Erum Mubashir Shariff, Fahd Ali Al Khmais, Saima Nazish, Noman Ishaque, Aishah Ibrahim Al Bakr, Reem S AlOmar, Danah Aljaafari, Mohammad AlShurem, Azra Zafar, Rizwana Shahid, Sari AlSuhaibani, Saeed Al-Jubran, Nehad M Soltan, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Sharydah, Majed Alabdali
Objective: Wake-up stroke (WUS) comprises a significant proportion of ischemic strokes. However, due to unclear onset, these patients are often not considered for reperfusion therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and imaging differences between WUS patients and those with clear-onset stroke, documenting any sex, age, or risk factor predilection for WUS. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study used an ongoing stroke registry to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia within 5 days of symptom onset from April 2018 to March 2020...
November 24, 2022: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Mujeeb U Shad
Objective: To examine the impact of antipsychotic dose adjustments (mainly reduction) on the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic medications (APMs) to facilitate hospital discharge in long-term hospitalized forensic patients with treatment-refractory psychosis. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the medical charts of 22 patients with psychosis who were discharged from January 2020 to August 2020 from a long-term state psychiatric facility after restoration of their competency to stand trial...
November 24, 2022: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Alia N Syed, Raphael J Leo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2022: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Walter Dos Santos Gonçalves, Roseane Dorte Halkjaer Lassen, Aline Sardinha, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho, David S Baldwin, Antonio E Nardi, Jose Carlos Appolinario
Objective: To assess sexual desire in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Methods: Baseline data were analyzed from an ongoing cohort study at an outpatient clinic specializing in TRD treatment in Brazil. The cohort comprised consecutive patients with the diagnosis of TRD who sought treatment at this center between November 2015 and January 2021. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) genital symptoms item (item 14) was used as a proxy to assess sexual desire. Results: Sixty-five participants with TRD were included...
November 22, 2022: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Jakub Onysk, Peggy Seriès
Eating disorders are associated with one of the highest mortality rates among all mental disorders, yet there is very little research about them within the newly emerging and promising field of computational psychiatry. As such, we focus on investigating a previously unexplored, yet core aspect of eating disorders-body image dissatisfaction. We continue a freshly opened debate about model-based learning and its trade-off against model-free learning-a proxy for goal-directed and habitual behaviour. We perform a behavioural study that utilises a two-step decision-making task and a reinforcement learning model to understand the effect of body image dissatisfaction on model-based learning in a population characterised by high scores of disordered eating and negative appearance beliefs, as recruited using Prolific...
2022: PloS One
Jakub Mlynář
This article documents the beginning of the intellectual companionship between the founder of ethnomethodology, Harold Garfinkel, and Edward Rose, who is most often associated with his program of "ethno-inquiries." I present results from archival research focusing on the contacts and collaborations between Rose and Garfinkel in the years 1955-1965. First, I describe the review process for Rose and Felton's paper, submitted to the American Sociological Review in 1955, which Garfinkel reviewed and after Rose's rebuttal recommended for publication...
November 28, 2022: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Jennifer Karlin, Caroline C Hodge
This essay is an ethnographic account of a volunteer, anonymous hotline of physicians and advanced practice providers who offer medical advice and guidance to those who are taking medications on their own to end their pregnancies. Attending to the phenomenology of caring on the Hotline reveals a new form of medical expertise at play, which we call "care with nothing in the way." By operating outside the State's scrutiny of abortion provision, the Hotline offers its volunteers a way to practice abortion care that aligns with their professional and political commitments and that distances them from the direct harm they see caused by the political, financial, and bureaucratic constraints of their clinical work...
November 28, 2022: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Mia P Kösters, Mai Jm Chinapaw, Marieke Zwaanswijk, Marcel F van der Wal, Hans M Koot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2022: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Serkan Turan, Remzi Oğulcan Çıray, Mustafa Tunçtürk, Eren Halac, Berrin Bilgic, Nilay Ağaç, Çağatay Ermiş
In recent years, in addition to its clinical importance, interest in the social-cognitive aspect of internet gaming disorder (IGD) has increased. This study aimed to investigate autistic traits, executive functions, and self-regulation abilities of patients with IGD. Eighty-seven male patients with IGD and eighty-three male healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with IGD as per the diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Healthy controls without any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis were recruited from the community...
November 28, 2022: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Michaela-Elena Friedrich, Gayan Perera, Lisa Leutgeb, David Haardt, Richard Frey, Robert Stewart, Christoph Mueller
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is an acute and fluctuating change in attention and cognition that increases the risk of functional decline, institutionalisation and death in hospitalised patients. After delirium, patients have a significantly higher risk of readmission to hospital. Our aim was to investigate factors associated with hospital readmission in people with delirium. METHODS: We carried out an observational retrospective cohort study using linked mental health care and hospitalisation records from South London...
November 28, 2022: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Steven J Clapcote
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness affecting 0.7% of the world's population. Despite over 50 years of schizophrenia drug identification and development, there have been no fundamental advances in the treatment of schizophrenia since the 1980s. Complex genetic aetiology and elusive pathomechanisms have made it difficult for researchers to develop models that sufficiently reflect pathophysiology to support effective drug discovery. However, recent large-scale, well-powered genomic studies have identified risk genes that represent tractable entry points to decipher disease mechanisms in heterogeneous patient populations and develop targeted treatments...
November 1, 2022: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Olga Osokina, Sanju Silwal, Tatiana Bohdanova, Matthew Hodes, Andre Sourander, Norbert Skokauskas
OBJECTIVE: Very limited evidence is available on the psychological impact of war on adolescents in Ukraine. This study compared war experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression in adolescents living in war-torn and peaceful regions of Ukraine, more than 2 years after Russia first invaded in 2014. METHOD: The cross-sectional study included 2,766 students aged 11-17 years living in the war-torn Donetsk region and in Kirovograd in central Ukraine...
October 29, 2022: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Erin McKay, Kim Cornish, Hannah Kirk
BACKGROUND: Emotional dysregulation, poor emotion recognition and impaired response inhibition have been highlighted as potential contributors to social difficulties in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is currently unknown how these areas of impairment relate to one another; therefore, this study aims to identify the areas of emotion regulation which are associated with social difficulties in adolescents with ADHD, and determine whether emotion regulation mediates the relationship between deficits in response inhibition and emotion recognition, and social functioning, in this cohort...
November 28, 2022: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Anna-Lena Eckert, Yael Gounitski, Matthias Guggenmos, Philipp Sterzer
OBJECTIVES: Predictive processing posits that perception emerges from inferential processes within a hierarchical cortical system. Alterations of these processes may result in psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions. Central to the predictive processing account of psychosis is the notion of aberrant weights attributed to prior information and sensory input. Based on the notion that previous perceptual choices represent a relevant source of prior information, we here asked whether the propensity towards psychotic experiences may be related to altered choice history biases in perceptual decision-making...
November 28, 2022: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jacqueline Yi, Raymond La, B Andi Lee, Anne Saw
Despite appearing positive, the model minority myth (MMM), or the perception that Asian Americans are "problem-free" minorities, maintains unfair racial hierarchies and discredits the pervasiveness of systemic racism faced by Asian Americans and other Black, Indigenous, and people of Color. This study investigated the role of internalized MMM in Asian/Asian Americans' (A/AA) experiences during the syndemic of COVID-19 and our society's racial reckoning. Using a mixed methods approach, we analyzed A/AA college students' open-ended responses to a query about their experiences as A/AA during COVID-19, which resulted in qualitative themes of Personal and Vicarious Discrimination, Vigilance, Safety due to Ethnicity, Safety due to Environment, and No Difference during COVID-19...
November 28, 2022: American Journal of Community Psychology
Weihan Li, Yu Xing, Li Gan, Wenli Peng, Shixiong Deng
Various microorganisms play an important role in daily functions in the body and continue to flourish after death. Our prior investigation using frozen cadavers revealed that the appendix, rather than the transverse colon, was a superior sampling site for intestinal bacteria because the appendiceal flora had higher diversity than that in the transverse colon in the majority of experimental periods after death. We sought to explore out more about whether the appendicular flora is significantly related to postmortem interval (PMI) at natural temperatures following the host's death...
November 22, 2022: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Brennan H Baker, Yoonjung Yoonie Joo, Junghoon Park, Jiook Cha, Andrea A Baccarelli, Jonathan Posner
BACKGROUND: Causal explanations for the association of young motherhood with increased risk for child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain unclear. METHODS: The ABCD Study recruited 11,878 youth from 22 sites across the United States between June 1, 2016 and October 15, 2018. This cross-sectional analysis of 8,514 children aged 8-11 years excluded 2,260 twins/triplets, 265 adopted children, and 839 younger siblings. We examined associations of maternal age with ADHD clinical range diagnoses based on the Child Behavior Checklist and NIH Toolbox Flanker Attention Scores using mixed logistic and linear regression models, respectively...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Hong Wang Fung, Stanley Kam Ki Lam, Wai Tong Chien, Suet Lin Hung, Henry Wai-Hang Ling, Vincent Wan Ping Lee, Edward Ks Wang
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is associated with adulthood depressive symptoms, but very few studies explored potential social and interpersonal mediators behind this association. This study made the first attempt to test the potential mediating effects of interpersonal stress in the associations between childhood betrayal and non-betrayal trauma and depressive symptoms. METHOD: We analyzed data in a sample of English-speaking adults from diverse backgrounds (from 19 different countries, mainly from Western countries) ( N = 468)...
November 28, 2022: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Katharine A Smith, Louise M Howard, Simone N Vigod, Armando D'Agostino, Andrea Cipriani
The COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath have increased pre-existing inequalities and risk factors for mental disorders in general, but perinatal mental disorders are of particular concern. They are already underdiagnosed and undertreated, and this has been magnified by the pandemic. Access to services (both psychiatric and obstetric) has been reduced, and in-person contact has been restricted because of the increased risks. Rates of perinatal anxiety and depressive symptoms have increased. In the face of these challenges, clear guidance in perinatal mental health is needed for patients and clinicians...
November 28, 2022: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Jacqueline Huber, Christopher James Ryan, Rahul Gupta, Alan Rosen, Tad Tietze, Kathryn Drew, Tanya Ahmed, Michaela Skopek
Emergency Psychiatry is evolving. In an environment that lacks a clear evidence base, and where a constellation of factors is driving up Emergency Department presentation rates and lengths of stay, several stakeholders are working towards and clamouring for change. With the goal of collaborating with such parties, we believe Emergency Psychiatrists should position themselves to establish and advocate for best-practice change in culture, research, clinical care and training, and funding in the provision of mental health crisis care...
November 28, 2022: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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