Marieke Pronk, Jana Besser, Cas Smits, Vanessa Feenstra-Kikken, Hans van Beek, Conny Polleunis, Sophia E Kramer
Purpose An alarming two thirds of adults aged 50 years or over with hearing impairment who could benefit from hearing aids do not own any, leaving these adults with no support to self-manage their hearing problems. In the HEAR-aware project, it is hypothesized that self-management can be facilitated via a smartphone app if its educational content is tailored to a person's dynamic stage of readiness to take action on their hearing (stage of change) and to a person's dynamic acoustical situations (as measured via a wearable microphone) and associated challenges (as captured via ecological momentary assessment)...
September 18, 2020: American Journal of Audiology
Patrick M Plehiers, Anne H Chappelle, Mark W Spence
The anonymized data of an epidemiology study on the incidence of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-related occupational asthma in three US-based TDI production facilities have been reanalyzed to identify where to best focus exposure reduction efforts in industrial practice in order to reduce the risk of sensitization to TDI. In Part I, it was demonstrated that cumulative exposure is not a good indicator of the risk of developing TDI-related occupational asthma. In this Part II, an alternative model was developed based on net exposure parameters (i...
September 18, 2020: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Roman Ayele, Kirstin A Manges, Chelsea Leonard, Marcie Lee, Emily Galenbeck, Mithu Molla, Cari Levy, Robert E Burke
INTRODUCTION: Improving hospital discharge processes and reducing adverse outcomes after hospital discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are gaining national recognition. However, little is known about how the social-contextual factors of hospitals and their affiliated SNFs may influence the discharge process and drive variations in patient outcomes. We sought to categorize contextual drivers that vary between high- and low-performing hospitals in older adult transition from hospitals to SNFs...
September 14, 2020: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Alexander Marquardt, Christina Trepkowski, Tom David Eibich, Jens Maiero, Ernst Kruijff, Johannes Schoning
Current augmented reality displays still have a very limited field of view compared to the human vision. In order to localize out-of-view objects, researchers have predominantly explored visual guidance approaches to visualize information in the limited (in-view) screen space. Unfortunately, visual conflicts like cluttering or occlusion of information often arise, which can lead to search performance issues and a decreased awareness about the physical environment. In this paper, we compare an innovative non-visual guidance approach based on audio-tactile cues with the state-of-the-art visual guidance technique EyeSee360 for localizing out-of-view objects in augmented reality displays with limited field of view...
September 17, 2020: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Macarena Garcia, Nikolay Lipskiy, James Tyson, Roniqua Watkins, E Stein Esser, Teresa Kinley
OBJECTIVE: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak progressed rapidly from a public health (PH) emergency of international concern (World Health Organization [WHO], 30 January 2020) to a pandemic (WHO, 11 March 2020). The declaration of a national emergency in the United States (13 March 2020) necessitated the addition and modification of terminology related to COVID-19 and development of the disease's case definition. During this period, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and standard development organizations released guidance on data standards for reporting COVID-19 clinical encounters, laboratory results, cause-of-death certifications, and other surveillance processes for COVID-19 PH emergency operations...
September 17, 2020: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Thao Mai Phuong Tran, Kirsten Maertens, Ha Thi Thu Hoang, Pierre Van Damme, Elke Leuridan, Niel Hens
Serological results obtained in a single laboratory from twin-studies on maternal immunisation, in Vietnam and Belgium offer the opportunity to compare antibody kinetics in infants before and after infant vaccination in the presence of vaccine-induced maternal antibodies. Nonlinear mixed-effects models (NLMMs) making use of a hypothesised dynamic evolution that captures the change in antibody titres over time, were employed to model anti-PT and anti-Prn antibody dynamics. Our proposed modelling approach provided useful insight into understanding the differences in the infants' antibody kinetics in both countries since NLMMs offer the possibility of pooling all data in one analysis and incorporate relevant covariates of interest...
September 12, 2020: Vaccine
Junjie Chen, Shuai Li, Donghai Liu, Xueping Li
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with a variety of sensors, are being used to provide actionable information to augment first responders' situational awareness in disaster areas for urban search and rescue (SaR) operations. However, existing aerial robots are unable to sense the occluded spaces in collapsed structures, and voids buried in disaster rubble that may contain victims. In this study, we developed a framework, AiRobSim, to simulate an aerial robot to acquire both aboveground and underground information for post-disaster SaR...
September 13, 2020: Sensors
Eliasz Kańtoch, Anna Kańtoch
The emerging wearable medical devices open up new opportunities for the provision of health services and promise to accelerate the development of novel telemedical services. The main objective of this study was to investigate the desirable features and applications of telemedical services for the Polish older adults delivered by wearable medical devices. The questionnaire study was conducted among 146 adult volunteers in two cohorts (C.1: <65 years vs. C.2: ≥65 years). The analysis was based on qualitative research and descriptive statistics...
September 11, 2020: Sensors
James E Tisdale, Mina K Chung, Kristen B Campbell, Muhammad Hammadah, Jose A Joglar, Jacinthe Leclerc, Bharath Rajagopalan
Many widely used medications may cause or exacerbate a variety of arrhythmias. Numerous antiarrhythmic agents, antimicrobial drugs, psychotropic medications, and methadone, as well as a growing list of drugs from other therapeutic classes (neurological drugs, anticancer agents, and many others), can prolong the QT interval and provoke torsades de pointes. Perhaps less familiar to clinicians is the fact that drugs can also trigger other arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and Brugada syndrome...
September 15, 2020: Circulation
Marc Haufe, Carlo Leget, Marieke Potma, Saskia Teunissen
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving palliative care may benefit greatly when their existential or spiritual strengths are fostered. To date however, there has not been a comprehensive literature review of patient and care professional approaches that are available. AIMS: To describe and synthesise existential or spiritual strength-based approaches within the context of palliative care. METHODS: Literature search of 2436 articles between January 1999 and March 2019 in Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO...
September 14, 2020: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Hannah Solini, Jeffrey Andre
Driving a vehicle requires individuals' awareness of their surroundings to prevent collisions with other vehicles, objects, and pedestrians. While previous research has investigated time-to-arrival (TTA) in real-world and simulated driving situations, there is little information on how pedestrian reflectance and time of day impact TTA. The present study investigated how vehicle velocity, viewing time, pedestrian reflectance, and time of day affected individuals' estimates of TTA. We used recorded driver-perspective footage of a vehicle approaching simulated pedestrians at different velocities during daytime and nighttime...
September 11, 2020: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Theodoros Georgiou, Riasat Islam, Simon Holland, Janet van der Linden, Blaine Price, Paul Mulholland, Allan Perry
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in the death of brain cells. HD symptoms generally start with subtle changes in mood and mental abilities; they then degenerate progressively, ensuing a general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait, ultimately resulting in death. There is currently no cure for HD. Walking cued by an external, usually auditory, rhythm has been shown to steady gait and help with movement coordination in other neurological conditions...
September 14, 2020: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Barbara Bodorkos Friedman, Sana Suri, Cristina Solé-Padullés, Sandra Düzel, Christian A Drevon, William F C Baaré, Athanasia Monika Mowinckel, Enikő Zsoldos, Kathrine Skak Madsen, Rebecca Bruu Carver, Paolo Ghisletta, Mari R Arnesen, David Bartrés Faz, Andreas M Brandmaier, Anders Martin Fjell, Aud Kvalbein, Richard N Henson, Rogier A Kievit, Laura Nawijn, Roland Pochet, Alfons Schnitzler, Kristine B Walhovd, Larysa Zasiekina
Background: Brain health is a multi-faceted concept used to describe brain physiology, cognitive function, mental health and well-being. Diseases of the brain account for one third of the global burden of disease and are becoming more prevalent as populations age. Diet, social interaction as well as physical and cognitive activity are lifestyle factors that can potentially influence facets of brain health. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the population's awareness of brain health and willingness to change lifestyle to maintain a healthy brain...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Frédéric Ehrler, Johan N Siebert
Medication errors are among the most common medical adverse events and an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, affecting millions of people worldwide each year. This problem is especially acute in paediatric settings, where most drugs given intravenously to children are provided in vials prepared for the adult population. This leads to the need for a specific, individual, weight-based drug-dose calculation and preparation for each child, which varies widely across age groups. This error-prone process places children at a high risk for life-threatening medication errors, particularly in stressful and critical situations, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
August 24, 2020: Swiss Medical Weekly
Meng Wang, Lixia Zhu, Hua Xiong, Jiaming Wang, Zhou Li, Liu Yang, Lei Jin, Qingsong Xi
The aim of this study is to evaluate fertility preservation (FP) popularization in China among female cancer patients in terms of awareness of fertility, knowledge about FP, and attitudes toward FP. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among female cancer patients in Tongji Hospital in China from March 2019 to July 2019. The 29 fertility-related issues, which were presented in either five-point Likert scales or "yes or no", in this questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristic and disease-related situation, awareness of fertility, knowledge about FP, and attitudes toward FP...
September 12, 2020: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
David I Lewis
Despite the development of powerful molecular biological techniques and technologies, studies involving research animals remain a key component of discovery biology, and in the discovery and development of new medicines. In 1959, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) were developed to provide a framework to ensure animal research was undertaken as humanely as possible. Sixty years since their inception, the extent to which the 3Rs have been adopted and implemented by the global scientific and medical research communities has unfortunately been slow and patchy...
November 27, 2019: Emerging Topics in Life Sciences
M A Motalib Hossain, Syed Muhammad Kamal Uddin, Sharmin Sultana, Yasmin Abdul Wahab, Suresh Sagadevan, Mohd Rafie Johan, Md Eaqub Ali
Meat and meat products are widely consumed worldwide as a source of high-quality proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and necessary minerals. The acceptability of Halal and Kosher meat products relies not only on the species origin but also on the manner of slaughtering of animals. Both Islam and Judaism have their own dietary laws in their holy books regarding acceptance and forbiddance of dietary items particularly meat and meat products. They also include many strictures to follow for ritual cleanliness of foods...
September 11, 2020: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Natalie V J Aldhouse, Helen Kitchen, Sarah Knight, Jake Macey, Fabio P Nunes, Yves Dutronc, Natasha Mesinkovska, Justin M Ko, Brett A King, Kathleen W Wyrwich
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is characterized by hair loss that can affect the scalp and body. This study describes the psychosocial burden of AA. METHODS: Participants diagnosed with AA who had experienced ≥50% scalp hair loss according to the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) were identified by clinicians. A semi-structured interview guide, developed with expert clinician input, included open-ended questions to explore patients' experiences of living with AA...
September 11, 2020: Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Anastasia Tezari, Pavlos Paschalis, Helen Mavromichalaki, Pantelis Karaiskos, Norma Crosby, Mark Dierckxsens
The study of the particle showers created inside the Earth's atmosphere due to interactions of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin is of great importance for the determination of the radiation impact on technological and biological systems. DYASTIMA is a Geant4-based software application that simulates the evolution of secondary particle cascades inside the atmosphere of Earth. DYASTIMA-R is a new feature especially created for assessing the exposure of flight-personnel and frequent flyers to cosmic radiation by performing calculations of radiobiological quantities, such as dose and equivalent dose rates for several air-flight scenarios...
September 9, 2020: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Elena Cherepanov
When a complex emergency (CE) overwhelms infrastructure, the ability of healthcare providers to work efficiently under duress saves lives. Objectives and method: The author uses her experience of providing mental health supports to humanitarian aid workers and the pieces of training conducted for internal medicine practitioners to offer guidance on how to manage severe job-related stresses during the response to COVID-19 pandemic. This work reminds responders about their professional mission and purpose, but its extreme physical and mental demands can take a toll on their well-being and health...
September 10, 2020: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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