use disorders, physical inactivity/obesity, and non-adherence with medical regimens, which are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and premature death. This 7th issue includes 17 commentaries, reviews, and original empirical studies, 16 of which are devoted to current tobacco control and regulatory science research and policy, topics critically important to protecting the public health from the longstanding and devastating harms of tobacco use...
October 14, 2020: Preventive Medicine
Sandro La Vignera, Rossella Cannarella, Fabio Galvano, Agata Grillo, Antonio Aversa, Laura Cimino, Cristina M Magagnini, Laura M Mongioì, Rosita A Condorelli, Aldo E Calogero
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasingly spread in our society. Low testosterone levels are often present in these patients, the so-called metabolic hypogonadism, that further alters the metabolic balance in a sort of vicious cycle. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been reported to efficiently reduce body weight, glycaemia, and the serum levels of insulin, glycated hemoglobin, but its effects on β-cell function and total testosterone (TT) levels are less clear. AIM: To evaluate the effects of VLCKD on markers suggested to be predictive of β-cell dysfunction development, such as proinsulin or proinsulin/insulin ratio, and on TT values in a cohort of overweight or obese nondiabetic male patients with metabolic hypogonadism...
October 15, 2020: Endocrine
Danielle Arigo, Megan M Brown, Kristen Pasko, Matthew Cole Ainsworth, Laura Travers, Adarsh Gupta, Danielle Symons Downs, Joshua M Smyth
BACKGROUND: Midlife women are at an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality. Those who have additional risk conditions such as obesity or hypertension report specific barriers to engaging in cardioprotective behaviors such as physical activity (PA). Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding PA determinants and designing interventions for midlife women, although with suboptimal success, as increasing PA could meaningfully attenuate CVD risk. An updated approach to understanding PA among midlife women could improve upon existing resources by focusing on novel psychosocial influences on PA in this population (ie, body satisfaction, social interactions, social comparisons, mood state) and within-person relations between these influences and PA in the natural environment...
October 15, 2020: JMIR Research Protocols
Fatmah Alghamdi, Yazeed Alshuweishi, Ian P Salt
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that is a key regulator of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body level. AMPK acts to stimulate ATP production and reduce ATP consumption when cellular ATP levels fall, thereby normalizing energy balance. Given the central role of AMPK in cellular carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, AMPK activation has been proposed to be a therapeutic target for conditions associated with dysfunctional nutrient metabolism including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
October 7, 2020: Cellular Signalling
Juan Pablo Gutierrez, Stefano M Bertozzi
BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic compounds Mexico's pre-existing challenges: very high levels of both non-communicable diseases (NCD) and social inequity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from national reporting of SARS-CoV-2 tested individuals, we estimated odds of hospitalization, intubation, and death based on pre-existing non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic indicators. We found that obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are positively associated with the three outcomes in a synergistic manner...
2020: PloS One
Rebecca Ivers, Julieann Coombes, Catherine Sherrington, Tamara Mackean, Anne Tiedemann, Anne-Marie Hill, Lisa Keay, Lindy Clemson, Judy Simpson, Courtney Ryder, Rona Macniven, Kathleen Clapham
INTRODUCTION: Older Aboriginal people have a strong leadership role in their community including passing on knowledge and teachings around culture and connections to Country. Falls significantly affect older people and are a growing concern for older Aboriginal people and their families. Regular participation in balance and strength exercise has been shown to be efficacious in reducing falls. A pilot study developed in partnership with Aboriginal communities, the Ironbark: Standing Strong and Tall programme, demonstrated high community acceptability and feasibility, and gains in balance and strength in Aboriginal participants...
October 7, 2020: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
David Scott, Jonas Johansson, Peter R Ebeling, Peter Nordstrom, Anna Nordstrom
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is commonly defined by BMI rather than adiposity, which may have differential effects on musculoskeletal health. Musculoskeletal outcomes were compared in older adults with normal adiposity and normal BMI (NA-NBMI), those with high adiposity but normal BMI (HA-NBMI), and those with high adiposity and high BMI (HA-HBMI). METHODS: In 3,411 70-year-olds, obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and adiposity as body fat percentage ≥ 25% (men) or ≥ 35% (women) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
October 3, 2020: Obesity
Meredith N Roderka, Sadhana Puri, John A Batsis
The population worldwide is aging and prevalence of obesity in this population is increasing. The range of consequences that effect these at-risk patients include increased risk of falls, fractures, reduced quality of life, and cognitive decline. This article describes the epidemiology of obesity, risks and benefits of weight loss, and importance of treating obesity to help promote healthy aging. Health care professionals should encourage older adults with obesity to implement healthy lifestyle behaviors including exercise and diet routine...
November 2020: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Wen-Pei Chang, Hsiu-Ju Jen
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the factors that influence falls and the severity of fall-related injuries in inpatients. METHODS: We adopted a retrospective, matched case-control design and conducted this study at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Our study period ran from January 2016 to December 2019. We searched for inpatients with official fall records and obtained data from 823 patients, and then established a control group comprising 331 matching patients based on age, sex, length of hospital stay at time of fall incident, and ward type, thereby resulting in 1154 patients in all...
October 1, 2020: Journal of Patient Safety
Louis Monnier, Jean-Louis Schlienger, Claude Colette, Fabrice Bonnet
Restricted-calorie diets are the most worldwide used treatments for obesity. Although such strategies are based on the first law of thermodynamics, the real life clinical practice demonstrates that the observed weight losses are divergent from those theoretically predicted. Loosely adherence to recommendations is one of the main causes for the limited efficacy of dieting, but many additional factors can be involved in the hurdles to weight loss. According to the second law of thermodynamics any restriction in dietary energy intake results in energy sparing with a diminution in the basal metabolic rate and a concomitant loss in the lean body mass...
September 28, 2020: Diabetes & Metabolism
Marios Papadakis, Andreas Afendras, Charalampos Skiadas, Despoina Renieri, Morfo Tsaknaki, Ioannis Filippopoulos, Chrysoula Liakou
BACKGROUND: Global concern on seafarers' health and its potential cost is widely evident across the shipping industry. Seafarers are at increased cardiovascular risk since it is common to have risk factors associated with that risk such as hyperlipidaemia, obesity and smoking. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), i.e. hyperlipidaemia, smoking and obesity, in Greek seafarers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During pre-embarkation medical examination, seafarers undergo an interview with a physician, physical examination and laboratory tests...
2020: International Maritime Health
Julie Gazmararian, Jonathan Smith
Adverse health outcomes and obesity are especially high among children with sleep deficiencies. Such health consequences may differentially affect children 2-5 years of age, during which time children undergo drastic shifts in sleep patterns and neurological development. To date, little epidemiologic research has examined the link between sleep and obesity-related health behaviors among this age group. We investigated the relationship between sleep and eating/physical activity behaviors among children aged 2-5 years old...
December 2020: Preventive Medicine Reports
Suzanna Connick Jamison, Kelley Aheron
A patient with morbid obesity and several psychiatric comorbidities underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and experienced success with weight loss. However, she experienced lightheadedness, nausea, and a fall and was admitted to the hospital for encephalopathy due to lithium toxicity. The pharmacokinetics of lithium is altered following bariatric surgery. Due to these factors, adjustments were made to the patient's lithium therapy, her levels were subsequently reduced into the therapeutic range, and she continued with no further issues...
2020: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Fernando R Medina Carbonell, Ojasvini Choyudhry Chandan
Purpose: The evidence for an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and obesity is conflicting. Therefore, we set out to review the body mass index (BMI) at presentation of IBD to understand if the rise of the obesity rate in the general population, lead to an increase of obesity in patients with IBD at the time of diagnosis. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with IBD seen at Children's Hospital and Medical Center from January 1st 2010 to December 31st 2014...
September 2020: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Levy Munguia, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez, Eduardo Meaney, Francisco Villarreal, Guillermo Ceballos, Nayelli Najera
Age-related muscle decline, when associated with obesity, leads to adverse outcomes with increased risks for falling, loss of independence, disability and risk of premature mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effects of flavonoids in improving the age-/high-fat-diet-induced decrease in physical activity/capacity related to the onset of skeletal muscle decline. The effects of the administration of a cocoa beverage enriched with flavanols or pure (-)-epicatechin for 5 wk in a model of physical activity decline induced by the ingestion of a high-fat diet (60% fat) in middle-age mice were evaluated...
October 2020: Food Bioscience
Joseph Proietto
Obesity and osteoporosis are both common conditions with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There is a relationship between obesity and bone. There are multiple factors that influence the risk of fracture, including the quality of bone, the risk of falls, and the padding around the bone. These multiple factors partly explain the finding that obesity protects against fractures in some sites while increasing the risk in other parts of the body. While it is well known that increased weight builds bone, there are several mechanisms related to the obese state that make the bone more fragile...
2020: F1000Research
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Susan Calhoun, Kristina Puzino, Cynthia K Snyder, Fan He, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Duanping Liao, Edward Bixler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors associated with the persistence, remission, and incidence of insomnia symptoms in the transition from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: The Penn State Child Cohort is a random, population-based sample of 700 children (5-12 years at baseline), of whom 421 were followed up as adolescents (12-23 years at follow-up). Subjects underwent polysomnography, clinical history, physical exam, and parent- and self-reported scales at baseline and follow-up...
September 15, 2020: Sleep
Felipe Salech, Carlos Marquez, Lydia Lera, Bárbara Angel, Rodrigo Saguez, Cecilia Albala
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of osteosarcopenia and its association with falls, fractures, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Follow-up of ALEXANDROS cohorts designed to study disability associated with obesity in older adults. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older living in Chile. MEASURES: At baseline, 1119 of 2372 participants had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and the measurements for the diagnosis of sarcopenia...
September 10, 2020: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
A H Abdelhafiz, D Emmerton, A J Sinclair
Frail older people are largely excluded from clinical trials and therefore glycaemic targets and optimum hypoglycaemic therapy in this group has not been fully investigated. Guidelines generally recommend tight glycaemic control in functionally fit individuals and relaxed targets in frail ones mainly due to the fear of hypoglycaemia. The newly introduced sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown benefit that is independent of glycaemic control and a minimal risk of hypoglycaemia...
September 10, 2020: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Federico Carbone, Agostino Di Ciaula, Sabrina Pagano, Silvia Minetti, Anna Maria Ansaldo, Daniele Ferrara, Anna Belfiore, Edoardo Elia, Stefania Pugliese, Vincenzo Ostilio Palmieri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Piero Portincasa
The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last half-century and continues to rise globally. However, a clear definition of this pathological condition, based on standardized clinically relevant variables, is still missing. Even the body mass index (BMI), which has been used for decades, has never emerged over traditional risk factors. Rather, the fall of BMI has contributed to reveal the heterogeneity of obesity 1 . Indeed, patients with similar BMI values - and body weight also - display different metabolic profiles and consequent cardiovascular (CV) risk...
September 12, 2020: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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