Fuad Ameen, Saleh AlNAdhari, Ali A Al-Homaidan
Multifunctional drugs have shown great promise in biomedicine. Organisms with antimicrobial and anticancer activity in combination with antioxidant activity need further research. The Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coasts were randomly sampled to find fungi with multifunctional activity. One hundred strains (98 fungi and 2 lichenized forms) were isolated from 15 locations. One-third of the isolates inhibited clinical bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi) and fungal pathogens (Talaromycets marneffei, Malassezia globose, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus) and four cancer cell lines (Hep G2 liver, A-549 lung, A-431skin, MCF 7 breast cancer)...
2022: PloS One
Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Andrea Teng, Jeremy Krebs, Jonathan Koea, Chunhuan Lao, Ross Lawrenson, Ineke Meredith, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Diana Sarfati
The number of new cases of cancer is increasing each year, and rates of diabetes mellitus are also increasing dramatically over time. It is not an unusual occurrence for an individual to have both cancer and diabetes at the same time, given they are both individually common, and that one condition can increase the risk of the other. In this manuscript, we use national-level diabetes (Virtual Diabetes Register) and cancer (New Zealand Cancer Registry) data on nearly five million individuals over 44 million person-years of follow-up to examine the occurrence of cancer amongst a national prevalent cohort of patients with diabetes...
2022: PloS One
Tian Chen, Mengqiu Tang, Xiaoyu Xu, Gaofeng Liang, Zhenfei Xiang, Yi Lu, Chen Wang, Weiyu Shen
BACKGROUND: According to the randomized multicenter phase II trial (ALTER1202), anlotinib has been approved as a third-line therapy for advanced small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Some studies showed the predictive function of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in the different cancers treated with anti-vascular targeting drugs. However, none of the studies showed the roles of NLR, PLR, and LMR in SCLC patients receiving anlotinib...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Yahiya Y Syed
Futibatinib (Lytgobi® ) is an oral, covalently binding, irreversible inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)1-4 that is being developed by Taiho Oncology and Taiho Pharmaceutical for the treatment of cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, urothelial cancer, oesophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Futibatinib was approved in the USA on 30 September 2022 for the treatment of adult patients with previously treated, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma harbouring FGFR2 gene fusions or other rearrangements...
November 28, 2022: Drugs
Anqi Liu, Noreen Siddiqi, Umit Tapan, Kimberley S Mak, Katrina A Steiling, Kei Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the revised US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria reduced inequities in lung cancer screening (LCS) eligibility among a racially diverse sample of patients with lung cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of adults diagnosed with primary lung malignancies at an urban safety net hospital. For all patients and exclusively ever-smokers, χ2 tests were used to evaluate differences in LCS eligibility among socio-demographic variables using the 2013 and 2021 USPSTF criteria...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jyoti Malhotra, Edward S Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) exert their antitumor effect through selective killing of cancer cells and induction of host anti-tumor immunity. This review aims to summarize the recent and current trials with OVs for the treatment of lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Several OVs have been developed for the treatment of lung cancer including adenovirus, coxsackievirus B3, reovirus, and vaccinia virus and trials have demonstrated a safe toxicity profile. Early-phase trials in lung cancer with OVs have reported antiviral immune responses and evidence of clinical benefit...
November 28, 2022: Current Oncology Reports
Loganathan Chandramani Priya Dharshini, Rajan Radha Rasmi, Chinnadurai Kathirvelan, Kalavathi Murugan Kumar, K M Saradhadevi, Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel
Cancer progression is closely linked to oxidative stress (OS) inflammation. OS is caused by an imbalance between the amount of reactive oxygen species produced and antioxidants present in the body. Excess ROS either oxidizes biomolecules or activates the signaling cascade, resulting in inflammation. Immune cells secrete cytokines and chemokines when inflammation is activated. These signaling molecules attract a wide range of immune cells to the site of infection or oxidative stress. Similarly, increased ROS production by immune cells at the inflamed site causes oxidative stress in the affected area...
November 28, 2022: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Santhosh Rajakumar, Shalini Jamespaulraj, Yashesh Shah, Priyatharcini Kejamurthy, M K Jaganathan, Gokulnath Mahalingam, K T Ramya Devi
Lung cancer is the most devastating cause of death among all cancers worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80% of all the lung cancer cases. Beyond common genetic research and epigenomic studies, the extraordinary investigations of non-coding RNAs have provided insights into the molecular basis of cancer. Existing evidence from various cancer models highlights that the regulation of non-coding RNAs is crucial and that their deregulation may be a common reason for the development and progression of cancer, and competition of cancer therapeutics...
November 28, 2022: Molecular Biology Reports
Xiaohui Yang, Junling Yang, Xiaoxia Gu, Yuhua Tao, Hongjuan Ji, Xian Miao, Shuijie Shen, Haiyang Zang
(-)-Guaiol is a sesquiterpenoid found in many traditional Chinese medicines with potent antitumor activity. However, its therapeutic effect and mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, (-)-Guaiol was found to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) in NSCLC in vitro. Using (-)-Guaiol in vivo, we found that (-)-Guaiol could suppress tumor growth, increase dendritic cell activation, and enhance T-cell infiltration. Vaccination experiments suggest that cellular immunoprophylaxis after (-)-Guaiol intervention can suppress tumor growth...
November 28, 2022: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Jonas Peter Ehrsam, Clemens Aigner
BACKGROUND: The incidence of a large number of diseases relevant to thoracic surgery increases with age; however, old age is still frequently considered a contraindication per se for curative interventions and extensive surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: Overview of the current relevant literature, derivation of recommendations for patient selection as well as preoperative, perioperative and postoperative optimization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the current study situation...
November 28, 2022: Chirurgie (Heidelb)
Alexandre Poirier, Michel L Tremblay
Dendritic cells have been at the forefront of cancer-immunotherapy research for over 2 decades. They elicited that attention by having an unprecedented capacity to mount T cells responses against tumors. However, the clinical use of DC-based vaccination against established malignancies has resulted in limited clinical benefits. Several factors are responsible for limiting the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy, such as the harmful influence of the tumor microenvironment on DCs activity. New insights into the inner process of DC-mediated T cell activation have supported the development of new strategies that potentiate DCs-based therapies...
November 28, 2022: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Jordi Remon, Lizza E L Hendriks, Giannis Mountzios, Rosario García-Campelo, Stephanie P L Saw, Dipesh Uprety, Gonzalo Recondo, Guillermo Villacampa, Martin Reck
Targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment and improved the outcome for oncogene-driven NSCLC and an increasing number of oncogenic driver therapies have become available. For MET-dysregulated NSCLC (especially MET exon 14 skipping mutations and MET-amplifications, which is one of the most common bypass mechanisms of resistance in oncogene-addicted NSCLC), several anti-MET-targeted therapies have been approved recently (MET exon 14 skipping mutation) and multiple others are in development. In this narrative review, we summarize the role of MET as an oncogenic driver in NSCLC, discuss the different testing methods for exon 14 skipping mutations, gene amplification, and protein overexpression, and review the existing data and ongoing clinical trials regarding targeted therapies in MET-altered NSCLC...
October 29, 2022: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Takeo Nakada, Yusuke Takahashi, Noriaki Sakakura, Katsuhiro Masago, Hiroshi Iwata, Takashi Ohtsuka, Hiroaki Kuroda
OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively analyzed the surgical prognosis of pathological stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who after complete resection underwent low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) or conventional CT as postoperative surveillance. METHODS: We investigated 416 patients who underwent lobectomy or segmentectomy between January 2013 and December 2016. We compared the prognosis between the LDCT and conventional CT groups using propensity score-matched analysis...
November 28, 2022: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Wensheng Jiang, Huanqing Cheng, Lili Yu, Jie Zhang, Yihui Wang, Yun Liang, Feng Lou, Huina Wang, Shanbo Cao
BACKGROUND: TP53 mutations are frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Different categories of TP53 mutations may be associated with survival in advanced NSCLC, but their effect on prognosis is diverse. To date, a comprehensive comparison of the relationship between different classes of TP53 alterations and survival in advanced NSCLC has rarely been performed. Moreover, the prognostic significance of a novel approach called the evolutionary action of TP53 (EAp53) in advanced NSCLC is unclear...
November 28, 2022: Cancer Medicine
Aftab Ahmad, Saikat Das, Vipin Kharade, Manish Gupta, V P Pandey, Anju K V, Ilamparithi Balasubramanian, Rajesh K Pasricha
Introduction Recently, the one-week hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen (26 Gy in 5 fractions) for adjuvant breast radiotherapy has been shown to be non-inferior to other hypofractionated regimens (15-16 fractions). The aim of the present dosimetric study is to compare Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for a one-week hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen (26 Gy in 5 fractions) for adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Methods A total of 30 patients with histologically proven invasive carcinoma of the breast after breast conservation surgery (BCS) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM) were considered for in silico planning study...
November 2022: Curēus
Tarana Arman, Peter S Nelson
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy affecting men worldwide. While the vast majority of newly diagnosed prostate cancers are categorized as adenocarcinomas, a spectrum of uncommon tumor types occur including those with small cell and neuroendocrine cell features. Benign neuroendocrine cells exist in the normal prostate microenvironment, and these cells may give rise to primary neuroendocrine carcinomas. However, the more common development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer is observed after therapeutics designed to repress the signaling program regulated by the androgen receptor which is active in the majority of localized and metastatic adenocarcinomas...
2022: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Elina Gashimova, Azamat Temerdashev, Vladimir Porkhanov, Igor Polyakov, Dmitry Perunov, Ekaterina Dmitrieva
Development of simple, fast, and non-invasive tests for lung cancer diagnostics is essential for clinical practice. In this paper, exhaled breath and skin were studied as potential objects to diagnose lung cancer. The influence of age on the performance of diagnostic models was studied. Gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze the exhaled breath of 110 lung cancer patients and 212 healthy individuals of various ages. Peak area ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were used for data analysis instead of VOC peak areas...
November 22, 2022: ACS Omega
Xiao Yuan, Bi Huang, Ruiyu Wang, Hongtao Tie, Suxin Luo
PURPOSE: The advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) is a novel inflammatory and nutritional index that exerts prognostic value in various types of cancer. A previous study demonstrated that ALI at discharge could predict the prognosis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, the long-term prognostic value of ALI on admission in elderly heart failure (HF) inpatients remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected HF inpatients over 65-year-old who were hospitalized in our cardiology center during the whole year of 2015...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Krishnappa B Badiger, Santosh Y Khatavi, Kantharaju Kamanna
In the present study, the MCRs of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and ethyl acetoacetate with various substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes reacted to produce 3-methyl-4-(hetero)aryl methylene isoxazole-5(4 H )-ones derivatives catalyzed by an agro-waste-based solvent medium in an oil bath at 60 °C with stirring. The developed protocol features several advantages, such as being benign and eco-friendly, efficient, avoiding the use of hazardous solvents, and inexpensive, while giving isoxazole derivatives in an 86-92% yield...
November 16, 2022: RSC medicinal chemistry
Yana Zhang, Zhuoyu Gu, Jiajia Wan, Xiaohan Lou, Shuangqing Liu, Yuan Wang, Yangyang Bian, Fei Wang, Zhenzhen Li, Zhihai Qin
Rationale: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main components in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and facilitate lung cancer progression. Studies have reported that metabolic reprogramming can regulate the function of CAFs, especially abnormal lipid metabolism. Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store neutral lipids and have a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the synthesis and functions of LDs in lung CAFs. Methods: TetO-EGFRL858R ; CCSP-rtTA transgenic mouse model was used to establish a spontaneous pulmonary tumor model and investigate the accumulation of LDs in CAFs...
2022: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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