keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857750/effect-of-citalopram-on-hippocampal-volume-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-structural-mri-results-from-the-decifer-trial
#1
Wei Qi, Esther Blessing, Chenxiang Li, Babak A Ardekani, Kamber L Hart, Julia Marx, Oliver Freudenreich, Corinne Cather, Daphne Holt, Iruma Bello, Erica D Diminich, Yingying Tang, Michelle Worthington, Botao Zeng, Renrong Wu, Xiaoduo Fan, Andrea Troxel, Jingping Zhao, Jijun Wang, Donald C Goff
Hippocampal volume loss is prominent in first episode schizophrenia (FES) and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and with BDNF genotype; antidepressants are believed to reverse hippocampal volume loss via release of BDNF. In a 12-month, placebo-controlled add-on trial of the antidepressant, citalopram, during the maintenance phase of FES, negative symptoms were improved with citalopram. We now report results of structural brain imaging at baseline and 6 months in 63 FES patients (34 in citalopram group) from the trial to assess whether protection against hippocampal volume loss contributed to improved negative symptoms with citalopram...
April 7, 2021: Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857639/affective-dysregulation-in-children-is-associated-with-difficulties-in-response-control-in-emotional-ambiguous-situations
#2
Franziska Giller, Pascal-M Aggensteiner, Tobias Banaschewski, Manfred Döpfner, Daniel Brandeis, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Affective dysregulation (AD) or synonymously "irritability" is a transdiagnostic construct that serves as a diagnostic criterion in various childhood mental disorders. It is characterized by severe or persistent outbursts of anger and aggression. Emotional self-regulation is highly dependent on the ability to process relevant and ignore conflicting emotional information. Understanding neurophysiological mechanisms underlying impairment in AD may provide a starting point for research on pharmacological treatment options and evaluation of psychotherapeutic intervention...
April 12, 2021: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857524/white-matter-microstructural-integrity-correlates-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-children-with-adhd-a-diffusion-imaging-tractography-study
#3
Chia-Jui Tsai, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Isaac Wen-Yih Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Emotion dysregulation (ED) is prevalent in youths with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and causes more social impairment and poor adaptive function. Alterations in the integrity of white matter (WM) tracts might have important implications for affective processing related to ED. However, little is known about the WM correlates underpinning ED in ADHD. METHODS: Using diffusion spectrum image tractography, we obtained generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values of 76 WM tracts in 77 children with ADHD and 105 typically developing controls (TDC)...
April 12, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857523/variable-alterations-in-plasma-erythropoietin-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-and-without-a-history-of-suicide-attempt
#4
Bun-Hee Lee, Young-Min Park, Jung-A Hwang, Yong-Ku Kim
It is hypothesized that major depression disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired neuronal plasticity, and that antidepressant treatments restore neuroplasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and erythropoietin (Epo) show neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. We evaluated plasma Epo and BDNF levels in 50 MDD inpatients before treatment and in 50 healthy controls. The MDD inpatients consisted of 20 MDD patients without and 30 MDD patients with a recent suicide attempt. The plasma Epo level was significantly higher in nonsuicidal and suicidal MDD patients than in healthy controls (p ≤ 0...
April 12, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857522/the-pediatric-psychopharmacology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-part-i-the-past-and-the-present
#5
REVIEW
Antonio M Persico, Arianna Ricciardello, Marco Lamberti, Laura Turriziani, Francesca Cucinotta, Claudia Brogna, Benedetto Vitiello, Celso Arango
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe and lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with high social costs and a dramatic burden on the quality of life of patients and family members. Despite its high prevalence, reaching 1/54 children and 1/45 adults in the United States, no pharmacological treatment is still directed to core symptoms of ASD, encompassing social and communication deficits, repetitive behaviors, restricted interests, and abnormal sensory processing. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of psychopharmacological therapy available today for ASD in children and adolescents, in order to foster best practices and to organize new strategies for future research...
April 12, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33857036/revolving-door-phenomenon-and-related-factors-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-affective-disorder-and-other-psychotic-disorders
#6
Buket Koparal, Mehmet Ünler, Hayriye Çisem Utku, Selçuk Candansayar
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic mental illness are frequently hospitalized and discharged from psychiatry wards. This situation is referred to as the "revolving door phenomenon" (RDP). In addition to factors related to the patient and the disease, limited number of beds leading to shortened hospital stay are among the reasons associated with frequent hospitalization. This study aims to compare patients with RDP and patients with single hospitalization in terms of clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment-oriented characteristics in order to evaluate the risk factors causing frequent hospitalization...
2021: Psychiatria Danubina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33856961/smartphone-addiction-and-quality-of-sleep-among-indian-medical-students
#7
Surobhi Chatterjee, Sujita Kumar Kar
Background : Smartphone is an indispensable miracle of artificial intelligence in the hands of global netizens. Medical students overburdened and sleep-deprived due to the curricular demands can have serious health effects due to further sleep deprivation caused by problematic smartphone use, affecting their work proficiency as practicing physicians. This study aimed to evaluate the association of smartphone addiction and quality of sleep among medical students across all semesters, along with other background variables...
April 15, 2021: Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33856944/do-neurocognitive-functions-in-cannabis-induced-psychosis-groups-differ-from-schizophrenia-with-cannabis-use-a-controlled-cross-sectional-study
#8
Raghav Shah, Abhishek Ghosh, Ajit Avasthi, Ritu Nehra, Chirag K Ahuja, Niranjan Khandelwal
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis-induced psychosis (CIP) has received little research attention. We compared neurocognitive functions in CIP, Schizophrenia with cannabis use (SZC) and healthy control group (CG). METHODS: Twenty age, education, and handedness-matched participants were recruited in each of the three groups. CIP and SZC were diagnosed with Psychiatric research interviews for substance use and mental disorders. Level of cannabis exposure, global intelligence, executive function, attention, vigilance, working, and verbal memory, and motor speed were compared by analysis of variance with post-hoc Scheffe's test...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33856921/increased-referrals-to-an-australian-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
#9
Kiran Lele, Jodi Cartoon, Alison Griffiths
OBJECTIVE: It has been widely predicted that the COVID-19 pandemic will have a detrimental impact on the mental health (MH) of individuals. This has been dubbed as the MH 'second wave'. In Australia, these impacts have been partly mitigated by institutional responses such as increased access to psychotherapy. Consultation Liaison (CL) psychiatry services provide MH care to acutely unwell patients in general hospitals. It was hypothesised that the number of referrals to the studied service had increased since the start of the pandemic...
April 15, 2021: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33856493/bullying-behaviours-and-other-conduct-problems-longitudinal-investigation-of-their-independent-associations-with-risk-factors-and-later-outcomes
#10
Keertana Ganesan, Sania Shakoor, Jasmin Wertz, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Lucy Bowes, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Louise Arseneault
PURPOSE: Bullying behaviours and other conduct problems often co-occur. However, we do not yet know whether bullying behaviours are associated with early factors and later poor outcomes independently of conduct problems. While there are differing, specific interventions for bullying behaviours and for conduct problems, it is unclear if such specificity is justified given parallels between both behaviours. METHODS: We used prospective data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative sample of 2232 children...
April 15, 2021: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855902/exploring-the-impact-of-a-complex-intervention-for-women-with-depression-in-contexts-of-adversity-a-pilot-feasibility-study-of-courrage-plus-in-south-africa
#11
Rochelle A Burgess, Niklas Jeske, Shahana Rasool, Ayesha Ahmad, Anna Kydd, Ncazelo Ncube Mlilo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide but is often undertreated in low- and middle-income countries. Reasons behind the treatment gap vary, but many highlight a lack of interventions which speak to the socio-economic and structural realties that are associated to mental health problems in many settings, including South Africa. The COURRAGE-PLUS intervention responds to this gap, by combining a collective narrative therapy (9 weeks) intervention, with a social intervention promoting group-led practical action against structural determinants of poor mental health (4 weeks), for a total of 13 sessions...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855899/-i-mean-who-likes-pedophiles-psychological-assessments-of-men-who-have-sexually-offended-the-assessees-experiences
#12
Gemma Chawke, Patrick Randall, Simon C Duff
Pre-sentence psychological assessments of men who have sexually offended can provide useful information regarding an individual's pathway to offending, risk of recidivism, and treatment needs. The outcome of the assessment can be used in court and has implications for the assessee and society at large. This research sought to explore offenders' opinions regarding the clinicians' approach to the assessment, to identify facilitative aspects of the clinicians' style and to understand how accuracy and honesty can be enhanced in these interactions...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855898/thoughts-regarding-using-remote-video-and-phone-contact-during-the-covid-restrictions
#13
Cleo Van Velsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855896/gender-differences-in-theory-of-mind-empathic-understanding-and-moral-reasoning-in-an-offending-and-a-matched-non-offending-population
#14
Karin A Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts, Belinda Winder
Previous research suggests that a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an offending personality. Two hundred male and female offenders and matched controls completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Significant differences between the offenders and the control group, as well as between the male and female participants, were detected in theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning with offenders scoring lower than the control group, and with males scoring lower than females on most tests...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855893/-melancholia-scytharum-the-early-modern-psychiatry-of-transgender-identification
#15
Diederik F Janssen
Herodotus's enigmatic Scythian theleia nousos/morbus femininus and its Hippocratic interpretation interested many early modern authors. Its seeming dimension of transgender identification invited various medico-psychological and psychiatric reflections, culminating in nosologist de Sauvages' tentative 1731 term, melancholia Scytharum . This article identifies pertinent discussions and what turn out to have been entangled, tentative psychologizations in late-seventeenth through mid-nineteenth-century mental medicine: of 'effeminacy of manners' ( mollities animi such as observed in London's Beaux and mollies) and male homosexuality ( amour antiphysique/grec ); of the mental masculinity of some women ( viragines , Amazones ); of ubiquitous attributions of impotence to sorcery ( anaphrodisia magica ); and lastly, of transfeminine persons encountered throughout the New World and increasingly beyond...
April 15, 2021: History of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855874/behind-the-screen-of-voluntary-psychiatric-hospital-admissions-a-qualitative-exploration-of-treatment-pressures-and-informal-coercion-in-experiences-of-patients-in-italy-poland-and-the-united-kingdom
#16
Justyna Klingemann, Piotr Świtaj, Antonio Lasalvia, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research and intense debate on coercion in psychiatry we have seen in recent years, little is still known about formally voluntarily admitted patients, who experience high levels of perceived coercion during their admission to a psychiatric hospital. AIMS: The purpose of the present research was to explore forms of treatment pressure put on patients, not only by clinicians, but also by patients' relatives, during admission to psychiatric hospitals in Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855872/religiosity-as-a-moderator-of-adhd-related-antisocial-behaviour-and-emotional-distress-among-secular-religious-and-ultra-orthodox-jews-in-israel
#17
Nurit Novis-Deutsch, Haym Dayan, Yehuda Pollak, Mona Khoury-Kassabri
BACKGROUND: ADHD predicts higher levels of antisocial behaviour and distress while religiosity is related to lower levels of both. This raises the hitherto unexplored question of how these variables interact. AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore how religious individuals with ADHD fare in terms of these psychosocial outcomes. METHOD: 806 secular, religious and Ultra-Orthodox Jewish adults in Israel completed measures of ADHD symptoms and treatment, emotional strengths and difficulties, religious belonging, religious behaviour and antisocial behaviour...
April 15, 2021: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33855857/covid-19-pandemic-impacts-on-mothers-and-infants-mental-health-during-pregnancy-and-shortly-thereafter
#18
Noa Vardi, Gil Zalsman, Nir Madjar, Abraham Weizman, Gal Shoval
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about a global crisis, with profound implications on public mental health. The current review focuses on the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of mothers and their infants during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. Literature shows that in similar disaster situations, mothers' stress reaction and mental health have a critical impact on infant development. Research data on perinatal mental health during the current COVID-19 pandemic is reviewed in conjunction with studies on the relationship between maternal stress, infant development, and psychopathology...
April 15, 2021: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33854189/targeting-innate-immunity-to-protect-and-cure-alzheimer-s-disease-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#19
REVIEW
Giulia Cisbani, Serge Rivest
Innate immunity has been the focus of many new directions to understand the mechanisms involved in the aetiology of brain diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a multifactorial disorder, with the innate immune response and neuroinflammation at the forefront of the pathology. Thus, microglial cells along with peripheral circulating monocytes and more generally the innate immune response have been the target of several pre-clinical and clinical studies. More than a decade ago, inhibiting innate immune cells was considered to be the critical angle for preventing and treating brain diseases...
April 14, 2021: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33853817/dysosmia-and-drug-tolerance-with-use-of-venlafaxine
#20
Celeste Rousseau, John Malaty
A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of major depressive disorder. She was started on venlafaxine XR 75 mg orally daily and a few days later developed severe dysosmia to foods she used to enjoy. She never had previous problems with smell or taste. At her 1-month follow-up, her depressive symptoms had improved, but she reported persistent dysosmia and was found to have associated weight loss due to decreased oral intake. She was advised to switch medications, but due to financial constraints she continued taking the same dose...
April 14, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
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