Takashi Higuchi, Norihiko Sugisawa, Jun Ho Park, Yu Sun, Guangwei Zhu, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Shinji Miwa, Kentaro Igarashi, Michael Bouvet, Shree Ram Singh, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Robert M Hoffman
Bone is one of the most frequent metastatic sites in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Osimertinib, with and without bevacizumab (BV), has been investigated on advanced NSCLC patients. However, the efficacy of those drugs on bone metastasis of NSCLC has not been investigated. The human NSCLC cell line H1975, expressing red fluorescent protein (H1975-RFP), was orthotopically injected to the tibia of nude mice. The established mouse models were randomized into four treatment groups of nine mice: Control; BV alone; osimertinib alone; osimertinib and BV combination...
July 10, 2020: Translational Oncology
Greta Rait, Laura Horsfall
INTRODUCTION: There are reports that lung cancer in non-smokers (LCINS) is increasing in the United Kingdom (UK) and other high-income countries but evidence from large-scale cohort studies to support this claim is limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) IQVIA™ Medical Research Data, we identified a cohort of 3,679,831 people from the UK self-reporting to their primary care physician as never or non-smokers. We estimated age-adjusted incidence rates for recorded lung cancer before (1998-2007) and after (2008-2018) the introduction of smoke-free legislation using multivariable Poisson regression...
July 10, 2020: Cancer Epidemiology
Jyoti Tanwar, Samriddhi Arora, Rajender K Motiani
Ion channels in particular Calcium (Ca2+ ) channels play a critical role in physiology by regulating plethora of cellular processes ranging from cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation and programmed cell death. One such physiologically important and highly Ca2+ selective channel family is Orai channels consisting of three homologs Orai1, Orai2 and Orai3. Orai channels are responsible for Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane in response to decrease in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores...
June 26, 2020: Cell Calcium
Zhenxue Tang, Lixia Ji, Mei Han, Jing Xie, Feng Zhong, Xiaoyi Zhang, Quanzhong Su, Zhihong Yang, Zhantao Liu, Hui Gao, Guohui Jiang
AIMS: Pyroptosis is a newly discovered inflammatory programmed cell death. This study was to investigate whether pyroptosis is involved in the anti-colorectal cancer process of FL118. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship between NLRP3 and caspase-1 and colorectal cancer was analyzed by bioinformatics. MTT was used to detect the cell viability. Cell membrane integrity was examined by LDH release. Wound healing assay and Transwell were used to detect the cell migration and invasion respectively...
July 10, 2020: Life Sciences
Shuaibin Lian, Zixiao Liu, Yongjie Zhou, Jiantao Guo, Ke Gong, Tianwen Wang
Cancers constitute a severe threat to human health. Elucidating the association between the expression patterns of the paralogous genes and transcription factors (TF) and the progression of cancers by comprehensively investigating the expression patterns and co-expression networks will contribute to the in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of cancers. Here, we identified the paralogous gene pairs and systematically analyzed the expression patterns of these paralogs and the known TFs to elucidate the associations with Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging information across ten cancers...
July 10, 2020: Genomics
Asim Bikas Das
The present study investigates the role of network topology in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) development. Analysis of sex- and stage-specific whole-genome expression data revealed that co-expressed and highly connected prognostic genes common to all cancer stages form a small-world network in each stage of LUAD. These small-world networks are present within stage-specific scale-free networks, conserved across the cancer stages, and linked to cancer-specific events. The presence of small-world networks across the cancer stages presents a synchronized system in the disordered environment of cancer, resulting in the evolution of malignancy...
July 10, 2020: Genomics
Masahiro Hiraoka, Takashi Mizowaki, Yukinori Matsuo, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Dirk Verellen
A gimbaled-head radiotherapy device was developed by industry-academic collaborations, with a concept of robust structures whilst maintaining high flexibilities, and its clinical application started in 2008. The unique structures with multi-image guidance functions initiated 2 new treatment modalities. One is dynamic tumor tracking radiotherapy with real time monitoring (DTTRM), which enables 4-D radiotherapy without prolongation of radiotherapy treatment time. This treatment has become clinically feasible for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung cancers and liver tumors, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic cancers...
July 10, 2020: Radiotherapy and Oncology
Naiqun Wang, Xiaolian Zhang, Feilong Wang, Min Zhang, Bo Sun, Weihua Yin, Shaorong Deng, Ying Wan, Wei Lu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are the most common carcinogenic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, while invasive tissue biopsy has certain inherent defects. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched on January 4, 2020, using the keywords "liquid biopsy," "EGFR," and "NSCLC." The pooled sensitivity and specificity of EGFR mutations in paired tissue and blood were calculated. The accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve...
July 13, 2020: SLAS Technology
ZhiYuan Chen, Hui Gao, Zhuo Dong, YanNan Shen, ZhiCheng Wang, Wei Wei, JunXuan Yi, Rui Wang, Ning Wu, ShunZi Jin
Purpose: Radiation has been shown to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells, and TGF-β/Smad and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways play an important role in the EMT. In this study, we investigated the effects of neuropilin-1 (NRP1) on radiation-induced TGF-β/Smad and non-classical Smad signaling pathways in lung cancer cells, as well as the effects of NRP1 on invasion and migration. Materials and Methods: Changes in the expression levels of EMT markers (β-catenin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin) and related transcription factors (Twist and ZEB1) in stably transfected cells were detected by western blotting and qPCR, and changes were assessed by TGF-β/Smad and non-classical Smad signaling...
July 13, 2020: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Asma Nazar, Ghulam Abbas, Syed Sikander Azam
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) performs function in cellular activities together with other signaling pathways. Hsp90 is evolutionary conserved and universally articulated as a human cancer-causing agent involves in lung cancer, breast cancer followed by colon and rectum cancer. It emerged as an effective drug candidate and inhibition may affect several signaling pathways associated with cancer spreading. Therefore, in-silico approaches molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculations were applied to have insights into the inhibition mechanism against Hsp90 to identify new cancer therapeutic drugs...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Yuanyuan Lei, Nan Sun, Guochao Zhang, Chengming Liu, Zhiliang Lu, Jianbing Huang, Chaoqi Zhang, Ruochuan Zang, Yun Che, Shuangshuang Mao, Lingling Fang, Xinfeng Wang, Sufei Zheng, Jie He
BACKGROUND: Many tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) are shed into the blood and turn into circulating TECs (CTECs). Rare circulating non-hematologic aneuploid cells contain CTCs and CTECs, which are biologically and functionally different from each other. CD31 is one of the most representative endothelial cell (EC) markers, yet CD31 alone is not sufficient to detect malignant CTECs due to the existence of abundant normal ECs in circulation. Aneuploidy of chromosome 8 (CEP8) is an important criterion for the identification of malignant cells...
July 13, 2020: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Qixing Mao, Weidong Ma, Zhongqiu Wang, Yingkuan Liang, Te Zhang, Yao Yang, Wenjie Xia, Feng Jiang, Jianzhong Hu, Lin Xu
Recent evidence demonstrates the existence of diversified microbiota in the lung. However, the effect of lung carcinogenesis on the flora in lung microenvironment has yet not been well investigated. In this study, we surveyed the microbial composition and diversity in lung tumor and paired adjacent normal tissues obtained from 55 lung cancer patients to test whether any specific tumor-associated microbial features in lung microenvironment can be identified. Compared with non-malignant adjacent tissues, the tumor samples showed significantly lower community richness (α diversity), but no significant difference in overall microbiome dissimilarity (β diversity)...
July 13, 2020: Carcinogenesis
Diego Cortinovis, Federica Migliorati, Fabio Pagni
The next generation sequencing (NGS) applied to liquid biopsy is useful to determine the biomolecular identity of the prevalent neoplastic cell population. The sensitivity of ALK detection in liquid biopsy is comparable to that showed by the gold standard tissue biopsy and its usefulness is demonstrated in clinical practice by the similar efficacy of ALK TKIs to obtain prolonged disease control. ALK ve+ lung cancer today presents a large number of therapeutic opportunities leading to a long/term survival. Correct evaluation of ALK translocation is a paramount in order to guide the correct therapeutic strategy as illustrated in the present clinical case...
July 2020: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Gopal S Tandel, Antonella Balestrieri, Tanay Jujaray, Narender N Khanna, Luca Saba, Jasjit S Suri
MOTIVATION: Brain or central nervous system cancer is the tenth leading cause of death in men and women. Even though brain tumour is not considered as the primary cause of mortality worldwide, 40% of other types of cancer (such as lung or breast cancers) are transformed into brain tumours due to metastasis. Although the biopsy is considered as the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, it poses several challenges such as low sensitivity/specificity, risk during the biopsy procedure, and relatively long waiting times for the biopsy results...
July 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Rahul Paul, Matthew Schabath, Robert Gillies, Lawrence Hall, Dmitry Goldgof
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been utilized for to distinguish between benign lung nodules and those that will become malignant. The objective of this study was to use an ensemble of CNNs to predict which baseline nodules would be diagnosed as lung cancer in a second follow up screening after more than one year. Low-dose helical computed tomography images and data were utilized from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). The malignant nodules and nodule positive controls were divided into training and test cohorts...
July 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Paul J Hesketh, Mark G Kris, Ethan Basch, Kari Bohlke, Sally Y Barbour, Rebecca Anne Clark-Snow, Michael A Danso, Kristopher Dennis, L Lee Dupuis, Stacie B Dusetzina, Cathy Eng, Petra C Feyer, Karin Jordan, Kimberly Noonan, Dee Sparacio, Gary H Lyman
PURPOSE: To update the guideline to include new anticancer agents, antiemetics, and antiemetic regimens and to provide recommendations on the use of dexamethasone as a prophylactic antiemetic in patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). METHODS: ASCO convened an Expert Panel and updated the systematic review to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published between June 1, 2016, and January 24, 2020. To address the dexamethasone and CPI question, we conducted a systematic review of RCTs that evaluated the addition of a CPI to chemotherapy...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Min Xue, Weijun Hong, Jun Jiang, Fang Zhao, Xiwen Gao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are closely associated with the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, it is still unclear whether circular RNA circ-LDLRAD3 participated in the regulation of NSCLC progression. In this study, we found that circ-LDLRAD3 was high-expressed and miR-137 was low-expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells compared to their normal counterparts, which showed negative correlations in NSCLC tissues. Further experiments validated that miR-137 could be sponged and inhibited by circ-LDLRAD3 in NSCLC cells...
July 13, 2020: RNA Biology
Maria V Deligiorgi, Dimitrios T Trafalis
INTRODUCTION: Repurposing denosumab in lung cancer therapeutics capitalizes on its well-established role in preventing the skeletal related events (SREs) and its emerging, yet elusive, bone-independent role, assigned to inhibit the contribution of RANKL to cancer initiation and progression. AREAS COVERED: The present review presents the available preclinical and clinical data indicating that denosumab may provide survival benefit to lung cancer patients beyond the counteraction of SREs...
July 13, 2020: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Yanming Liu, Yue Cao, Shan He, Wencan Cai
BACKGROUND: Detection of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen (SCCA) contributes to the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of SCC. However, the results obtained from different detection systems are not always consistent. METHODS: In this study, we compared the performance of electrochemiluminescence assays (ECLIAs) and flow fluorescence immunoassays (FFIAs) (e.g. using a Luminex 200/xMap) in the detection of SCCA for the diagnosis of SCC of the lung (LSCC), cervix (CSCC), and head and neck (HANSCC) in serum samples from 154 healthy individuals and 236 patients with SCC...
July 1, 2020: Clinical Laboratory
Kenan C Ceylan, Arkin Acar, Şeyda Örs Kaya
BACKGROUND: Sleeve resection is a widely performed type of operation in the surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is now used even in central tumor surgeries of the lung with the increasing technology and experience. Sleeve resection cases performed through VATS in our clinic in recent years were presented with demographic, surgical, pathologic, and survey characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients who underwent sleeve resection with VATS in our clinic between November 2015 and August 2019 were included in the study...
July 10, 2020: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
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