Michael S Kelly, Neil D Fernandes, Audrey V Carr, Manuella Lahoud-Rahme, Brian M Cummings, Joanne S Chiu
OBJECTIVES: Given the significant overlap of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with other common childhood illnesses presenting to the emergency department, extensive workup of this syndrome has become necessary. Nevertheless, little has been published on the factors differentiating MIS-C from other conditions in the acute care setting. We investigated differences in presentation and laboratory studies between suspected versus confirmed MIS-C patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients 21 years or younger undergoing investigation for possible MIS-C at a single institution between April 21 and July 1, 2020...
March 1, 2021: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kyriaki Karavanaki, Lydia Kossiva, Rigina Sklavou, Kostas Kakleas, Charalambos Tsentidis, Dimitris Gourgiotis, Antonis Marmarinos, Triantafyllia Sdogou, Maria Tsolia, Sophia Polychronopoulou
BACKGROUND: Infections in patients with cancer are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In most cases, the presence of neutropenia renders them prone to infections to either common or opportunistic pathogens. A wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, or fungal agents is encountered in these patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate infection types and pathogens in pediatric patients with cancer with and without neutropenia. METHODS: A total of 37 pediatric patients with cancer (median age ± 25% quartile, 6...
March 1, 2021: Pediatric Emergency Care
Temesgen E Andargie, Naoko Tsuji, Fayaz Seifuddin, Moon Kyoo Jang, Peter St Yuen, Hyesik Kong, Ilker Tunc, Komudi Singh, Ananth Charya, Kenneth J Wilkins, Steven D Nathan, Andrea L Cox, Mehdi Pirooznia, Robert A Star, Sean Agbor-Enoh
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) clinical course is heterogeneous, ranging from mild to severe multi-organ failure and death. In this study, we analyzed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a biomarker of injury to define the sources of tissue injury that contribute to such different trajectories. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center prospective cohort study to enroll COVID-19 patients and collect plasma samples. Plasma cfDNA was subject to bisulfite sequencing. A library of tissue-specific DNA methylation signatures was used to analyze sequence reads to quantitate cfDNA from different tissue types...
March 2, 2021: JCI Insight
Thiago Santos Rosa, Hugo Luca Corrêa, Lysleine Alves de Deus, Whitley Stone, Andrea Lucena Reis, André Bonadias Gadelha, Thaís Branquinho de Araújo, Paulo Roberto Silva Junior, Milton Moraes, José Adeirton Bezerra Silva, Carmen Tzanno-Martins, Herbert Gustavo Simões, Jonato Prestes, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves
To compare the effect of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: control (CTL; n=65), DRT (n=65), and IRT (n=67). Patients were tested for fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and NO were assessed pre- and post-intervention period...
March 2, 2021: Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
David J DiLillo, Kara Olson, Katja Mohrs, Thomas Craig Meagher, Kevin Bray, Olga Sineshchekova, Thomas Startz, Jessica Kuhnert, Marc W Retter, Stephen Godin, Prachi Sharma, Frank Delfino, John Lin, Eric Smith, Gavin Thurston, Jessica R Kirshner
CD3-engaging bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are potent therapeutic approaches for redirecting patient T cells to recognize and kill tumors. Here we describe a fully human bsAb (REGN5458) that binds to B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and CD3, and compare its antitumor activities vs those of anti-BCMA CAR T cells to identify differences in efficacy and mechanism of action. In vitro, BCMAxCD3 bsAb efficiently induced polyclonal T-cell killing of primary human plasma cells and multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines expressing a range of BCMA cell surface densities...
March 9, 2021: Blood Advances
Michael Camilleri
Importance: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the United States is between 7% and 16%, most common in women and young people, with annual direct costs estimated at more than $1 billion dollars in the United States. Traditionally, the diagnosis of IBS has been based on the positive identification of symptoms that correlate with several different syndromes associated with disorders such as IBS diarrhea, IBS constipation, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, chronic functional abdominal pain, or bloating...
March 2, 2021: JAMA
Zahra Bakhshiani, Saloomeh Fouladi, Samaneh Mohammadzadeh, Nahid Eskandari
Objective: Sepsis results from dysregulated host responses to infection, and it is a major cause of mortality in the world. Co-inhibitory molecules, such as PD-1, play a critical role in this process. Considering the lack of information on the relation between sPD1 and sepsis, the present study aimed to examine the sPD1 level in septic patients and evaluate its correlation with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of three groups, including septic patients (n=15), suspected of sepsis (n=15), and healthy subjects (n=15)...
April 2021: Cell Journal
Said Amin, Fawad Rahim, Sher Bahadur, Mohammad Noor, Afsheen Mahmood, Huma Gul
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ) on inflammatory markers, laboratory indices; and short-term outcome in patients with severe COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of the Study: Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan from 10th June till 31st August 2020. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four patients with severe COVID-19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. All patients had received TCZ (4 mg/kg) in addition to standard treatment...
January 2021: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Jin Sook Moon, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hyun Min Koh
BACKGROUND: Osteocalcin is known to regulate energy metabolism. Recently, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been found to be associated with reduced levels of osteocalcin in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum osteocalcin and MetS in premenopausal women, compared with that in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on 5,896 participants who completed a health screening examination...
March 1, 2021: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yeon Joo Jeong, Bo Da Nam, Jin Young Yoo, Kun Il Kim, Hee Kang, Jung Hwa Hwang, Yun Hyeon Kim, Kyung Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Few studies have classified chest computed tomography (CT) findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyzed their correlations with prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate retrospectively the clinical and chest CT findings of COVID-19 and to analyze CT findings and determine their relationships with clinical severity. METHODS: Chest CT and clinical features of 271 COVID-19 patients were assessed. The presence of CT findings and distribution of parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated, and CT patterns were classified as bronchopneumonia, organizing pneumonia (OP), or diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)...
March 1, 2021: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Carmelo Mangano, Bianca Maria Oliva
We enrolled 33 patients with COVID-19 (23 men and 10 women; age 59 ± 15; males, n = 23; females, n = 10) admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases of Grande Ospedale Metropolitano "Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli" of Reggio Calabria, Italy, between March and May 2020. Whole blood samples were collected before the start of therapeutic treatment using all virus spread containment measures. Sample preparation protocols were designed in order to minimize operators direct specimen's manipulation...
March 2, 2021: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Yan Wen, Yao Chun, Zhong Qing Lian, Zhang Wei Yong, Yang Mei Lan, Liao Huan, Chen Yi Xi, Li Shu Juan, Zhong Wen Qing, Cheng Jia, Zhang Huan Ji
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular wall with multiple causes. AS is the primary pathological basis of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Moreover, carotid plaque rupture and thrombus formation are the main causes of ischemic stroke. Therefore, understanding the formation of carotid plaques may help improve the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Endothelial cell dysfunction results in re‑endothelialization and angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaques, thus promoting plaque destabilization...
May 2021: Molecular Medicine Reports
Paola Canzano, Marta Brambilla, Benedetta Porro, Nicola Cosentino, Elena Tortorici, Stefano Vicini, Paolo Poggio, Andrea Cascella, Martino F Pengo, Fabrizio Veglia, Susanna Fiorelli, Alice Bonomi, Viviana Cavalca, Daniela Trabattoni, Daniele Andreini, Emanuela Omodeo Salè, Gianfranco Parati, Elena Tremoli, Marina Camera
The authors hypothesized that the cytokine storm described in COVID-19 patients may lead to consistent cell-based tissue factor (TF)-mediated activation of coagulation, procoagulant microvesicles (MVs) release, and massive platelet activation. COVID-19 patients have higher levels of TF+ platelets, TF+ granulocytes, and TF+ MVs than healthy subjects and coronary artery disease patients. Plasma MV-associated thrombin generation is present in prophylactic anticoagulated patients. A sustained platelet activation in terms of P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation, and altered nitric oxide/prostacyclin synthesis are also observed...
February 24, 2021: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Neil M Iyengar, Xi Kathy Zhou, Hillary Mendieta, Omar El-Hely, Dilip D Giri, Lisle Winston, Domenick J Falcone, Hanhan Wang, Lingsong Meng, Taehoon Ha, Michael Pollak, Monica Morrow, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women and decreased risk in pre-menopausal women. Conversely, in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, pre-menopausal obesity is associated with early-onset breast cancer. Here we show that obese, pre-menopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have increased levels of aromatase and inflammation in the breast, as occurs in post-menopausal women. In a prospective cohort study of 141 women with germline BRCA1 (n = 74) or BRCA2 (n = 67) mutations, leptin, and aromatase expression were higher in the breast tissue of obese versus lean individuals (P < 0...
March 1, 2021: NPJ Breast Cancer
Ethan Morgan, Hannah Hudson, Richard D'Aquila, Brian Mustanski
The use of marijuana is highly prevalent among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Past work has also shown that inflammation is elevated among YMSM, independent of HIV status. Here, we aim to examine the relationship between marijuana use and inflammation among this high-risk cohort, relative to use of other substances. Data were collected among YMSM aged 16-29 in Chicago. Multiplex cytokine and inflammatory biomarker assays were run on plasma from all persons living with HIV (PLWH) (n = 195) and a subset of HIV-negative participants (n = 489)...
March 1, 2021: Scientific Reports
Joseph M Smith, Jessie A Elliott, Amy E Gillis, Paul F Ridgway
A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of severe epigastric pain, vomiting and fever. He had a background of alcohol excess and smoking. The patient was tachycardic and febrile with an elevated white blood cell count and C reactive protein. CT demonstrated extensive upper abdominal free fluid, without free air, with a large cystic lesion arising from the greater curvature of the stomach, and a second smaller cystic lesion arising from the posterior aspect of the gastric fundus...
March 1, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Neil M Iyengar, Xi Kathy Zhou, Hillary Mendieta, Dilip D Giri, Omar El-Hely, Lisle Winston, Domenick J Falcone, Hanhan Wang, Lingsong Meng, Jonathan Landa, Michael N Pollak, Laurie Kirstein, Monica Morrow, Andrew J Dannenberg
Excess body fat and sedentary behavior are associated with increased breast cancer risk and mortality, including in normal weight women. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we examined whether adiposity and exercise impact the breast microenvironment (e.g., inflammation and aromatase expression) and circulating metabo-inflammatory factors. In a cross-sectional cohort study, breast white adipose tissue (WAT) and blood were collected from 100 women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment...
March 1, 2021: Cancer Prevention Research
Hideki Nakajima, Kimiko Nakajima, Mikiro Takaishi, Kentaro Ohko, Satoshi Serada, Minoru Fujimoto, Tetsuji Naka, Shigetoshi Sano
Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein (LRG), one of the acute phase proteins mainly produced by the liver, similar to C-reactive protein, has been recognized as an inflammatory biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We recently demonstrated that LRG was also increased in the sera of psoriasis patients and correlated well with disease activity with a sensitivity and specificity much higher than C-reactive protein; however, whether LRG mechanistically contributed to the pathogenesis of psoriasis remained unclear...
March 1, 2021: Journal of Immunology
Bianca Senger Vasconcelos Barros, Carlos Terra, Marilia Brito Gomes
To examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory biomarkers involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology, in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, nested case-control study with 232 patients with type 1 diabetes (116 cases with metabolic syndrome and 116 controls without metabolic syndrome) who were matched for age and gender...
December 1, 2020: European Cytokine Network
Stefano Veraldi, Andrea G Faraci, Davide Valentini, Silvia Bottini
BACKGROUND: A tropical ulcer is a bacterial necrotizing disease of the skin, with an acute or chronic clinical course, caused by anaerobic bacteria, notably Fusobacteria spp. OBJECTIVES: We present six Italian tourists who acquired tropical ulcers in tropical and subtropical countries. MATERIALS & METHODS: Four males and two females acquired a skin ulcer during trips to Brazil, Malaysia, Fiji Islands, Zambia, Tanzania and India. In all patients, medical history, physical and dermatological examination, laboratory tests, bacteriological examinations and biopsy were carried out...
March 1, 2021: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
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