Kyeong-Jae Heo, Sun-Jung Kwon, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Hae-Ryun Kwak, Soo-Jung Han, Min-Jun Kwon, A L N Rao, Jang-Kyun Seo
Understanding the evolutionary history of a virus and the mechanisms influencing the direction of its evolution is essential for the development of more durable strategies to control the virus in crop fields. While the deployment of host resistance in crops is the most efficient means to control various viruses, host resistance itself can act as strong selective pressure and thus play a critical role in the evolution of virus virulence. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a plant RNA virus with high evolutionary capacity, has caused endemic disease in various crops worldwide, including pepper ( Capsicum annuum L...
July 2020: Virus Evolution
Naofumi Umigai, Yusuke Kozai, Tadahiro Saito, Tsuyoshi Takara
Background: Paprika ( Capsicum annuum L.) is a good source of carotenoids, including capsanthin, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Several epidemiological studies have shown a beneficial association of intake of these carotenoids or their blood concentration with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. However, little information is available regarding the effect of intake of these carotenoids on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of paprika carotenoid extract (PCE) on bone turnover in healthy, postmenopausal women...
2020: Food & Nutrition Research
Maria Inês Diel, Alessandro Dal'Col Lúcio, Denise Schmidt, Oscar Valeriano Sánchez Valera, Daniele Cristina Fontana, Francieli de Lima Tartaglia, André Luís Tischler, Darlei Michalski Lambrecht, João Alberto Zemolin
The species Capsicum chinense, variety biquinho, has been gaining space in cooking, but little is known about its cultivars, mainly related to the chemical composition of fruits. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional composition of two biquinho pepper cultivars in different growing seasons and to define the relationships between the variables and their direct and indirect effects. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two cultivars of biquinho pepper, two growing seasons...
November 2020: Food Research International
Zi Ye, Zhixun Shang, Meiqi Li, Yonghan Qu, Hongjin Long, Junjie Yi
Paojiao, which is traditionally pickled Chinese chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens Linn.), possesses unique flavors. This study was conducted to investigate the flavor, mouthfeel, and consumer acceptability of Paojiao. The quality of six homemade and two industrial Paojiao samples were evaluated by integrating untargeted (to fingerprint volatile fraction) and targeted (to analyze free amino acids or FAAs, capsaicinoids, and texture) approaches. Furthermore, multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to identify the quality characteristics that drive the consumer acceptability for Paojiao...
November 2020: Food Research International
Juliana Villasante, Manel Ouerfelli, Ares Bobet, Isidoro Metón, María Pilar Almajano
The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of pecan shell (PSW), combined with roselle flower (RS) and red pepper (CA) were analyzed in beef patties by several methods during chilled storage for 13 days. Additionally, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PSW, RS and CA extracts were determined. The PSW extract exhibited a higher radical scavenging activity (by the DPPH method) and more total phenolic compounds than RS and CA. RS presented the best antimicrobial capacity. Nine formulations of beef patties were prepared, including a control (CM), a synthetic preservative (CAMPA N...
November 19, 2020: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Sean M Toporek, Anthony P Keinath
Anthracnose fruit rot caused by various Colletotrichum spp. is a serious disease for pepper (Capsicum annuum) growers, resulting in extensive fruit loss (Harp et al. 2008). Samples of five pepper fruits were obtained from two commercial farms in Lexington and Pickens counties, South Carolina, in August and September 2019, respectively. All fruits had two or more soft, sunken lesions covered with salmon-colored spore masses. Pieces of diseased tissue cut from the margins of lesions were surface disinfested in 0...
November 23, 2020: Plant Disease
Paolo Bonini, Youssef Rouphael, Begoña Miras-Moreno, Byungha Lee, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Gorka Erice, Veronica Cirino, Luigi Lucini, Giuseppe Colla
Microbial-based biostimulants can improve crop productivity by modulating cell metabolic pathways including hormonal balance. However, little is known about the microbial-mediated molecular changes causing yield increase. The present study elucidates the metabolomic modulation occurring in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) leaves at the vegetative and reproductive phenological stages, in response to microbial-based biostimulants. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Rhizoglomus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae , as well as Trichoderma koningii , were used in this work...
2020: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jayapala Naveen, Hulikunte Mallikarjunaiah Navya, Gavirangappa Hithamani, Puttaswamy Hariprasad, Siddapura Ramachandrappa Niranjana
The present study aims to establish pathogenic variability among Colletotrichum truncatum, an incitant of anthracnose disease across different chilli growing regions of Karnataka. Thirty suspected C. truncatum isolates were identified based on their morphological and conidial characteristics and further confirmed by Internal Transcribed Spacer DNA sequence analysis. Pathogenicity test was carried out by in vitro detached leaf and fruit assay, and also under greenhouse conditions using 20 different chilli cultivars grown across Karnataka...
November 16, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tarek Dardouri, Laurent Gomez, Arnaud Ameline, Guy Costagliola, Alexandra Schoeny, Hélène Gautier
BACKGROUND: The association of crops of value with companion plants could be one of the strategies to reduce the harmful effects of pests. We hypothesize that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by some aromatic plants may negatively impact M. persicae, disturbing its feeding behavior and consequently its reproduction. RESULTS: VOCs emitted from six potential companion plant species affected the reproduction of M. persicae feeding on pepper plants, Capsicum annuum...
November 17, 2020: Pest Management Science
Vivian M Bernau, Lev Jardón Barbolla, Leah K McHale, Kristin L Mercer
Responses to drought within a single species may vary based on plant developmental stage, drought severity, and the avoidance or tolerance mechanisms employed. Early drought stress can restrict emergence and seedling growth. Thus, in areas where water availability is limited, rapid germination leading to early plant establishment may be beneficial. Alternatively, germination without sufficient water to support the seedling may lead to early senescence, so reduced germination under low moisture conditions may be adaptive at the level of the population...
2020: PloS One
Fiza Liaquat, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis, Samiah Arif, Urooj Haroon, Che Shengquan, Liu Qunlu
Microbial and plant assisted bioremediation is an emerging way for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To screen the cadmium tolerant bacteria, soil samples were collected from Nanjing mining area, China. The average cadmium content of the mine soil reached 45.71 mg/kg, which was indicating serious pollution and potential ecological risk. From the mine soil, six cadmium tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated. The isolated bacterial strain "SY-2" showed maximum cadmium tolerance and it was selected for further experimentation...
December 2020: 3 Biotech
Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez, Atonaltzin García-Jiménez, Hugo Fernando Escobar-Sepúlveda, Sara Monzerrat Ramírez-Olvera
Background: Silicon (Si) is categorized as a quasi -essential element for plants thanks to the benefits on growth, development and metabolism in a hormetic manner. Si uptake is cooperatively mediated by Lsi1 and Lsi2. Nevertheless, Lsi channels have not yet been identified and characterized in pepper ( Capsicum annuum ), while genes involved in major physiological processes in pepper are Si-regulated. Furthermore, Si and phytohormones may act together in regulating plant growth, metabolism and tolerance against stress...
2020: PeerJ
Ju-Pyo Hong, Nayoung Ro, Hea-Young Lee, Geon Woo Kim, Jin-Kyung Kwon, Eiji Yamamoto, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Pepper ( Capsicum spp.) fruit-related traits are critical determinants of quality. These traits are controlled by quantitatively inherited genes for which marker-assisted selection (MAS) has proven insufficiently effective. Here, we evaluated the potential of genomic selection, in which genotype and phenotype data for a training population are used to predict phenotypes of a test population with only genotype data, for predicting fruit-related traits in pepper. We measured five fruit traits (fruit length, fruit shape, fruit width, fruit weight, and pericarp thickness) in 351 accessions from the pepper core collection, including 229 Capsicum annuum , 48 Capsicum baccatum , 48 Capsicum chinense , 25 Capsicum frutescens , and 1 Capsicum chacoense in 4 years at two different locations and genotyped these accessions using genotyping-by-sequencing...
2020: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anis Ali Shah, Fatima Bibi, Iqtidar Hussain, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Waheed Akram, Muhammad Saeed Tahir, Hayssam M Ali, Mohamed Z M Salem, Manzer H Siddiqui, Subhan Danish, Shah Fahad, Rahul Datta
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and putrescine (Put) have shown a promising role in the mitigation of abiotic stresses in plants. The present study was anticipated to elucidate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis IAGS 199 and Put in mitigation of cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity in Capsicum annum . Cadmium toxicity decreased growth, photosynthetic rate, gas exchange attributes and activity of antioxidant enzymes in C. annum seedlings. Moreover, higher levels of protein and non-protein bound thiols besides increased Cd contents were also observed in Cd-stressed plants...
November 8, 2020: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hamada Elwan, Mostafa Abdelhakeam, Sally El-Shafei, Atef Abd El-Rahman, Zienhom Ismail, Abdalrahman Zanouny, Emad Shaker, Salim S Al-Rejaie, Mohamed Mohany, Shaaban Elnesr
Animals fed with a high amount of a wide range of antioxidants in their diet are significantly protected against oxidative stress. Powerful antioxidant substances such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids are present naturally in red-hot pepper (RHP). This study hypothesized that using RHP may provide protection against oxidative stress and enhance animal physiological responses. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding New Zealand white rabbits with RHP-supplemented diets on their physiological and biochemical responses...
November 5, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yunsik Kim, Young Jin Kim, Kyung-Hee Paek
R-mediated resistance is robust and efficient antiviral immune system in the plants. Thus, when R-mediated resistance was suppressed at elevated temperatures, the virus resistance was expected to be completely collapsed. Nonetheless, the multiplication of Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) was inhibited, and TMV-P0 particles were only occasionally present in the systemic leaves of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum). RNAi-mediated RNA silencing is a well-known antiviral immune mechanism. At elevated temperatures, RNAi-mediated antiviral resistance was induced and virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) were dramatically increased...
November 9, 2020: Journal of Experimental Botany
J Vinodhini, L Rajendran, M Raveendran, V Rajasree, G Karthikeyan
CMV (cucumber mosaic virus) is the most primitive virus infecting chilli ( Capsicum annuum. L). The mosaic incidence with leaf filiformity, mosaic mottling and stunted growth was observed in major chilli growing regions of Tamil Nadu. CMV sap was inoculated on chilli, cowpea, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, banana, cucumber, Nicotiana and Chenopodium plants. Host range studies revealed that CMV produced localized infection on Nicotiana and systemic symptoms on most of the test plants. The occurrence of CMV was confirmed through DAC-ELISA and RT-PCR analysis...
November 2020: 3 Biotech
Maxim Prokchorchik, Ankita Pandey, Hayoung Moon, Wanhui Kim, Hyelim Jeon, Gayoung Jung, Jay Jayaraman, Stephen Poole, Cécile Segonzac, Kee Hoon Sohn, Honour C McCann
Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) threatens the cultivation of important crops worldwide. We sequenced 30 RSSC phylotype I ( R. pseudosolanacearum ) strains isolated from pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) across the Republic of Korea. These isolates span the diversity of phylotype I, have extensive effector repertoires and are subject to frequent recombination. Recombination hotspots among South Korean phylotype I isolates include multiple predicted contact-dependent inhibition loci, suggesting that microbial competition plays a significant role in Ralstonia evolution...
November 5, 2020: Microbial Genomics
Mingting Du, Xuran Liu, Dongbo Wang, Qi Yang, Abing Duan, Hong Chen, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Bing-Jie Ni
Anaerobic co-digestion is an attractive option to treat food waste and waste activated sludge, which is increasingly applied in real-world situations. As an active component in Capsicum species being substantially present in food waste in many areas, capsaicin has been recently demonstrated to inhibit the anaerobic co-digestion. However, the interaction between capsaicin and anaerobic co-digestion are still poorly understood. This work therefore aims to deeply understand the fate and impact of capsaicin in the anaerobic co-digestion...
October 19, 2020: Water Research
Eun-Ju Yang, Kyung-Sik Song
Capsidiol, is an anti-fungal phytoalexin produced by plants of Solanaceae. Capsidiol was examined in cultures of primary splenocytes (SPLCs) isolated from healthy C57BL/6 mice and from those with induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a mouse model for autoimmune neurodegenerative multiple sclerosis (MS). We also examined the impact of capsidiol in IFN-γ-stimulated mouse BV2 microglial cells. Capsidiol resulted in a significant reduction in the anti-CD3/CD28 (αCD3/CD28)-induced IFN-γ+ CD4+ (Th1) and IFN-γ+ CD8+ (Tc1) populations as well as in the production of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IP-10)...
October 30, 2020: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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