Eyachew Misganew Tegaw, Ghazale Geraily, Seyed Mohsen Etesami, Hossein Ghanbari, Somayeh Gholami, Mehdi Shojaei, Mostafa Farzin, Getu Ferenji Tadesse
Using the 50 kV INTRABEAM® IORT system after breast-conserving surgery: tumor recurrence and organs at risk (OARs), such as the lung and heart, long-term complications remain the challenging problems for breast cancer patients. So, the objective of this study was to address these two problems with the help of high atomic number nanoparticles (NPs). A Monte Carlo (MC) Simulation type EGSnrc C++ class library (egspp) with its Easy particle propagation (Epp) user code was used. The simulation was validated against the measured depth dose data found in our previous study [1] using the gamma index and passed 2%/2 mm acceptance criteria in the gamma analysis...
April 9, 2021: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
Vivek Dhiman, Ankit Balhara, Saranjit Singh, Shristy Tiwari, Samanthula Gananadhamu, M V N Kumar Talluri
Nintedanib is an anti-cancer drug used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and non-small cell lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore its degradation chemistry under various stress conditions recommended in ICH guidelines Q1A R(2). The drug was subjected to hydrolytic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative (H2 O2 , AIBN, FeCl3 and FeSO4 ) stress conditions. The degradation products formed in stressed solutions were successfully separated on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH C18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1...
March 24, 2021: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Eveline A van de Stadt, Maqsood Yaqub, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Alex J Poot, Robert C Schuit, Sharon Remmelzwaal, Lothar A Schwarte, Egbert F Smit, Harry Hendrikse, Idris Bahce
OBJECTIVES: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring common (exon19del, L858R) and uncommon (e.g. G719X, L861Q) activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are best treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as the first-generation EGFR TKI erlotinib, second-generation afatinib or third-generation osimertinib. However, identifying these patients through biopsy is not always possible. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate whether 18 F-afatinib PET/CT could identify patients with common and uncommon EGFR mutations...
March 26, 2021: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Priya Wadgaonkar, Fei Chen
Arsenic exposure in contaminated drinking water is a global health issue, as more than 200 million people are affected globally. Arsenic has been known to cause skin, liver, lung, bladder and prostate cancers. Accordingly, it has been categorized as a group I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Various natural and anthropogenic activities lead to the release of arsenic in the environment, contaminating air, water and food sources. Traditionally, genetic mutations have been the center of cancer research...
April 6, 2021: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Liang Zhou, Qijiu Chen, Jianyong Zhang
Background: Fatigue is a frequent debilitating symptom among patients with lung cancer. The effect of exercise on fatigue remains to be quantified. Objective: This review aimed to examine the effect of exercise on fatigue by synthesizing findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases from inception to March 2020...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Andrea Billé, James Buxton, Alessandro Viviano, David Gammon, Lukacs Veres, Tom Routledge, Karen Harrison-Phipps, Allison Dixon, Marco A Minetto
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether preoperative levels of physical activity predict the incidence of post-operative complications following anatomical lung resection. METHODS: Levels of physical activity (daily steps) were measured for 15 consecutive days using pedometers in 90 consecutive patients (prior to admission). Outcomes measured were cardiac and respiratory complications, length of stay, and 30-day re-admission rate. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients' datasets were analysed (12 patients were excluded due to non-compliance)...
January 2021: Integrative Cancer Therapies
David Peprah, Andrew Plumb, Alison Corr, Janice Muckian, Kathryn Smith, Antoni Sergot, Jia Ying Kuah, James Stephenson
OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to cancellation and deferral of many cancer investigations, including CT colonography (CTC). In May 2020, BSGAR and SCoR issued guidelines outlining steps for conduct of CTC in the early recovery phase. We evaluated the implementation of these in four English hospital trusts. METHODS: Ethical permission was not required for this multicentre service evaluation. We identified patients undergoing CTC over a 2-month period from May to July 2020 at four Trusts...
April 9, 2021: British Journal of Radiology
Sai Kiran Sharma, Pierre Adumeau, Outi Keinänen, Vikram Sisodiya, Hetal Sarvaiya, Robert Tchelepi, Joshua A Korsen, Jacob Pourat, Kimberly J Edwards, Ashwin Ragupathi, Omar Hamdy, Laura R Saunders, Charles M Rudin, John T Poirier, Jason S Lewis, Brian M Zeglis
Delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of small cell lung cancer, neuroendocrine prostate cancer, and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant glioma. In the clinic, DLL3-targeted 89 Zr-immunoPET has the potential to aid in the assessment of disease burden and facilitate the selection of patients suitable for therapies that target the antigen. The overwhelming majority of 89 Zr-labeled radioimmunoconjugates are synthesized via the random conjugation of desferrioxamine (DFO) to lysine residues within the immunoglobulin...
April 9, 2021: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Martyn D F Gilmore, Carl G Rowbottom
PURPOSE: Explore the feasibility of adopting failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for risk assessment of a high volume clinical service at a UK radiotherapy center. Compare hypothetical failure modes to locally reported incidents. METHOD: An FMEA for a lung radiotherapy service was conducted at a hospital that treats ~ 350 lung cancer patients annually with radical radiotherapy. A multidisciplinary team of seven people was identified including a nominated facilitator...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Hajime Watanabe, Sakura Tomita, Yoichiro Ikoma, Mitsutomo Kohno, Ryota Masuda, Masayuki Iwazaki
The incidence of synchronous multiple primary lung cancers has increased in recent years, however, there are few reports of cases involving small cell carcinoma. A 72-year-old man was referred to our department because of an abnormal shadow on chest radiography. He was receiving treatment for pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, rheumatoid arthritis, and prostate cancer. Computed tomography revealed two lung nodules in the left lower lobe. A definitive diagnosis was unable to be made based on transbronchial lung biopsy...
April 20, 2021: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Quentin Binet, Céline Goffinet, Frédérique-Estelle Etogo-Asse, Leila Shaza
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, formerly known as marantic endocarditis, is a very rare complication of advanced malignancy and other hypercoagulable states in which sterile, fibrin vegetations develop on heart valve leaflets. The most common malignancies associated with this entity are lung, pancreatic and gastric cancer. It has also been described as a presentation of COVID-19, which is known to be frequently complicated with coagulopathy and thromboembolic events. We report the case of a 62 year-old female patient newly diagnosed with stage IV gastric cancer and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, presenting with confusion and homonymous hemianopsia in the setting of multiple acute ischemic strokes complicating a nonbacterial thrombotic mitral endocarditis...
April 9, 2021: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Lin-Ling Jin, Zhen-Zhen Wu, Yan-Li Wang, Dong-Sheng Chen, Si Li, Mingzhe Xiao, Xin Zhao
Compound epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are defined as double or multiple independent mutations of the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), in which an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitizing mutation is identified together with a mutation of unclarified clinical significance. Lung adenocarcinoma with compound EGFR mutation shows poor clinical response to EGFR-TKIs. Kobayashi et al. reported a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient whose tumor had EGFR exon21 L858R/A871G mutation presented rapid disease progression to erlotinib...
April 9, 2021: Investigational New Drugs
Frederick R Kates, Ryan Romero, Daniel Jones, Jacqueline Egelfeld, Santanu Datta
INTRODUCTION: To align patient preferences and understanding with harm-benefit perception, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) mandates that providers engage patients in a collaborative shared decision-making (SDM) visit before LDCT. Nonetheless, patients and providers often turn instead to the web for help making decisions. Several web-based lung cancer risk calculators (LCRCs) provide risk predictions and screening recommendations; however, the accuracy, consistency, and subsequent user interpretation of these predictions between LCRCs is ambiguous...
April 9, 2021: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Nianli Liu, Aoxing Chen, Ning Feng, Xiaochen Liu, Longzhen Zhang
The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B And B' (SNRPB) is a core component of spliceosome and plays a key role in pre-mRNA splicing. Emerging evidence suggests that it involves in the development of several types of cancer. Our previous study has demonstrated SNRPB is highly expressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and functions as an oncogene. However, whether SNRPB contributes to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC is still unknown. In this study, we found that SNRPB negatively regulates cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells...
April 9, 2021: Medical Oncology
Fear Vs, Forbes Ca, Neeve Sa, Fisher Sa, Chee J, Waithman J, Ma Sk, Lake Ra, Nowak Ak, Creaney J, Brown Md, Saunders C, Robinson Bws
Surgical resection of cancer remains the frontline therapy for millions of patients annually, but post-operative recurrence is common, with a relapse rate of around 45% for non-small cell lung cancer. The tumour draining lymph nodes (dLN) are resected at the time of surgery for staging purposes, and this cannot be a null event for patient survival and future response to immune checkpoint blockade treatment. This project investigates cancer surgery, lymphadenectomy, onset of metastatic disease, and response to immunotherapy in a novel model that closely reflects the clinical setting...
April 9, 2021: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Anthony Bozzo, Jiawen Deng, Umaima Abbas, Richa Bhasin, Marisa Deodat, Sajid Wariach, Stephanie Sanger, Daniel Axelrod, Karim Masrouha, Robert Turcotte, David Wilson, Michelle Ghert
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Metastatic bone disease occurs in 20% to 40% of patients with lung cancer, and these patients often present with pain or skeletal-related events (SREs) that are associated with decreased survival. Bone-modifying agents such as denosumab or bisphosphonates are routinely used; however, to our knowledge, there has been no quantitative synthesis of randomized controlled trial data to determine the most effective pharmacologic treatment of metastatic bone disease because of lung cancer...
April 7, 2021: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Daniel Cabral, Cristina Rodrigues, Carolina Torres, Wilson Teixeira, Sérgio Livraghi, Mariana Antunes, Francisco Félix
Pancoast tumours are defined as tumours arising from the upper lobe and invading the thoracic inlet,representing less than 5% of all lung cancers. Clinical features depend on the involved structures. For many years invasion of the spine was considered unresectable and fatal. Due to the progress in spine surgery, en bloc resection including the spine is nowadays possible. We report the first case of a successful en bloc vertebral resection of a Pancoast tumour in a 66 year-old male, with a squamous cell carcinoma, treated at our department in a multidisciplinary setting, after induction chemoradiotherapy...
April 8, 2021: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Lingna Wang, Yingjie Yu, Dengshuai Wei, Lingpu Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guanxin Zhang, Dan Ding, Haihua Xiao, Deqing Zhang
A systematic combination strategy is proposed for overcoming cisplatin resistance using near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered hyperthermia. A new photothermal polymer DAP-F is complexed with a reduction-sensitive amphiphilic polymer P1 to form F-NPs with photothermal effect. Subsequently, to build the final nanosystem F-Pt-NPs, F-NPs are combined with Pt-NPs, which are obtained by encapsulating a Pt(IV) prodrug with P1. Mild hyperthermia (43 °C), generated from F-Pt-NPs induced by an 808 nm NIR laser, have various effects such as: i) enhancing the cellular membrane permeability to promote the uptake of drugs; ii) activating cisplatin by accelerating the glutathione consumption; iii) increasing the Pt-DNA adducts formation and possibly the formation of a portion of irreparable Pt-DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting the repair of DNA...
April 8, 2021: Advanced Materials
Zhipeng Yan, Yang Ming, Ching-Lung Lai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of lenvatinib in the treatment of Radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma. BACKGROUND: Thyroid carcinoma is one of the top ten carcinoma worldwide. Clinically, thyroid cancers are managed with resections and adjuvant therapy with radioiodine. However, radioiodine is not effective for radioiodine-refractory (RR) thyroid carcinoma in some patients. Lenvatinib is a multi-kinase inhibitor for treatment of RR-thyroid carcinoma. Several clinical trials showed its efficacy in prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
April 9, 2021: Clinical Endocrinology
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Osama M Ahmed, Sanaa M Abd El-Twab, Mohamed Y Zaky, Lamiaa N Bakry
The study examines the prophylactic action of artichoke leaf hydroethanolic extract (ALE) and artichoke flower head hydroethanolic extract (AFE) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/acetylaminofluorene (AAF)-induced lung cancer in Wistar rats. To chemically induce lung cancer, DEN was injected intraperitoneally twice a week for a fortnight at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), followed by oral supplementation of AAF four times a week for 3 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. The DEN/AAF-administered rats were orally supplemented with ALE or AFE at a dose of 100 mg/kg b...
April 9, 2021: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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