Rohit Nayak, Jeyeon Lee, Siobhan A Chantigian, Mostafa Fatemi, Su-Youne Chang, Azra Alizad
In this study, we explored the feasibility of using functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging to visualize cerebral activation associated with thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), in rodents. The ventrolateral (VL) thalamus was stimulated using electrical pulses of low and high frequencies of 10 and 100 Hz, and multiple voltages (1-7 V) and pulse widths (50-1500 s). The fUS imaging demonstrated DBS-evoked activation of cerebral cortex based on changes of cerebral blood volume, specifically at the primary motor cortex (PMC)...
January 22, 2021: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Xianfeng Wang, Thomas Hielscher, Jan Philipp Radtke, Magdalena Görtz, Viktoria Schütz, Tristan Anselm Kuder, Regula Gnirs, Constantin Schwab, Albrecht Stenzinger, Markus Hohenfellner, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, David Bonekamp
BACKGROUND: Mean ADC has high predictive value for the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer (sPC). Measurement variability is introduced by different scanners, protocols, intra-and inter-patient variation. Internal calibration by ADC ratios can address such fluctuations however can potentially lower the biological value of quantitative ADC determination by being sensitive to deviations in reference tissue signal. PURPOSE: To better understand the predictive value of quantitative ADC measurements in comparison to internal reference ratios when measured in a single scanner, single protocol setup...
January 13, 2021: European Journal of Radiology
R Samain, A Brunel, T Douché, M Fanjul, S Cassant-Sourdy, J Rochotte, J Cros, C Neuzillet, J Raffenne, C Duluc, A Perraud, J Nigri, V Gigoux, I Bieche, M Ponzo, G Carpentier, I Cascone, R Tomasini, H A Schmid, M Mathonnet, R Nicolle, M P Bousquet, Y Martineau, S Pyronnet, C Jean, C Bousquet
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) present high protein synthesis rates. CAFs express the G protein-coupled somatostatin receptor sst1. The sst1 agonist SOM230 blocks CAF pro-tumoral features in vitro and in immunocompromised mice. We have explored here the therapeutic potential of SOM230, and underlying mechanisms, in immunocompetent models of murine PDA mimicking the heavy fibrotic and immunosuppressive stroma observed in patient tumors...
January 19, 2021: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kirschbaum Stephanie, Plachel Fabian, Kerschbaum Maximillian, Gerhard Christian, Thiele Kathi
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of residual or chronic elbow instability is often challenging. Sonography therefore allows a dynamic examination of the elbow joint without any radiation exposure. The purpose of this prospective single-center study was to investigate the application of sonography for the evaluation of ligamentous instabilities of the elbow joint. Therefore, asymptomatic (stable) and acute dislocated (unstable) elbows were examined by sonography. METHODS: A total of 72 elbows in 36 participants (23 females, 13 male, 40 years ± 17 [range, 18-82]) were examined...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Kenneth J Furdella, Shinichi Higuchi, Ali Behrangzade, Kang Kim, William R Wagner, Jonathan P Vande Geest
Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have the ability to be tuned to match a target vessel's compliance, diameter, wall thickness, and thereby prevent compliance mismatch. In this work, TEVG compliance was manipulated by computationally tuning its layered composition or by manipulating a crosslinking agent (genipin). In particular, these three acelluluar TEVGs were compared: a compliance matched graft (CMgel - high gelatin content); a hypocompliant PCL graft (HYPOpcl - high polycaprolactone content); and a hypocompliant genipin graft (HYPOgen - equivalent composition as CMgel but hypocompliant via increased genipin crosslinking)...
January 19, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Ana Luiza P Queiroz, Marisa Rodrigues, Jacek Zeglinski, Abina M Crean, Mafalda Cruz Sarraguça, Sonja Vucen
Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) was used to determine the phase purity of pharmaceutical co-crystals from mid infrared spectra. An in-silico coformer screening was used to choose one of ten potential coformers. This analysis used quantum chemistry simulation to predict which coformers are thermodynamically inclined to form cocrystals with the model drug, hydrochlorothiazide. The coformer chosen was nicotinamide. An experimental solvent screening by ultrasound assisted slurry co-crystallization was performed to evaluate the capacity of the method to determine phase purity...
January 19, 2021: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
David-Dan Nguyen, Surag S Mantri, Kevin C Zorn, Vincent Misraï, Dean Elterman, Naeem Bhojani
OBJECTIVE: To identify key anatomic structures that should be preserved to further avoid postoperative anejaculation after Aquablation. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study design using patient data and operative video logs from Aquablation clinical trials. Cases were sexually active participants with functional baseline ejaculation and postoperative anejaculation. Controls were sexually active participants with functional baseline ejaculation and no postoperative decline in sexual function...
January 19, 2021: Urology
Walid Alrayashi, Stephen Kelleher, James DiNardo, Pete Kovatsis, William Clarke, Paul Hickey, Raymond Park
Point of care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a rapidly evolving diagnostic modality. Equipment to scan various parts of the body with compact handheld devices is readily available. Surface cardiac ultrasound (US) can be used to rapidly assess volume status, cardiac function, and the detection of pericardial fluid. In the case presented here, we describe the use of a novel, hands-free, biplane, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) probe with a design that provided continuous acquisition of cardiac US images during an operative procedure...
January 22, 2021: Paediatric Anaesthesia
David Valentin, Alexandre Presas, Charline Roehr, Elisa Mele, Christoph Biehl, Christian Heiss, Wolfram A Bosbach
We investigate the power densities which are obtainable locally in a vibration bioreactor. These reactor systems are of great relevance for research about oncological or antibacterial therapies. Our focus lies on the local liquid pressure caused by resonance vibration in the fluid contained by the reactor's petri dish. We use for the excitation one piezoelectric patch which offer advantages concerning controllability and reproducibility, when compared to ultrasound. The experimental work is extended by finite element analyses of bioreactor details...
2021: PloS One
Randolph D Glickman
Purpose: Photoacoustics (optoacoustics) is a hybrid technology utilizing light excitation of acoustic responses in targets of interest. It has found numerous applications in biomedicine, including eye research, because of its ability to report both morphological and functional data about the interrogated tissue. This presentation will give an overview of current applications. Methods: Wavelength-dependent absorption of light in a tissue chromophore causes local heating, leading to a thermoelastic expansion-contraction cycle...
January 21, 2021: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Antonio Facciorusso, Babu P Mohan, Stefano Francesco Crinò, Andrew Ofosu, Daryl Ramai, Andrea Lisotti, Saurabh Chandan, Pietro Fusaroli
OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear whether endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) contrast-enhanced fine-needle aspiration (CH-EUS-FNA) determines superior results in comparison to standard EUS-FNA in tissue acquisition of pancreatic masses. Aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the diagnostic outcomes of these two techniques. METHODS: We searched the PubMed/Medline and Embase database through October 2020 and identified 6 studies, of which 2 randomized controlled trials (recruiting 701 patients)...
January 22, 2021: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Howard Eisenberg, Vibhor Krishna, W Jeffrey Elias, G Rees Cosgrove, Dheeraj Gandhi, Charlene E Aldrich, Paul S Fishman
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiofrequency pallidotomy has demonstrated improvement in motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesias. The authors aimed to determine whether or not unilateral pallidotomy with MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) could safely improve Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS; the primary outcome measure) scores over baseline scores in patients with PD. METHODS: Twenty patients with PD and L-dopa responsiveness, asymmetrical motor signs, and motor fluctuations, including dyskinesias, participated in a 1-year multicenter open-label trial of unilateral MRgFUS ablation of the globus pallidus internus...
November 27, 2020: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shai Chordekar, Ronen Perez, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer, Liat Kishon-Rabin
HYPOTHESIS: Hearing via soft tissue stimulation involves an osseous pathway. BACKGROUND: A recent study that measured both hearing thresholds and skull vibrations found that vibratory stimulation of soft tissue led to hearing sensation that correlated with skull vibrations, supporting the hypothesis of an osseous pathway. It is possible, however, that a lower application force of the vibrator on the stimulated soft tissue would not be sufficient to elicit skull vibration suggesting hearing via a nonosseous pathway...
January 20, 2021: Otology & Neurotology
Feitong Wu, Katja Pahkala, Markus Juonala, Johanna Jaakkola, Suvi P Rovio, Terho Lehtimäki, Matthew A Sabin, Antti Jula, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tomi Laitinen, Jorma S A Viikari, Costan G Magnussen, Olli T Raitakari
INTRODUCTION: Identifying early life risk factors remains key to the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver (hereinafter "fatty liver") in adulthood. However, the longitudinal association of childhood passive smoking with adult fatty liver is not studied. We examined the association of childhood and adulthood passive smoking with fatty liver in midlife. METHODS: This was a 31-year prospective cohort study of 1,315 participants. Information on childhood passive smoking (parental smoking) was collected in 1980 (aged 3-18 years) and 1983 and adulthood passive smoking in 2001, 2007, and 2011...
January 21, 2021: American Journal of Gastroenterology
William B Horton, Linda A Jahn, Lee M Hartline, Kevin W Aylor, James T Patrie, Eugene J Barrett
KEY POINTS: Multiple clinical studies report that acute hyperglycemia (induced by mixed meal or oral glucose) decreases arterial vascular function in healthy humans. Feeding, however, impacts autonomic output, blood pressure, and insulin and incretin secretion, which may themselves alter vascular function. No prior studies have examined the effect of acute hyperglycemia on both macro- and microvascular function while controlling plasma insulin concentrations. We compared macrovascular and microvascular functional responses to eu- and hyperglycemia...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Physiology
Ruth Cytter-Kuint, Mordechai Slae, Karina Kvyat, Eyal Shteyer
Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are rare vascular malformations in which abnormal communications are created between the portal veins and the hepatic veins or the inferior vena cava system. Diagnosis is made by prenatal or postpartum ultrasound. Published data regarding presentation, symptoms, and prognosis is scarce. This study aimed to better understand the natural history and the course of the intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Data were collected from children in two medical centers who were diagnosed with congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts on either prenatal or postnatal sonographic screening...
January 22, 2021: European Journal of Pediatrics
Marco Pennesi, Stefano Amoroso, Giulia Pennesi, Manuela Giangreco, Elisabetta Cattaruzzi, Marco Pesce, Marina Busetti, Egidio Barbi, Ester Conversano
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether performing kidney ultrasound (KUS) only in children presenting either a pathogen other than E. coli at their first febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) or experiencing fUTI recurrence would increase missed diagnoses of kidney anomalies. METHODS: Patients aged 2-36 months with fUTI who underwent KUS evaluation from 2 January 2013 to 31 June 2018 were enrolled. Cystourethrography was performed after pathological KUS or recurring fUTIs...
January 22, 2021: Pediatric Nephrology
Leonardo A Sechi, Gianluca Colussi, Luca Bulfone, Gabriele Brosolo, Andrea Da Porto, Maddalena Peghin, Vincenzo Patruno, Carlo Tascini, Cristiana Catena
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and cardiac involvement has been reported during infection. The short-term cardiac outcome in survivors of COVID-19 is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine the heart of patients who survived COVID-19 and to compare the cardiac outcome between patients who recovered from mild-to-moderate or severe illness. METHODS: With use of ECG and echocardiography, we examined the heart of 105 patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19 and were consecutively recruited after hospital discharge while attending follow-up visits...
January 22, 2021: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Richard U Garcia, Kathleen L Meert, Raya Safa, Sanjeev Aggarwal
The inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVCCI) is an ultrasound method used to assess central venous pressure (CVP). Our objective was to evaluate the correlation between IVCCI and CVP in children during the early period following surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). Prospective study performed in a single tertiary care center. Patients  ≤ 18 years old, who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for CHD, were enrolled. Ultrasound images of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were obtained at two time points; the first was within 2 h of arrival to the CICU and the second was 12-18 h from the first measurement...
January 22, 2021: Pediatric Cardiology
Ismail Cem Eray, Uğur Topal
BACKGROUND: Perineal endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue in the perineal region. Early diagnosis and treatment is important due to anal sphincter involvement in almost half of the patients. Endoanal ultrasonography is a reliable technique in the assessment of perineal endometriosis with anal sphincter involvement. This report describes the presentation, clinical investigation, and surgical treatment of a perineal endometriosis case CASE REPORT: 32-year-old female patient presented with cyclic pain and swelling of an old episiotomy scar...
January 20, 2021: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
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