Agnes Ducoulombier, Joel Guigay, Marie-Christine Etienne-Grimaldi, Esma Saada-Bouzid
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Clinical data on salvage chemotherapy used after checkpoints inhibitors in oncology are reviewed, with a special focus on recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence is emerging about high response and/or disease control rates associated with salvage chemotherapy after immunotherapy failure in advanced solid tumours. This phenomenon is mainly reported in retrospective studies for "hot tumours" such as R/M HNSCC, melanoma, lung, urothelial or gastric cancers, but also in haematological malignancies...
March 15, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Afrodita Marcu, Fiona McGregor, Bernadette Egan, Kate Hill, Tim Cook, Anne Arber
BACKGROUND: Rare diseases where prognosis is poor provide limited scope for patient and public involvement (PPI). One such disease is mesothelioma, a cancer of the lung pleura or of the peritoneum caused by exposure to asbestos, where PPI is poorly documented. We undertook to explore how PPI could be facilitated in mesothelioma research. METHODS: An online survey with mesothelioma researchers (n = 23) assessed the perceived benefits and challenges of PPI in mesothelioma...
March 25, 2023: Research Involvement and Engagement
Yiming Zhao, Junqi Yi, Juanjuan Xiang, Wei Jia, Anqi Chen, Liyu Chen, Leliang Zheng, Wen Zhou, Minghua Wu, Zheng Yu, Jingqun Tang
As the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) progresses, the relationship between microbes and human health has been receiving increasing attention. A growing number of reports support the correlation between cancer and microbes. However, most studies have focused on bacteria, rather than fungal communities. In this study, we studied the alteration in lung mycobiome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using metagenomic sequencing and qPCR. The higher fungal diversity and more complex network were observed in the patients with NSCLC...
March 25, 2023: BMC Microbiology
Nikitha Naomi Dsouza, Varun Alampady, Krishnaprasad Baby, Swastika Maity, Bharath Harohalli Byregowda, Yogendra Nayak
The "Thalidomide tragedy" is a landmark in the history of the pharmaceutical industry. Despite limited clinical trials, there is a continuous effort to investigate thalidomide as a drug for cancer and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lepromatous leprosy, and COVID-19. This review focuses on the possibilities of targeting inflammation by repurposing thalidomide for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Articles were searched from the Scopus database, sorted, and selected articles were reviewed...
March 25, 2023: Inflammopharmacology
Sk Kayum Alam, Li Wang, Zhu Zhu, Luke H Hoeppner
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% cases of lung cancer cases. Diagnosis at advanced stages is common, after which therapy-refractory disease progression frequently occurs. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control NSCLC progression is necessary to develop new therapies. Overexpression of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in NSCLC correlates with poor patient survival. IKKα is an NF-κB-activating kinase that is important in cell survival and differentiation, but its regulation of oncogenic signaling is not well understood...
March 25, 2023: NPJ Precision Oncology
Shira Perez, Anat Lavi-Itzkovitz, Moriah Gidoni, Tom Domovitz, Roba Dabour, Ishant Khurana, Ateret Davidovich, Ana Tobar, Alejandro Livoff, Evgeny Solomonov, Yaakov Maman, Assam El-Osta, Yishan Tsai, Ming-Lung Yu, Salomon M Stemmer, Izhak Haviv, Gur Yaari, Meital Gal-Tanamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a model of diverse spectrum of cancers, since it is induced by well-known etiologies, mainly Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Here we aimed to identify HCV-specific mutational signature and explored the link between the HCV-related regional variation in mutations rates and HCV-induced alterations in genome-wide chromatin organization. METHODS: To identify an HCV-specific mutational signature in HCC, we performed high-resolution targeted sequencing to detect passenger mutations on 64 HCC samples from three etiology groups - HBV, HCV, or other...
March 23, 2023: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kenneth T Bogen
Alterations in complex cellular phenotype each typically involve multistep activation of an ultrasensitive molecular switch (e.g., to adaptively initiate an apoptosis, inflammasome, Nrf2-ARE anti-oxidant, or heat-shock activation pathway) that triggers expression of a suite of target genes while efficiently limiting false-positive switching from a baseline state. Such switches exhibit nonlinear signal-activation relationships. In contrast, a linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-response relationship is expected for damage that accumulates in proportion to dose, as hypothesized for increased risk of cancer in relation to genotoxic dose according to the multistage somatic mutation/clonal-expansion theory of cancer, e...
December 21, 2022: Environmental Research
Lucy Darnton
An earlier meta-analysis of mortality studies of asbestos-exposed worker populations, quantified excess mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to cumulative exposure to the three main commercial asbestos types. The aim of this paper was to update these analyses incorporating new data based on increased follow-up of studies previously included, as well as studies of worker populations exposed predominantly to single fibre types published since the original analysis. Mesothelioma as a percentage of expected mortality due to all causes of death, percentage excess lung cancer and mean cumulative exposure were abstracted from available mortality studies of workers exposed predominantly to single asbestos types...
November 14, 2022: Environmental Research
Ann G Wylie, Andrey A Korchevskiy
CONTEXT: Based on a decade-long exploration, dimensions of elongate mineral particles are implicated as a pivotal component of their carcinogenic potency. This paper summarizes current understanding of the discovered relationships and their importance to the protection of public health. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the relationships between cancer risk and dimensions (length, width, and other derivative characteristics) of mineral fibers by comparing the results and conclusions of previously published studies with newly published information...
November 3, 2022: Environmental Research
L A Cox, K Bogen, R Conolly, U Graham, S Moolgavkar, G Oberdorster, V Roggli, F Turci, B T Mossman
This paper summarizes recent insights into causal biological mechanisms underlying the carcinogenicity of asbestos. It addresses their implications for the shapes of exposure-response curves and considers recent epidemiologic trends in malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and lung fiber burden studies. Since the commercial amphiboles crocidolite and amosite pose the highest risk of MMs and contain high levels of iron, endogenous and exogenous pathways of iron injury and repair are discussed. Some practical implications of recent developments are that: (1) Asbestos-cancer exposure-response relationships should be expected to have non-zero background rates; (2) Evidence from inflammation biology and other sources suggests that there are exposure concentration thresholds below which exposures do not increase inflammasome-mediated inflammation or resulting inflammation-mediated cancer risks above background risk rates; and (3) The size of the suggested exposure concentration threshold depends on both the detailed time patterns of exposure on a time scale of hours to days and also on the composition of asbestos fibers in terms of their physiochemical properties...
March 10, 2023: Environmental Research
Jing Zhu, Chenxi Yang, Siyu Song, Ruting Wang, Liqiang Gu, Zhongjian Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive and convenient tool, which gains features related to chemical components in biological samples. Machine learning (ML) has been popularized in medical diagnosis. This study aimed at investigating a novel cancer diagnosis strategy using NIRS data based ML modeling. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from a total of 247 participants, including lung cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, and healthy control, and were randomly split into train set and test set...
March 23, 2023: Analytical Biochemistry
Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Lívia Queiroz de Sousa, Rayran Walter Ramos de Sousa, Domingos de Jesus Rodrigues, Evaldo Dos Santos Monção Filho, Mariana Helena Chaves, Gerardo Magela Vieira-Júnior, Márcia Dos Santos Rizzo, Lívia Alves Filgueiras, Anderson Nogueira Mendes, Daisy Jereissati Barbosa Lima, Cláudia Pessoa, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Carolina Borges da Cruz Rodrigues, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Daniel Pereira Bezerra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: South Americans natives has extensively use the toad "kururu" to reduce/treat skin infections, cutaneous lesions, sores and even to treat cancer. They release secretions rich in bufadienolides, polyhydroxy steroids with well-documented cardiotonic and antiproliferative actions, but in vivo antitumoral evaluations in mammals are rare, and toxicological safety has been left in second place. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This investigation used in silico, in vitro and in vivo tools to evaluate acute and subacute toxic effects of marinobufagin and the anticancer action in tumor-bearing mice models...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiang Li, Qiuyuan Li, Fujun Yang, Erji Gao, Lei Lin, Yaqiang Li, Xiao Song, Liang Duan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of sleeve lobectomy after neoadjuvant therapy by assessing the postoperative morbidity. METHODS: Patients who underwent sleeve lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were retrospectively analyzed from January 2018 to December 2021. A total of 613 patients were enrolled, including 124 patients who received prior neoadjuvant therapy and 489 patients who did not. Propensity score matching (PSM) was adopted to create a balanced cohort consisting of 97 paired cases...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yufan Wang, Alexandra L McCarthy, Sandra C Hayes, Louisa G Gordon, Vivian Chiu, Tom G Bailey, Elizabeth Stewart, Haitham Tuffaha
While there is good evidence that exercise is an effective adjunct therapy to cancer care, little is known about its value for money. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the available evidence pertaining to the cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions following cancer. A search of eight online databases (CINAHL, the Cochrane Library (NHSEED), Econlit, Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of science) was first conducted on 26 March 2021 and updated on 8 March 2022. Only economic evaluations with results in the form of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were included...
March 23, 2023: Preventive Medicine
Rahul Mal, John Domini, Vibhor Wadhwa, Mina S Makary
PURPOSE: To evaluate the peri-procedural and intermediate-term clinical outcomes of thermal ablation of primary and metastatic lung cancer through analysis of a 5-year institutional experience. METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, 55 consecutive lung ablation interventions (33 cryoablation and 22 microwave ablations) performed at an academic medical center from 2017 to 2022 were evaluated. Cryoablation was performed utilizing multiple 14-guage probes using a triple freeze/thaw protocol...
March 21, 2023: Clinical Imaging
C Gridelli, S Peters, V Velcheti, I Attili, F de Marinis
BACKGROUND: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the front-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is currently the standard of care. However, as clinical trials include a very limited number of elderly patients, evidence on the safety and efficacy of using ICI-based regimens is still limited. METHODS: A virtual International Expert Panel took place in July 2022 to review the available evidence on the use of ICI-based regimens in the first-line setting in elderly patients with NSCLC and provide a position paper on the field both in clinical practice and in a research setting...
March 23, 2023: ESMO Open
Sebastian Regnery, Efthimios Katsigiannopulos, Philipp Hoegen, Fabian Weykamp, Elisabetta Sandrini, Thomas Held, Maximilian Deng, Tanja Eichkorn, Carolin Buchele, Carolin Rippke, C Katharina Renkamp, Laila König, Kristin Lang, Michael Thomas, Hauke Winter, Sebastian Adeberg, Sebastian Klüter, Jürgen Debus, Juliane Hörner-Rieber
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiotherapy of ultracentral lung tumors (ULT) is challenging as it may cause overdoses to sensitive mediastinal organs with severe complications. We aimed to describe long-term outcomes after stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR)-guided online adaptive radiotherapy (SMART) as an innovative treatment of ULT. PATIENTS & METHODS: We analyzed 36 patients that received SMART to 40 tumors between 02/2020 - 08/2021 inside prospective databases...
March 21, 2023: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Tianyu Jiao, Fuyan Li, Yi Cui, Xiao Wang, Butuo Li, Feng Shi, Yuwei Xia, Qing Zhou, Qingshi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis (BM) is a serious neurological complication of cancer of different origins. The value of deep learning (DL) to identify multiple types of primary origins remains unclear. PURPOSE: To distinguish primary site of BM and identify the best DL models. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: A total of 449 BM derived from 214 patients (49.5% for female, mean age 58 years) (100 from small cell lung cancer [SCLC], 125 from non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], 116 from breast cancer [BC], and 108 from gastrointestinal cancer [GIC]) were included...
March 25, 2023: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Dong Zhou, Tao Liu, Xinrui Rao, Xiaohua Jie, Yunshang Chen, Zilong Wu, Huilin Deng, Dan Zhang, Jian Wang, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKA) is the first member discovered from the diacylglycerol kinase family, and it has been linked to the progression of various types of tumors. However, it is unclear whether DGKA is linked to the development of lung cancer. METHODS: We investigated the levels of DGKA in the lung cancer tissues. Cell growth assay, colony formation assay and EdU assay were used to examine the effects of DGKA-targeted siRNAs/shRNAs/drugs on the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro...
March 25, 2023: Thoracic Cancer
Yuling Qiu, Xuedi Wang, Yingrui Fan, Yanru Bao, Fanqing Meng, Baorui Liu, Rutian Li
One year following bladder cancer surgery, a 65-year-old man had computed tomography (CT) that revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary wedge resections were performed after the nodules were found to grow in follow-up. Unusually, we found that these two lesions were not homologous, nor were they metastases from prior bladder cancer, and therefore, synchronous double primary lung cancer (sDPLC) was diagnosed. The immunohistochemical findings excluded the possibility of bladder cancer metastasis, but could not determine whether they were from the same source...
March 25, 2023: Thoracic Cancer
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