Fan Liang, Chen Zhang, Hua Guo, San-Hui Gao, Fu-Ying Yang, Guang-Biao Zhou, Gui-Zhen Wang
Butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated gene that encodes a membrane protein with 2 extracellular immunoglobulin domains and an intracellular B30.2 domain, is critical in T-cell activation and adaptive immune response. Here, the expression of BTN3A1 in cancers was analyzed in 8 databases comprising 86,733 patients of 33 cancers and the findings were validated in patient samples and cell models. We showed that BTN3A1 was expressed in most cancers, and its expression level was strongly correlated with clinical outcome of 13 cancers...
July 22, 2021: FEBS Open Bio
Henning Peter Schmitz, Moritz Rabe, Guillaume Janssens, David Bondesson, Simon Rit, Katia Parodi, Claus Belka, Julien Dinkel, Christopher Kurz, Florian Kamp, Guillaume Landry
Proton therapy treatment for lungs remains challenging as images enabling the detection of inter- and intra-fractional motion, which could be used for proton dose adaptation, are not readily available. 4D computed tomography (4DCT) provides high image quality but is rarely available in-room, while in-room 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) suffers from image quality limitations stemming mostly from scatter detection. This study investigated the feasibility of using virtual 4D computed tomography (4DvCT) as a prior for a phase-per-phase scatter correction algorithm yielding a 4D scatter corrected cone beam computed tomography image (4DCBCTcor ), which can be used for proton dose calculation...
July 22, 2021: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Evan Michael Porter, Nicholas K Myziuk, Thomas J Quinn, Daniela Lozano, Avery B Peterson, Duyen M Quach, Zaid A Siddiqui, Thomas M Guerrero
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate the performance of a deep learning model to generate synthetic pulmonary perfusion images from clinical 4DCT images for patients undergoing radiotherapy for lung cancer. METHODS: A clinical data set of 58 pre- and post-radiotherapy 99mTc-labelled MAA-SPECT perfusion studies (32 patients) each with contemporaneous 4DCT studies was collected. Using the inhale and exhale phases of the 4DCT, a 3D-Residual Network was trained to create synthetic perfusion images utilizing the MAA-SPECT as ground truth...
July 22, 2021: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Dorothy A Rhoades, John Farley, Stephen M Schwartz, Kimberly M Malloy, Wenyu Wang, Lyle G Best, Ying Zhang, Tauqeer Ali, Fawn Yeh, Everett R Rhoades, Elisa Lee, Barbara V Howard
BACKGROUND: Cancer mortality among American Indian (AI) people varies widely, but factors associated with cancer mortality are infrequently assessed. METHODS: Cancer deaths were identified from death certificate data for 3516 participants of the Strong Heart Study, a population-based cohort study of AI adults ages 45-74 years in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Cancer mortality was calculated by age, sex and region. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent associations between baseline factors in 1989 and cancer death by 2010...
July 19, 2021: Cancer Epidemiology
Alexander I Spira, Huakang Tu, Shivani Aggarwal, Hil Hsu, Gillis Carrigan, Xuena Wang, Gataree Ngarmchamnanrith, Victoria Chia, Jhanelle E Gray
INTRODUCTION: The KRAS p.G12C mutation, prevalent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has only recently become a viable target. Here we present results of the largest retrospective observational study analyzing KRAS p.G12C in patients with advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults with advanced NSCLC (All Advanced NSCLC cohort) and subcohorts with different mutation profiles (KRAS p.G12C [G12C] and KRAS/EGFR/ALK wild type [Triple WT]) diagnosed January 2011 to March 2019 were selected from a US clinico-genomic database; treatment-related characteristics, molecular profiles, real-world overall (rwOS) and progression-free survival (rwPFS) were analyzed...
May 25, 2021: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Kayla Jaye, Chun Guang Li, Deep Jyoti Bhuyan
The association between human gut microbiota and cancers has been an evolving field of biomedical research in recent years. The gut microbiota is composed of the microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal system that interact with the host to regulate behaviours and biochemical processes within the gut. This symbiotic physiological interaction between the gut and the microbiota plays a significant role in the modulation of gut homeostasis, in which perturbations to the microbiota, also known as dysbiosis can lead to the onset of diseases, including cancer...
July 19, 2021: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Jin Young Yoon, Min Seob Kwak, Ha Il Kim, Jae Myung Cha
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A better understanding of seasonal variations in cancer diagnosis may be the first step toward optimal resource distribution in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). This study aimed to identify seasonal variations in the diagnosis of the top 10 major cancers in Korea. STUDY: We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study in participants aged ≥ 20 years between 2012 and 2016 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment-National Patient Sample database, previously converted to a common data model...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
En Wang, Masatsune Shibutani, Hisashi Nagahara, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Yasuhito Iseki, Yuki Okazaki, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Hiroaki Tanaka, Kiyoshi Maeda, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been reported to reflect the anti-tumor immune status. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that intratumoral fibrosis is important as a factor affecting the infiltration of TILs. This study investigated the organ specificities of TIL infiltration and intratumoral fibrosis in primary colorectal cancer and distant metastases, as well as the relationship between the distribution of TILs and intratumoral fibrosis. METHODS: Patients who underwent resection of primary tumors or distant metastases for colorectal cancer with distant metastases were enrolled...
2021: PloS One
Yaling Hui, Ting Tang, Jing Wang, Huanhuan Zhao, Hong-Ying Yang, Junmin Xi, Baoxin Zhang, Jianguo Fang, Kun Gao, Yueting Wu
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a fatal and refractory disease worldwide. Novel therapeutic developments based on fundamental investigations of anticancer mechanisms underlie substantial foundations to win the fight against cancer diseases. In this study, we isolated a natural product fusaricide (FCD) from an endophytic fungus of Lycium barbarum , identified as Epicoccum sp . For the first time, we discovered that FCD potently inhibited proliferation in a variety of human NSCLC cell lines, with relatively less toxicity to normal cells...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Natural Products
Haibin Si, Dexin Du, Wenbo Li, Qingling Li, Jingxin Li, Dongbo Zhao, Lu Li, Bo Tang
Timely and effective diagnosis is of great significance for improving the survival rate of lung cancer patients. Although histopathology is the main diagnostic tool among the existing methods for lung cancer diagnosis, it is not suitable for high-risk groups, early lung cancer patients, patients with advanced-stage disease, and other situations wherein tumor tissues cannot be obtained. In view of this, we proposed an innovative lung cancer diagnosis method employing for the first time a microfluidic technology for high-efficiency isolation and high-throughput single-cell analysis of exfoliated tumor cells (ETCs) in sputum...
July 22, 2021: Analytical Chemistry
Christopher T Aquina, Adan Z Becerra, Fergal J Fleming, Jordan M Cloyd, Allan Tsung, Timothy M Pawlik, Aslam Ejaz
BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence supports regionalization of complex oncologic surgery to high-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals. However, whether there is heterogeneity of outcomes among high-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals remains unknown. METHODS: Patients who underwent esophagectomy, lung resection, pancreatectomy, or proctectomy for primary cancer were identified within the Medicare 100% Standard Analytic File (2013-2017). Mixed-effects analyses assessed the association between Leapfrog annual volume standards for surgeons (esophagectomy ≥7, lung resection ≥15, pancreatectomy ≥10, proctectomy ≥6) and hospitals (esophagectomy ≥20, lung resection ≥40, pancreatectomy ≥20, proctectomy ≥16) relative to postoperative complications and 90-day mortality...
July 22, 2021: Cancer
Nan Qiao, Ralph Insinga, Thomas Burke, Gilberto Lopes
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab monotherapy and nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab are US FDA-approved first-line (1L) regimens for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without epidermal growth factor receptor or anaplastic lymphoma kinase genomic aberrations and with a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) of ≥ 1%. A published matching-adjusted indirect comparison found the two regimens yield comparable overall and progression-free survival outcomes...
July 22, 2021: PharmacoEconomics Open
Yahiya Y Syed
Amivantamab (amivantamab-vmjw; Rybrevant™), a bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET), is being developed by Janssen Biotech for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On 21 May 2021, amivantamab received its first approval in the USA for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC harbouring EGFR Exon 20 insertion mutations whose disease has progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy...
July 22, 2021: Drugs
Mariona Riudavets, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Luís Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Pilar Diz Taín, Ainhoa Hernández, Miriam Alonso, Remei Blanco, Elisa Gálvez, Amelia Insa, Xabier Mielgo, Teresa Morán, Santiago Ponce, Diana Roa, José Miguel Sánchez, Margarita Majem
BACKGROUND: Anti-angiogenic agents are reported to exert clinical activity in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the outcomes of the combination of docetaxel plus nintedanib in refractory NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 19 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC who had progressed to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and platinum-based chemotherapy receiving docetaxel and nintedanib at 14 Spanish institutions from January 2013 to December 2019...
July 22, 2021: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Hubertus Hautzel, Yazan Alnajdawi, Wolfgang P Fendler, Christoph Rischpler, Kaid Darwiche, Wilfried E Eberhardt, Lale Umutlu, Dirk Theegarten, Martin Stuschke, Martin Schuler, Clemens Aigner, Ken Herrmann, Till Plönes
BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) is a rare entity occurring in less than 4% of all lung cancers. Due to its low differentiation and high glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression, LCNEC demonstrates an increased glucose turnover. Thus, PET/CT with 2-[18 F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose ([18 F]FDG) is suitable for LCNEC staging. Surgery with curative intent is the treatment of choice in early stage LCNEC. Prerequisite for this is correct lymph node staging. This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of [18 F]FDG PET/CT validated by histopathology following surgical resection or mediastinoscopy...
July 22, 2021: EJNMMI Research
Jacqui Frowen, Karla Gough, Rhys Hughes, Allison Drosdowsky, Mary Duffy, Nicole Kiss, Jo Phipps-Nelson, Shankar Siva, Benjamin Solomon, David Ball
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and impact of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) before and after chemoradiation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage SCLC. Patients received either 40, 45 or 50 Gy, commencing the second cycle of chemotherapy. Outcomes included: videofluoroscopy (VFSS) to investigate aspiration, swallowing function and oesophageal motility; oral intake limitations; patient-reported dysphagia; and patient-reported dysphonia...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Chien-Chang Kao, Yi-Ching Cheng, Ming-Hsin Yang, Tai-Lung Cha, Guang-Huan Sun, Chi-Tang Ho, Ying-Chao Lin, Hao-Kuang Wang, Sheng-Tang Wu, Tzong-Der Way
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and arising from the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. Resistance to cytotoxic therapies is associated with overexpression of oncogenic proteins; including HER2, and Akt in chemotherapy resistance of bladder cancer. Various studies demonstrated that curcuminoids, the most important active phenolic compounds of turmeric (Curcuma longa), have anti-tumor activities in a wide range of human malignant cell lines. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin) could repress the expression of HER2 in HER2-overexpressing bladder cancer cells...
July 22, 2021: Environmental Toxicology
Jianqin Jiang, Lei Cui, Yong Xiao, Xiao Zhou, Yigang Fu, Gaofeng Xu, Weiwei Shao, Wang Chen, Su Hu, Chunhong Hu, Shaowei Hao
BACKGROUND: T1 mapping can potentially quantitatively assess the intrinsic properties of tumors. B1 correction can reduce the magnetic field inhomogeneity. PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of B1 -corrected T1 mapping for lung cancer and the ability to identify pathological types. STUDY TYPE: Prospective reproducibility study. POPULATION: Sixty lung cancer patients (22 with emphysema) with a total of 60 lesions (adenocarcinoma [n = 23], squamous cell carcinoma [n = 19], and small-cell lung cancer [SCLC] [n = 18])...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Zhijun Li, Haisheng Chen, Jing Shi, Feng Wang, Yuguo Liu
A simple, efficient and stable detection method of two-dimensional liquid chromatography(2D-LC) was established and validated for the determination of anlotinib in human plasma. The 2D-LC system comprises a first-dimensional column (LC1), an intermediate transfer column and a second-dimensional column (LC2). With simple protein precipitation treatment, the samples were processed directly for detecting. The analysis cycle time was completed within 9.50 min. The calibration curve was linear over the 5.00-320...
July 22, 2021: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Omar Barukab, Farman Ali, Sher Afzal Khan
DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) perform an influential role in diverse biological activities like DNA replication, slicing, repair, and transcription. Some DBPs are indispensable for understanding many types of human cancers (i.e. lung, breast, and liver cancer) and chronic diseases (i.e. AIDS/HIV, asthma), while other kinds are involved in antibiotics, steroids, and anti-inflammatory drugs designing. These crucial processes are closely related to DBPs types. DBPs are categorized into single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (ssDBPs) and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins (dsDBPs)...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
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