Edward Sisco, Meghan Appley
Public health, public safety, and forensic science personnel continue to face the emergence of new compounds into the drug market. While focus is often put on the detection of new analogs of known illicit drugs, monitoring the changes in cutting agents and other compounds can be equally as important. Over the last year, near real-time monitoring of the drug supply in Maryland has been completed through a public health-public safety partnership whereby residue from suspected drug packaging or used paraphernalia is collected and analyzed...
March 26, 2023: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Larissa F Reis, Pamela J Surkan, Kaitlyn Atkins, Rodrigo Garcia-Cerde, Zila M Sanchez
This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factors related to early sexual intercourse (ESI) among adolescents. We used PRISMA guidelines to identify eligible cohort studies published between January 1999 and December 2020. We searched on three databases: PubMed, Embase and LILACS. Studies were screened for quality and eligibility. Of 2787 identified studies, seven met our inclusion criteria. The studies examined a range of factors, which were organized into four dimensions - individual, family, social and environmental, and sociodemographic...
March 25, 2023: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Fanny Senner, Lena Hiendl, Susanne Bengesser, Kristina Adorjan, Ion-George Anghelescu, Bernhardt T Baune, Monika Budde, Udo Dannlowski, Detlef E Dietrich, Peter Falkai, Andreas J Fallgatter, Alkomiet Hasan, Maria Heilbronner, Markus Jäger, Georg Juckel, Janos L Kalman, Carsten Konrad, Mojtaba Oraki Kohshour, Sergi Papiol, Daniela Reich-Erkelenz, Jens Reimer, Sabrina K Schaupp, Max Schmauß, Simon Senner, Carsten Spitzer, Thomas Vogl, Jörg Zimmermann, Urs Heilbronner, Eva C Schulte, Thomas G Schulze, Eva Z Reininghaus, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Nina Dalkner
Existing guidelines recommend psychopharmacological treatment for the management of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as part of holistic treatment concepts. About half of the patients do not take their medication regularly, although treatment adherence can prevent exacerbations and re-hospitalizations. To date, the relationship between medication adherence and cognitive performance is understudied. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between medication adherence and cognitive performance by analyzing the data of 862 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders (mean [SD] age, 41...
March 25, 2023: Translational Psychiatry
Stella M Sanchez, Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Rayus Kuplicki, Heekyeong Park, Ivan Postolski, Michael Rohan, Martin P Paulus, Salvador M Guinjoan
BACKGROUND: Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a frequent symptom of depression (MDD) associated to poor outcomes and treatment resistance. While most studies on RNT have focused on structural and functional characteristics of gray matter, this study aimed to examine the association between white matter (WM) tracts and interindividual variability in RNT. METHODS: A probabilistic tractography approach was used to characterize differences in the size and anatomical trajectory of WM fibers traversing psychosurgery targets historically useful in the treatment of MDD (anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, and subcaudate tractotomy), in patients with MDD and low (n = 53) or high RNT (n = 52), and healthy controls (HC, n = 54)...
March 23, 2023: Biological Psychiatry
Samuele Zilioli, Yanping Jiang, DeAnnah Byrd, Nataria Joseph
Experiences of discrimination can be major life events or daily chronic hassles that occur in various social contexts (e.g., housing, education, employment) and have been found to predict adverse health outcomes, including dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous work on daily cortisol dynamics has generally revealed an association between discrimination and flatter cortisol slopes, particularly among racial minorities. However, most of the existing studies have focused on youth and young adults, with little work among older adults...
March 21, 2023: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chih-Ming Cheng, Wei Hung Chang, Yi-Ting Lin, Po See Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Ya-Mei Bai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2023: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Li-Jun Wang, Tian-Hua Cheng, Jia-Sen Geng, Juan Yang, Chang Liu, Guo-Hui Zhu, Jia-Cheng Luo, Gui-Zhen Wang, Xiang He Zhu, Yi Wang, Jia Huang, Yan-Yu Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BD) all have facial emotion recognition deficits, but the differences and similarities of these deficits in the three groups of patients under different social interaction situations are not clear. The present study aims to compare the ability of facial emotion recognition in three different conversation situations from a cross-diagnostic perspective. METHODS: Thirty-three participants with SCZ, 35 participants with MDD, and 30 participants with BD were recruited, along with 31 healthy controls...
March 21, 2023: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Aubrey M Moe, K Luan Phan, Jay C J Fournier, Jagan Jimmy, Stephanie M Gorka
Individuals with internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) demonstrate a negativity bias in emotion and self-related processing that contributes to negative interpretation of neutral information. However, most neuroimaging studies of emotional experience in IPs do not specifically investigate reactivity to neutral stimuli. Thus, little is known about the neural processes underlying emotional experience for neutral stimuli and how those processes may differ between groups and during neutral versus negative stimuli...
March 7, 2023: Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging
Jorge A Sanchez Ruiz, Brandon J Coombes, Richard S Pendegraft, Aysegul Ozerdem, Susan L McElroy, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Miguel L Prieto, Mark A Frye, Stacey J Winham, Joanna M Biernacka
Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) require chronic pharmacotherapy, typically including medication switches or polypharmacy due to persisting symptoms or intolerable side effects. Here, we quantified pharmacotherapy exposure (PE) of Mayo Clinic BD Biobank participants using the number of cross-sectional (at enrollment) and lifetime BD-specific medications and medication classes, to understand the relationship between PE and markers of disease severity or treatment failure, psychiatric comorbidities, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) for six major psychiatric disorders...
March 21, 2023: Psychiatry Research
Josie Skala, Jacob X Chavez, Katelin Anderson, Chinmoy Gulrajani
The COVID-19 pandemic led to an acceleration in the adoption of videoconferencing (VC) for conducting forensic mental health evaluations (forensic mental health assessments [FMHA]). Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, we administered a survey to 71 Minnesota-licensed forensic evaluators. Approximately two-thirds (65.7%) had started using VC for FMHA only after the pandemic, though a combined 84.5% reported performing FMHA via VC frequently at present. A striking 43.7% of respondents preferred VC for FMHA over in-person evaluation, and another 22...
March 25, 2023: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Xiaofeng Xu, Chi Yang, E Scott Huebner, Lili Tian
Cyberbullying (perpetration and victimization) is a prevalent public health problem associated with a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, delinquent behaviors, and substance use). However, the generality and specificity of relations between cyberbullying involvement and psychopathological symptoms have not been investigated. Thus, the current study used a latent dimensional approach to examine how cyberbullying (perpetration and victimization) is associated with underlying dimensions of psychopathology as well as with specific symptoms...
March 25, 2023: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Tjalling J Holwerda, Eva Jaarsma, Elisabeth M van Zutphen, Aartjan T F Beekman, Kuan-Yu Pan, Majogé van Vliet, Najada Stringa, Judith H van den Besselaar, Janet L MacNeil-Vroomen, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Almar A L Kok
PURPOSE: Many studies report about risk factors associated with adverse changes in mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic while few studies report about protective and buffering factors, especially in older adults. We present an observational study to assess protective and buffering factors against COVID-19 related adverse mental health changes in older adults. METHODS: 899 older adults (55 +) in the Netherlands were followed from 2018/19 to two pandemic time points (June-October 2020 and March-August 2021)...
March 25, 2023: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Jordan Torbay
Donald Ewen Cameron is known as the Canadian psychiatrist behind the Montreal Experiments, a series of brainwashing experiments. As part of a larger Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) project known as MK Ultra, the CIA regarded these experiments as a potential military weapon during the Cold War. However, a closer look into Cameron's research and project MK Ultra shows that these experiments began long before Cameron was contacted by the CIA. Additionally, Cameron received funding for his experiments indirectly, so he was probably never aware the money was from the CIA...
March 25, 2023: History of Psychiatry
Isabel Zbukvic, Shayden Bryce, Joanna Moullin, Kelly Allott
For people living with psychosis, cognitive impairment is common and can have significant impacts for functional recovery, impacting engagement with treatment and quality of life more broadly. There is now strong evidence for the effectiveness of cognition-focused treatments, such as cognitive remediation to improve clinical and functional outcomes for people with psychosis. However, engagement with treatment has been a long-standing issue in mental health care, including for people with psychosis, who often experience difficulties with motivation...
March 25, 2023: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Victoria J Dunsmore, Shevaun D Neupert
Background: Patients with early-stage lung cancer undergo potentially curative therapy, and continue to undergo regularly scheduled CT scans to determine if cancer has reappeared, spread, or stayed the same. This process can be fraught with anxiety, coined 'Scanxiety'. The present study examined how coping and scan-related anxiety fluctuate within-person before one's scan. Method: Twenty five individuals with lung cancer who had received curative intent treatment (M age = 62.33, [SD = 8.10], 96% women, 80% white) participated in the study, which had two parts...
March 25, 2023: Psychological Reports
Julie Faccini, Vrutti Joshi, Pierluigi Graziani, Jonathan Del-Monte
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional cognitions related to sleep play a major role in insomnia but also in nightmares. Moreover, they are closely related to anxiety. To our knowledge, no study has probed the impact of non-constructive ruminations on these dimensions in their harmful interplay with sleep. The aim of this study is to provide new insights into the processes underlying the dysfunctional cognitions-insomnia relationship. METHOD: Four hundred twenty nine French participants completed an anonymous online survey using Qualtrics® software...
March 24, 2023: BMC Psychiatry
Carole Dembek, deMauri Mackie, Kushal Modi, Yingying Zhu, Xiaoli Niu, Todd Grinnell
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual per patient direct healthcare costs, indirect costs, and HRQoL of patients with bipolar disorder by depressive symptom severity and overall compared to the general population in the US. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used self-reported data from the 2020 US National Health and Wellness Survey...
March 24, 2023: Annals of General Psychiatry
Theresa Halms, Martina Strasser, Irina Papazova, Philipp Reicherts, Giulia Zerbini, Svenja Grundey, Esther Täumer, Manuela Ohmer-Kluge, Miriam Kunz, Alkomiet Hasan
BACKGROUND: To support healthcare workers (HCWs) during the increased burden caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, numerous recommendations for action and possible interventions have been developed. However, the actual protective factors, needs and desires of those affected, as well as potential barriers to implementing psychological interventions, have been insufficiently examined. This study addresses this research gap and captures HCWs' experiences and views. METHODS: Medical personnel including nursing staff and physicians were recruited for a qualitative study regarding protective factors as well as barriers to the implementation of support services...
March 24, 2023: BMC Psychiatry
Marion Chirio-Espitalier, Yves-Antoine Harscoët, Mélanie Duval, Julien Jupille, Leïla Moret, Marie Grall-Bronnec
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic patient education (TPE) programs are psycho-educational treatments suggested for all chronic diseases. For several years, these programs have been developing for people living with bipolar disorder. However, to date, only few qualitative studies have explored the experience of caregivers. We wanted to explore the experience of caregivers working in psychiatry as facilitators of a therapeutic education program for people living with bipolar disorder. METHOD: A single-center qualitative study was carried out...
March 24, 2023: BMC Psychiatry
Magenta B Simmons, Sharla Cartner, Roxxanne MacDonald, Sarah Whitson, Alan Bailey, Ellie Brown
BACKGROUND: Peer workers support individuals experiencing mental health challenges by drawing on their shared lived experience. Peer support has become increasingly popular for young people with anxiety and depression, but the evidence base is unclear. This systematic review aimed to understand the effectiveness of peer support for youth depression and anxiety (either primary or comorbid), and to understand in which contexts, for whom, and why peer support works. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted with the Orygen Evidence Finder, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycInfo from January 1980 to July 2022...
March 24, 2023: BMC Psychiatry
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