James E Tisdale, Mina K Chung, Kristen B Campbell, Muhammad Hammadah, Jose A Joglar, Jacinthe Leclerc, Bharath Rajagopalan
Many widely used medications may cause or exacerbate a variety of arrhythmias. Numerous antiarrhythmic agents, antimicrobial drugs, psychotropic medications, and methadone, as well as a growing list of drugs from other therapeutic classes (neurological drugs, anticancer agents, and many others), can prolong the QT interval and provoke torsades de pointes. Perhaps less familiar to clinicians is the fact that drugs can also trigger other arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and Brugada syndrome...
September 15, 2020: Circulation
Marc Haufe, Carlo Leget, Marieke Potma, Saskia Teunissen
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving palliative care may benefit greatly when their existential or spiritual strengths are fostered. To date however, there has not been a comprehensive literature review of patient and care professional approaches that are available. AIMS: To describe and synthesise existential or spiritual strength-based approaches within the context of palliative care. METHODS: Literature search of 2436 articles between January 1999 and March 2019 in Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO...
September 14, 2020: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Hannah Solini, Jeffrey Andre
Driving a vehicle requires individuals' awareness of their surroundings to prevent collisions with other vehicles, objects, and pedestrians. While previous research has investigated time-to-arrival (TTA) in real-world and simulated driving situations, there is little information on how pedestrian reflectance and time of day impact TTA. The present study investigated how vehicle velocity, viewing time, pedestrian reflectance, and time of day affected individuals' estimates of TTA. We used recorded driver-perspective footage of a vehicle approaching simulated pedestrians at different velocities during daytime and nighttime...
September 11, 2020: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Theodoros Georgiou, Riasat Islam, Simon Holland, Janet van der Linden, Blaine Price, Paul Mulholland, Allan Perry
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in the death of brain cells. HD symptoms generally start with subtle changes in mood and mental abilities; they then degenerate progressively, ensuing a general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait, ultimately resulting in death. There is currently no cure for HD. Walking cued by an external, usually auditory, rhythm has been shown to steady gait and help with movement coordination in other neurological conditions...
September 14, 2020: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Barbara Bodorkos Friedman, Sana Suri, Cristina Solé-Padullés, Sandra Düzel, Christian A Drevon, William F C Baaré, Athanasia Monika Mowinckel, Enikő Zsoldos, Kathrine Skak Madsen, Rebecca Bruu Carver, Paolo Ghisletta, Mari R Arnesen, David Bartrés Faz, Andreas M Brandmaier, Anders Martin Fjell, Aud Kvalbein, Richard N Henson, Rogier A Kievit, Laura Nawijn, Roland Pochet, Alfons Schnitzler, Kristine B Walhovd, Larysa Zasiekina
Background: Brain health is a multi-faceted concept used to describe brain physiology, cognitive function, mental health and well-being. Diseases of the brain account for one third of the global burden of disease and are becoming more prevalent as populations age. Diet, social interaction as well as physical and cognitive activity are lifestyle factors that can potentially influence facets of brain health. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the population's awareness of brain health and willingness to change lifestyle to maintain a healthy brain...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Frédéric Ehrler, Johan N Siebert
Medication errors are among the most common medical adverse events and an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, affecting millions of people worldwide each year. This problem is especially acute in paediatric settings, where most drugs given intravenously to children are provided in vials prepared for the adult population. This leads to the need for a specific, individual, weight-based drug-dose calculation and preparation for each child, which varies widely across age groups. This error-prone process places children at a high risk for life-threatening medication errors, particularly in stressful and critical situations, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
August 24, 2020: Swiss Medical Weekly
Meng Wang, Lixia Zhu, Hua Xiong, Jiaming Wang, Zhou Li, Liu Yang, Lei Jin, Qingsong Xi
The aim of this study is to evaluate fertility preservation (FP) popularization in China among female cancer patients in terms of awareness of fertility, knowledge about FP, and attitudes toward FP. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among female cancer patients in Tongji Hospital in China from March 2019 to July 2019. The 29 fertility-related issues, which were presented in either five-point Likert scales or "yes or no", in this questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristic and disease-related situation, awareness of fertility, knowledge about FP, and attitudes toward FP...
September 12, 2020: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
David I Lewis
Despite the development of powerful molecular biological techniques and technologies, studies involving research animals remain a key component of discovery biology, and in the discovery and development of new medicines. In 1959, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) were developed to provide a framework to ensure animal research was undertaken as humanely as possible. Sixty years since their inception, the extent to which the 3Rs have been adopted and implemented by the global scientific and medical research communities has unfortunately been slow and patchy...
November 27, 2019: Emerging Topics in Life Sciences
M A Motalib Hossain, Syed Muhammad Kamal Uddin, Sharmin Sultana, Yasmin Abdul Wahab, Suresh Sagadevan, Mohd Rafie Johan, Md Eaqub Ali
Meat and meat products are widely consumed worldwide as a source of high-quality proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and necessary minerals. The acceptability of Halal and Kosher meat products relies not only on the species origin but also on the manner of slaughtering of animals. Both Islam and Judaism have their own dietary laws in their holy books regarding acceptance and forbiddance of dietary items particularly meat and meat products. They also include many strictures to follow for ritual cleanliness of foods...
September 11, 2020: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Natalie V J Aldhouse, Helen Kitchen, Sarah Knight, Jake Macey, Fabio P Nunes, Yves Dutronc, Natasha Mesinkovska, Justin M Ko, Brett A King, Kathleen W Wyrwich
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is characterized by hair loss that can affect the scalp and body. This study describes the psychosocial burden of AA. METHODS: Participants diagnosed with AA who had experienced ≥50% scalp hair loss according to the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) were identified by clinicians. A semi-structured interview guide, developed with expert clinician input, included open-ended questions to explore patients' experiences of living with AA...
September 11, 2020: Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Anastasia Tezari, Pavlos Paschalis, Helen Mavromichalaki, Pantelis Karaiskos, Norma Crosby, Mark Dierckxsens
The study of the particle showers created inside the Earth's atmosphere due to interactions of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin is of great importance for the determination of the radiation impact on technological and biological systems. DYASTIMA is a Geant4-based software application that simulates the evolution of secondary particle cascades inside the atmosphere of Earth. DYASTIMA-R is a new feature especially created for assessing the exposure of flight-personnel and frequent flyers to cosmic radiation by performing calculations of radiobiological quantities, such as dose and equivalent dose rates for several air-flight scenarios...
September 9, 2020: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Elena Cherepanov
When a complex emergency (CE) overwhelms infrastructure, the ability of healthcare providers to work efficiently under duress saves lives. Objectives and method: The author uses her experience of providing mental health supports to humanitarian aid workers and the pieces of training conducted for internal medicine practitioners to offer guidance on how to manage severe job-related stresses during the response to COVID-19 pandemic. This work reminds responders about their professional mission and purpose, but its extreme physical and mental demands can take a toll on their well-being and health...
September 10, 2020: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Paitoon Pimdee
A new area of research and intervention has arisen, namely the psychology of sustainability. Therefore, this study investigates how an undergraduate student teacher's psychological traits, their psychological state, their situation, and environmental education affect their sustainable consumption behavior. Two sample groups were selected from ten Thai university education programs' science ( n = 400) and social science ( n = 400) colleges nationwide. The research instrument used randomized multistage questionnaires for each group, which used a five-level scale to evaluate each student teacher's item agreement...
August 2020: Heliyon
Brendan Cropley, Lee Baldock, Sheldon Hanton, Daniel F Gucciardi, Alan McKay, Rich Neil, Tom Williams
Hardiness has been identified as a key personal characteristic that may moderate the ill-effects of stress on health and performance. However, little is known about how hardiness might be developed, particularly in sport coaches. To systematically address this gap, we present two linked studies. First, interviews were conducted with pre-determined high-hardy, elite coaches ( n = 13) to explore how they had developed their hardy dispositions through the associated attitudinal sub-components of control, commitment, and challenge...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Iris Ribitsch, Pedro M Baptista, Anna Lange-Consiglio, Luca Melotti, Marco Patruno, Florien Jenner, Eva Schnabl-Feichter, Luke C Dutton, David J Connolly, Frank G van Steenbeek, Jayesh Dudhia, Louis C Penning
Rapid developments in Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering has witnessed an increasing drive toward clinical translation of breakthrough technologies. However, the progression of promising preclinical data to achieve successful clinical market authorisation remains a bottleneck. One hurdle for progress to the clinic is the transition from small animal research to advanced preclinical studies in large animals to test safety and efficacy of products. Notwithstanding this, to draw meaningful and reliable conclusions from animal experiments it is critical that the species and disease model of choice is relevant to answer the research question as well as the clinical problem...
2020: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Siew Chung Cheah, Ing Ping Tang, Tong Jong Haw Matthew, Mong How Ooi, Salina Husain
Spontaneous unilateral orbital haematoma in children is not common and very rarely caused by scurvy. Scurvy is a clinical syndrome with a spectrum of clinical manifestations due to severe prolonged vitamin C deficiency leading to impairment of collagen synthesis over skin, bone, teeth and blood vessels. This paper presents a unique case of a 7- year-old girl with learning difficulty who presented with spontaneous right proptosis due to scurvy. Imaging studies suggestive of intra- orbital extraconal haemorrhage...
October 2020: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Amy Booth, Ridwaan A Omed, Mergan Naidoo
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an unprecedented burden on our healthcare systems and workers. Healthcare workers are at risk of contracting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 given their proximity to positive cases, often with a lack of personal protective equipment. The South African Department of Health requires that all employees be screened daily for symptoms and potential persons under investigation identified timeously. This report aims to assesses the efficacy of daily self-screening tools in detecting and managing potential staff cases of SARS-CoV-2...
September 1, 2020: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Yvonne K Parry, Shelly Abbott, Matthew David Ankers, Lyall Willis, Teresa O'Brien
The Beyond Kayaking program is a free, outdoor activity-based, parenting intervention delivered across multiple sessions to vulnerable families in regional South Australia. Current literature on outdoor activity-based interventions have demonstrated improvements in family communication, problem-solving, bonding and trust. However, these studies are mostly based on single session interventions from the United States. This study explored the subjectively reported benefits of a multi-session intervention delivered in an Australian setting including how families perceived their relationships had changed (if at all) through participation in the program...
September 7, 2020: Health & Social Care in the Community
Valerie O'Keeffe, Carolyn Boyd, Craig Phillips, Michelle Oppert
Nursing is often hazardous work. Promoting safety and care requires nurses to apply knowledge, skill and creativity in patient encounters. Nurses' risk exposures are well documented, with research on student nurses' safety more limited. We studied final-year nursing students' risk perceptions using questionnaire-based vignettes involving four patient presentations on patient aggression, manipulating patient and resource risk factors. We found student nurses were most likely to ask for help and wait when managing high-risk patient aggression scenarios...
September 1, 2020: Applied Ergonomics
Sahil Sharma, Teodor Grantcharov, James J Jung
BACKGROUND: Device-related interruptions in the operating room (OR) may create stress among health care providers and delays. Although non-technical skills (NTS) of the OR teams, such as situational awareness and communication, are expected to influence device-related interruptions, empirical data on this relationship are limited. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 144 consecutive elective laparoscopic operations during 13 months. A data capture system called the OR Black Box® was used to characterize device-related interruptions, NTS, and distractions...
September 4, 2020: Surgical Endoscopy
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