José Manuel Montes, Daniel Hernández-Huerta
Patients with more severe mental health symptoms are treated in acute inpatient psychiatric units (AIPUs), but the functioning of these units throughout Spain has been challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic. We therefore conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to assess the situation. An online survey was distributed to all hospitals with AIPUs in Spain and made accessible for 28 days. Two scientific coordinators were appointed to supervise the scientific and methodological aspects of the study. The most relevant findings include reductions in numbers of beds and staff, insufficient material resources, changes in action protocols and in admission processes, and limitations in routine therapies, such as group and occupational therapy, psychotherapy and psychoeducational programmes...
July 24, 2021: Psychiatry Research
Masami Inui-Yukawa, Hitoshi Miyaoka, Kenji Yamamoto, Yoshito Kamijo, Michiko Takai, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chiaki Kawanishi, Kotaro Otsuka, Hirokazu Tachikawa, Yoshio Hirayasu
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of assertive case management intervention in preventing suicidal behaviour in self-poisoning patients. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the ACTION-J study. Participants were self-poisoning patients with clear suicide intent admitted to emergency departments and with a primary psychiatric diagnosis (as per DSM-IV-TR axis 1). Patients were randomly assigned either to assertive case management or enhanced usual care. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of a first recurrent suicide attempt within 6 months...
July 19, 2021: Psychiatry Research
A E Voppel, J N de Boer, S G Brederoo, H G Schnack, Iec Sommer
Language abnormalities are a core symptom of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and could serve as a potential diagnostic marker. Natural language processing enables quantification of language connectedness, which may be lower in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated connectedness of spontaneous speech in schizophrenia-spectrum patients and controls and determine its accuracy in classification. Using a semi-structured interview, speech of 50 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and 50 controls was recorded...
July 22, 2021: Psychiatry Research
Dina Bosnjak Kuharic, Porin Makaric, Ivana Kekin, Linda Rossini Gajsak, Maja Zivkovic, Drazenka Ostojic, Ante Silic, Zarko Bajic, Iva Lukacevic Lovrencic, Julian Beezhold, Martina Rojnic Kuzman
Neurocognitive symptoms exert the most influence on treatment outcomes over the course of schizophrenia, starting from the first-episode of psychosis (FEP) onwards. Our aim was to analyze the neurocognitive status of FEP compared to healthy controls (HC), and its change after 18 months of treatment. We performed a study in a sample of 159 patients with FEP and 100 HC. We followed the patients up for 18 months after initial assessment with a battery of neurocognitive tests. We observed statistically significant improvement in the majority of neurocognitive tests after 18 months, but several tests of specific neurocognitive domains (verbal memory, language functions, executive functions) did not show significant differences between the two assessments...
July 19, 2021: Psychiatry Research
AmirHussein Abdolalizadeh, Hamidreza Ostadrahimi, Mohammad Amin Dabbagh Ohadi, Seyed AmirHussein Saneei, Amir Sasan Bayani Ershadi
Apathy is present at the onset in nearly half the patients with schizophrenia. Current therapies lack the efficiency to improve apathy in patients. The presence of apathy is also associated with poorer outcomes. Despite its clinical importance, the underlying mechanism of apathy in schizophrenia is unclear, but it seems frontostriatal connections play a role. In this study, we investigated whole-brain white matter microstructural properties associated with the severity of apathy-avolition in schizophrenia. We included 80 schizophrenia patients (60 Male, 20 Female) from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium database and associated Apathy-Avolition score of "Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms" with fiber integrity measures derived from diffusion-weighted imaging using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS)...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Research
G Lahera, A Reboreda, A Vallespí, C Vidal, V López, A Aznar, P Fernández, M Escolar, G Martínez-Alés, R Rodriguez-Jimenez, T Halverson, N Frommann, W Wölwer, D L Penn
INTRODUCTION: Training in Affect Recognition (TAR) is a "targeted" and computer-aided program that has been shown to effectively attenuate facial affect recognition deficits and improve social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is a group "broad-based" intervention, that has also been shown to improve emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), and social functioning. To date, no study has compared the efficacy of two different social cognitive interventions...
July 23, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Eugenia Romano, Ruimin Ma, Gayan Perera, Robert Stewart, Konstantinos Tsamakis, Marco Solmi, Davy Vancampfort, Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs, Christoph Mueller
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study investigates risks of hospitalised fall or hip fractures in working age adults receiving mental health care in South London. METHODS: Patients aged 18 to 64, who received a first mental illness diagnosis between 2008 and 2016 were included. Primary outcome was hospitalised falls, secondary outcome was hip fractures. Age- and gender-standardised incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared to local general population were calculated...
July 20, 2021: General Hospital Psychiatry
Ashley M Fraser, Crystal I Bryce, Brittany L Alexander, Richard A Fabes
INTRODUCTION: Feeling hopeful is an important condition for adolescents' health, well-being, and educational success and attainment, yet limited research has examined hope at different ages throughout adolescence. Information regarding hope levels across grade could help educators know when to capitalize on goal-setting behaviors, and when to intervene should hope levels be low. Additionally, hope could help with the middle to high school transition because it presents opportunities and challenges, including school-related stress, as students adjust to new environments and expectations...
July 28, 2021: Journal of Adolescence
Siobhan T O'Dwyer, Astrid Janssens, Anna Sansom, Lucy Biddle, Becky Mars, Thomas Slater, Paul Moran, Paul Stallard, Julia Melluish, Lisa Reakes, Anna Walker, Charmaine Andrewartha, Richard P Hastings
An emerging body of international research suggests family caregivers may be a high-risk group for suicide, but the evidence has not been synthesised. Forty-eight peer-reviewed journal articles were included in this review, spanning low-, middle-, and high-income countries and a variety of illnesses and disabilities. The proportion of caregivers experiencing suicidal ideation ranged from 2.7% to 71%, with evidence of suicide attempts, deaths by suicide, and deaths by homicide-suicide also reported. Risk and protective factors varied across studies and there was little consideration of differences by caregiving relationship, type of illness/disability, or country...
July 8, 2021: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Marco Solmi, Manu Suresh Sharma, Emanuele F Osimo, Michele Fornaro, Beatrice Bortolato, Giovanni Croatto, Alessandro Miola, Eduard Vieta, Carmine M Pariante, Lee Smith, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Jae Il Shin, Michael Berk, Andre F Carvalho
IMPORTANCE: It is unclear whether differences exist in the magnitude and variability of pro-inflammatory mediators in the different phases of bipolar disorder (BD) and among subjects with BD, as compared to healthy controls. OBJECTIVE: To run a comparative meta-analysis of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α in BD vs healthy controls, measuring mean and variability effects on all subjects. Sensitivity analyses include disease activity. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review of observational studies in PubMed and PsycInfo up to February 2nd , 2020...
July 28, 2021: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jean-Marc Cloos, Christopher Y S Lim Cow, Valéry Bocquet
OBJECTIVES: A clear definition of what we understand of high-dose misuse or of a 'markedly increased dose' (as stated by the DSM-5) is important and past definitions may be inadequate. The aim of this review is to describe the different definitions used and to test these definitions for their accuracy. METHODS: A narrative PubMed literature review was conducted based on articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2020 describing benzodiazepines (in MeSH Terms or MeSH Major Topic) and high-dose (or high-dosage)...
July 31, 2021: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Dorthea Juul, William F Haning, Robert J Ronis, Larry R Faulkner
OBJECTIVE: This article describes the evolution of subspecialty training and certification in addiction psychiatry. The impact of the newer subspecialty in addiction medicine is also addressed. METHODS: Information about programs and trainees was obtained from records of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Information about addiction psychiatry certification was obtained from the records of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN)...
July 30, 2021: Academic Psychiatry
Megan L Braconnier, Paige M Siper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropsychological assessment involves the comprehensive evaluation of intellectual, attentional, executive, social-cognitive, language, and motor functioning. Such assessments are used to characterize areas of strength and weakness, inform differential diagnosis, guide treatment planning, and evaluate change over time. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with varied clinical presentations, which can make the design of testing batteries and subsequent interpretation of results challenging...
July 30, 2021: Current Psychiatry Reports
Justus B H Wilke, Martin Hindermann, Stefan A Berghoff, Svenja Zihsler, Sahab Arinrad, Anja Ronnenberg, Nadine Barnkothe, Agnes A Steixner-Kumar, Stefan Röglin, Winfried Stöcker, Michael Hollmann, Klaus-Armin Nave, Fred Lühder, Hannelore Ehrenreich
The etiology and pathogenesis of "anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis" and the role of autoantibodies (AB) in this condition are still obscure. While NMDAR1-AB exert NMDAR-antagonistic properties by receptor internalization, no firm evidence exists to date that NMDAR1-AB by themselves induce brain inflammation/encephalitis. NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes are highly frequent across mammals with multiple possible inducers and boosters. We hypothesized that "NMDAR encephalitis" results from any primary brain inflammation coinciding with the presence of NMDAR1-AB, which may shape the encephalitis phenotype...
July 30, 2021: Molecular Psychiatry
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Claudio Ferrante, Serena Veschi, Alessandro Cama, Guya Diletta Marconi, Francesca Diomede, Iacopo Gesmundo, Riccarda Granata, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Andrew V Schally, Luigi Brunetti, Sheila Leone
Anxiety and depression have been suggested to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). A link between all these mental illnesses, inflammation and oxidative stress is also well established. Recent behavior studies by our group clearly demonstrate a powerful anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of a novel growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonist of MIAMI class, MIA-690, probably related to modulatory effects on the inflammatory and oxidative status. In the present work we investigated the potential beneficial effects of MIA-602, another recently developed GHRH antagonist, in mood disorders, as anxiety and depression, and the possible brain pathways involved in its protective activity, in adult mice...
July 30, 2021: Molecular Psychiatry
Enora Moutin, Sophie Sakkaki, Vincent Compan, Nathalie Bouquier, Federica Giona, Julie Areias, Elise Goyet, Anne-Laure Hemonnot-Girard, Vincent Seube, Bastien Glasson, Nathan Benac, Yan Chastagnier, Fabrice Raynaud, Etienne Audinat, Laurent Groc, Tangui Maurice, Carlo Sala, Chiara Verpelli, Julie Perroy
Shank3 monogenic mutations lead to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Shank3 is part of the glutamate receptosome that physically links ionotropic NMDA receptors to metabotropic mGlu5 receptors through interactions with scaffolding proteins PSD95-GKAP-Shank3-Homer. A main physiological function of the glutamate receptosome is to control NMDA synaptic function that is required for plasticity induction. Intact glutamate receptosome supports glutamate receptors activation and plasticity induction, while glutamate receptosome disruption blocks receptors activity, preventing the induction of subsequent plasticity...
July 30, 2021: Molecular Psychiatry
Hill F Ip, Camiel M van der Laan, Eva M L Krapohl, Isabell Brikell, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Ilja M Nolte, Beate St Pourcain, Koen Bolhuis, Teemu Palviainen, Hadi Zafarmand, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Scott Gordon, Tetyana Zayats, Fazil Aliev, Chang Jiang, Carol A Wang, Gretchen Saunders, Ville Karhunen, Anke R Hammerschlag, Daniel E Adkins, Richard Border, Roseann E Peterson, Joseph A Prinz, Elisabeth Thiering, Ilkka Seppälä, Natàlia Vilor-Tejedor, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Felix R Day, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Andrea G Allegrini, Kaili Rimfeld, Qi Chen, Yi Lu, Joanna Martin, María Soler Artigas, Paula Rovira, Rosa Bosch, Gemma Español, Josep Antoni Ramos Quiroga, Alexander Neumann, Judith Ensink, Katrina Grasby, José J Morosoli, Xiaoran Tong, Shelby Marrington, Christel Middeldorp, James G Scott, Anna Vinkhuyzen, Andrey A Shabalin, Robin Corley, Luke M Evans, Karen Sugden, Silvia Alemany, Lærke Sass, Rebecca Vinding, Kate Ruth, Jess Tyrrell, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Fiona A Hagenbeek, Eveline De Zeeuw, Toos C E M Van Beijsterveldt, Henrik Larsson, Harold Snieder, Frank C Verhulst, Najaf Amin, Alyce M Whipp, Tellervo Korhonen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Richard J Rose, André G Uitterlinden, Andrew C Heath, Pamela Madden, Jan Haavik, Jennifer R Harris, Øyvind Helgeland, Stefan Johansson, Gun Peggy S Knudsen, Pal Rasmus Njolstad, Qing Lu, Alina Rodriguez, Anjali K Henders, Abdullah Mamun, Jackob M Najman, Sandy Brown, Christian Hopfer, Kenneth Krauter, Chandra Reynolds, Andrew Smolen, Michael Stallings, Sally Wadsworth, Tamara L Wall, Judy L Silberg, Allison Miller, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Alexandra Havdahl, Per Magnus, Olli T Raitakari, John R B Perry, Sabrina Llop, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, Jordi Sunyer, Terho Lehtimäki, Louise Arseneault, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Joseph Boden, John Pearson, L John Horwood, Martin Kennedy, Richie Poulton, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, John Hewitt, William E Copeland, Elizabeth J Costello, Gail M Williams, Naomi Wray, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Matt McGue, William Iacono, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Andrew Whitehouse, Craig E Pennell, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt, Danielle M Dick, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Tanja Vrijkotte, Jaakko Kaprio, Henning Tiemeier, George Davey Smith, Catharina A Hartman, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Miquel Casas, Marta Ribasés, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström, Robert Plomin, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Dorret I Boomsma
Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGGoverall ) was 3...
July 30, 2021: Translational Psychiatry
Joshua M Smyth, Dusti R Jones, Cheng K F Wen, Frank T Materia, Stefan Schneider, Arthur Stone
OBJECTIVE: Intensive ambulatory assessment, such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), is increasingly used to capture naturalistic patient-reported outcomes. EMA design features (eg, study duration, prompt frequency) vary widely between studies, but it is not known if such design decisions influence potential subjects' willingness to participate in a study. We hypothesise that intentions to participate will be higher in studies that are less burdensome and have higher reward (eg, compensation)...
July 30, 2021: BMJ Open
Benjamin L Spivak, Stephane M Shepherd
A considerable number of papers have been published on the ethics of artificial intelligence for the purposes of violence risk assessment. In this issue of The Journal, Hogan and colleagues argue that artificial intelligence introduces novel concerns for violence risk assessment that require consideration. While the concerns that have been raised are entirely valid and require consideration, we argue that artificial intelligence does not herald a more serious or unique challenge in these areas relative to other forms of violence risk assessment...
July 30, 2021: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Sam Topp, Emma Salisbury
Lithium is an effective mood stabiliser used to treat bipolar affective disorder (BPAD); however, it can also adversely affect the kidneys, causing acute toxic effects, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, chronic renal dysfunction and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in a minority of patients. We describe the case of a man with a 34-year history of BPAD type-1 and a 2-year history of ESKD secondary to lithium-induced nephropathy who experienced a manic relapse. He previously responded well to lithium but, following a deterioration in kidney function, was switched to olanzapine and sodium valproate...
July 30, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
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