Florian Horn
In medicine, there is an increasing number of publications that deal with or at least consider an evolutionary background. In zoology or comparative anatomy, work on evolutionary developments is taking on an ever-greater role in parallel. The pre-clinical (or pre-medical) phase in medical studies would be able to form a bridge between these related and yet so distant subjects but is currently completely evolution-free. This means that there is no consideration of the evolution of the healthy human being as a prerequisite for a systematic study of the evolutionary background in medicine...
July 26, 2021: Annals of Anatomy
Tao Yan, Huijie Lu, Chao Sun, Yalian Peng, Feiyan Meng, Riping Gan, Xin Cui, Chengxiang Wu, Shen Zhang, Yumei Yang, Lihong Zhang, Weimin Zhang
Nr5a (Fushi tarazu factor 1, Ftz-F1) homologues belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, and are involved in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Four genes encoding Nr5a homologues were present in the genome of ricefield eel, which are designated as nr5a1a, nr5a1b, nr5a2, and nr5a5 in the present study. Alternatively spliced transcripts were identified for nr5a1a and nr5a1b genes. Sequence analysis indicated that nr5a5 is possibly a paralog of nr5a2, and nr5a1b is lost during evolution in some teleosts including tilapia and medaka...
July 26, 2021: General and Comparative Endocrinology
David M Irwin
The mammalian proglucagon gene ( Gcg ) encodes three glucagon like sequences, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucagon-like peptide-2 that are of similar length and share sequence similarity, with these hormones having cell surface receptors, glucagon receptor (Gcgr), GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r), and GLP-2 receptor (Glp2r), respectively. Gcgr, Glp1r, and Glp2r are all class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Despite their sequence and structural similarity, analyses of sequences from rodents have found differences in patterns of sequence conservation and evolution...
2021: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jürgen Beck, Eric von Lieres, Negar Zaghi, Samuel Leweke, Giorgio Carta, Rainer Hahn
Elucidation of protein transport mechanism in ion exchanges is essential to model separation performance. In this work we simulate intraparticle adsorption profiles during batch adsorption assuming typical process conditions for pore, solid and parallel diffusion. Artificial confocal laser scanning microscopy images are created to identify apparent differences between the different transport mechanisms. Typical sharp fronts for pore diffusion are characteristic for Langmuir equilibrium constants of KL ≥1...
July 14, 2021: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mariska E Kret, Evy van Berlo
Correctly recognizing and efficiently attending to emotional situations are highly valuable skills for social species such as humans and bonobos, humans' closest living relatives. In the current study, we investigated whether humans perceive a range of emotional situations differently when these involved other humans compared to bonobos. A large group of children and adults participated in an emotion perception task and rated scenes showing either bonobos or humans in situations depicting distressed or aggressive behavior, yawning, scratching, grooming, playing, sex scenes or neutral situations...
July 2021: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Vladimir I Lantsov, Valentin E Pilipenko
The caucasica species group in the subgenus Lunatipula is redefined and now consists of five species native to the Caucasus. Tipula ( L. ) eleniya sp. nov. is described as new to science, and variations in the male terminalia in two populations are noted. Two subspecies ( quadridentataquadridentata and quadridentatapaupera ) are elevated to species rank. Detailed photo's complement the descriptions of all five species ( caucasica , eleniya , paupera , quadridentata , talyshensis ), and data on ecology and distribution patterns are included as well as identification keys to males and females...
2021: ZooKeys
Weicheng Li, Guoqiang Yao, Hongyu Cai, Mei Bai, Lai-Yu Kwok, Zhihong Sun
Probiotics have attracted much attention because of their health-promoting effects, but little is known about the in vivo evolution of probiotics. This study analyzed the genome adaptation of the probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum P-8 strain cultivated in ordinary and glucose restrictive growth media. Then, this study re-analyzed genomes of P-8 isolates recovered from the gut contents of subjects in two feeding trials (in rat and human). The sampling time points were similar to that of the in vitro evolution experiment, which might give parallel comparison of the in vitro and in vivo evolution processes...
July 23, 2021: Genomics
Shi-Lei Zhou, Zhao-Ying Chen, Tian-Na Zhang, Zi-Wei Zhang, Yue Sun, Bo Yao, Jian-Sheng Cui, Zai-Xing Li, Xiao Luo
The sources and distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the interstitial water of Baiyangdian Lake sediments were analyzed using the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum (UV-vis) method and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Results showed that the DOM concentrations and molecular weight were significantly higher in summer than in spring and autumn, based on a 254 and E2/E3 values. Three protein-like substance (C1, C2, and C3) and two humic-like substances (C4, C5) were identified with the PARAFAC model...
August 8, 2021: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Wesley Webb Cheek, Ksenia Chmutina
Building Back Better has become one of the most common slogans in Disaster Risk Reduction. Disasters offer an opportunity to encourage improvements not only in the structural safety of buildings and infrastructure but also in addressing structural inequalities and injustice - i.e., the root causes of disasters. Disasters are thus an opportunity to make things better. However, as this paper will demonstrate, in the context of neoliberalism, the definition of 'better' in the DRR slogan does not always mean 'good for all'...
July 26, 2021: Disasters
Daniela C Kalthoff, Thomas Mörs
The enamel microstructure of fossil and extant Geomyoidea (Geomyidae, Heteromyidae) lower incisors incorporates three- or two-layered schmelzmusters with uniserial, transverse Hunter-Schreger bands having parallel and perpendicular or exclusively perpendicular oriented interprismatic matrix. Phylogenetically, these schmelzmusters are regarded as moderately (enamel type 2) to highly derived (enamel type 3). Our analysis detected a zone of modified radial enamel close to the enamel-dentine junction. Modified radial enamel shows a strong phylogenetic signal within the clade Geomorpha as it is restricted to fossil and extant Geomyoidea and absent in Heliscomyidae, Florentiamyidae, and Eomyidae...
July 2021: Ecology and Evolution
Bassam Lajin, Simone Braeuer, Walter Goessler
With the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS/MS), the potential for non-targeted elemental metabolomic analysis has been expanded to many non-metals of pivotal biological importance. Arsenic and selenium are trace elements that share chemical similarity with the non-metals phosphorus and sulfur, respectively, and this similarity can be exploited to gain more insight into the incompletely understood biological significance of these metalloids and the evolution of their biochemical pathways...
July 24, 2021: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Kati Michalek, David L J Vendrami, Michaël Bekaert, David H Green, Kim S Last, Luca Telesca, Thomas A Wilding, Joseph I Hoffman
Mussels belonging to the Mytilus species complex ( M .  edulis , ME ; M .  galloprovincialis , MG ; and M .  trossulus , MT ) often occur in sympatry, facilitating introgressive hybridization. This may be further promoted by mussel aquaculture practices, with MT introgression often resulting in commercially unfavourable traits such as low meat yield and weak shells. To investigate the relationship between genotype and shell phenotype, genetic and morphological variability was quantified across depth (1 m to 7 m) along a cultivation rope at a mussel farm on the West coast of Scotland...
July 2021: Evolutionary Applications
Natalie L Dinsdale, Bernard J Crespi
Evolutionary and comparative approaches can yield novel insights into human adaptation and disease. Endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) each affect up to 10% of women and significantly reduce the health, fertility, and quality of life of those affected. PCOS and endometriosis have yet to be considered as related to one another, although both conditions involve alterations to prenatal testosterone levels and atypical functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Here, we propose and evaluate the novel hypothesis that endometriosis and PCOS represent extreme and diametric (opposite) outcomes of variation in HPG axis development and activity, with endometriosis mediated in notable part by low prenatal and postnatal testosterone, while PCOS is mediated by high prenatal testosterone...
July 2021: Evolutionary Applications
Aideen C Allen, Wladimir Malaga, Cyril Gaudin, Arnaud Volle, Flavie Moreau, Ali Hassan, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker, Antonio Peixoto, Rudy Antoine, Alexandre Pawlik, Wafa Frigui, Céline Berrone, Roland Brosch, Philip Supply, Christophe Guilhot
Pathogenomic evidence suggests that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) evolved from an environmental ancestor similar to Mycobacterium canettii, a rare human pathogen. Although the adaptations responsible for this transition are poorly characterized, the ability to persist in humans seems to be important. We set out to identify the adaptations contributing to the evolution of persistence in MTB. We performed an experimental evolution of eight M. canettii populations in mice; four populations were derived from the isolate STB-K (phylogenomically furthest from MTB) and four from STB-D (closest to MTB), which were monitored for 15 and 6 cycles, respectively...
July 22, 2021: Nature Microbiology
Michael J Mack, John J Squiers, Bruce W Lytle, J Michael DiMaio, Friedrich W Mohr
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in the 1960s as the first procedure for direct coronary artery revascularization and rapidly became one of the most common surgical procedures worldwide, with an overall total of more than 20 million operations performed. CABG continues to be the most common cardiac surgical procedure performed and has been one of the most carefully studied therapies. Best CABG techniques, optimal bypass conduits, and appropriate patient selection have been rigorously tested in landmark clinical trials, some of which have resolved controversy and most of which have stoked further debate and trials...
July 27, 2021: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Natasha Mynett, Hannah L Mossman, Tim Huettner, Robyn A Grant
Most cetaceans are born with vibrissae but they can be lost or reduced in adulthood, especially in odontocetes. Despite this, some species of odontocetes have been found to have functioning vibrissal follicles (including the follicle itself and any remaining vibrissal hair shaft) that play a role in mechanoreception, proprioception and electroreception. This reveals a greater diversity of vibrissal function in odontocetes than in any other mammalian group. However, we know very little about vibrissal follicle form and function across the Cetacea...
July 21, 2021: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Yuan Mu, Ran Tian, Linlin Xiao, Di Sun, Zepeng Zhang, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
Mammals have evolved different tooth phenotypes that are hypothesized to be associated with feeding habits. However, the genetic basis for the linkage has not been well explored. In this study, we investigated 13 tooth-related genes, including seven enamel-related genes (AMELX, AMBN, ENAM, AMTN, ODAM, KLK4 and MMP20) and six dentin-related genes (DSPP, COL1A1, DMP1, IBSP, MEPE and SPP1), from 63 mammals to determine their evolutionary history. Our results showed that different evolutionary histories have evolved among divergent feeding habits in mammals...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Ilaria Attili, Marzia Del Re, Elena Guerini-Rocco, Stefania Crucitta, Pasquale Pisapia, Francesco Pepe, Massimo Barberis, Giancarlo Troncone, Romano Danesi, Filippo de Marinis, Umberto Malapelle, Antonio Passaro
Introduction : The treatment scenario of lung cancer is rapidly evolving through time. In parallel, growing evidence is accumulating on different mechanisms of treatment resistance. Inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity define the spatial and temporal tumor clonal evolution, that is at the basis of tumor progression and resistance to anticancer treatments. Areas covered : This review summarizes the available evidence on molecular heterogeneity in lung cancer, from diagnosis to the occurrence of treatment resistance...
July 18, 2021: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Daniel Roth, Johan Ruben Gustafsson, Carl Fredrik Warfvinge, Anna Sundlöv, Anna Åkesson, Jan Tennvall, Katarina Sjögreen Gleisner
Tumor dosimetry was performed for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE with the aims of better understanding i) the range and variation of the tumor absorbed doses (ADs), ii) how different dosimetric quantities evolve over the treatment cycles, and iii) whether this evolution differs depending on the tumor grade. Such information is important for radiobiological interpretation and may inform the design of alternative administration schemes. Methods: Data come from 41 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of grade 1 ( n = 23) or 2 ( n = 18), that had received between 2 and 9 treatment cycles...
July 16, 2021: Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Christopher W Marshall, Erin S Gloag, Christina Lim, Daniel J Wozniak, Vaughn S Cooper
Interactions between bacteria, their close competitors, and viral parasites are common in infections, but understanding of these eco-evolutionary dynamics is limited. Most examples of adaptations caused by phage lysogeny are through the acquisition of new genes. However, integrated prophages can also insert into functional genes and impart a fitness benefit by disrupting their expression, a process called active lysogeny. Here, we show that active lysogeny can fuel rapid, parallel adaptations in establishing a chronic infection...
July 2021: Science Advances
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