Atrial fibrillation

Jawad H Butt, Emil L Fosbøl, Thomas A Gerds, Charlotte Andersson, John J V McMurray, Mark C Petrie, Finn Gustafsson, Christian Madelaire, Søren Lund Kristensen, Gunnar H Gislason, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Køber, Morten Schou
AIM: To examine the rates of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF according to HF duration - new-onset HF and worsening of chronic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nationwide observational cohort study, 17 176 patients were included at first hospital admission for HF in the period 2013-2015 using data from Danish nationwide registries. In total, 8860 (51.6%) patients were admitted with new-onset HF and 8316 (48...
March 30, 2020: European Journal of Heart Failure
Janine Dretzke, Naomi Chuchu, Ridhi Agarwal, Clare Herd, Winnie Chua, Larissa Fabritz, Susan Bayliss, Dipak Kotecha, Jonathan J Deeks, Paulus Kirchhof, Yemisi Takwoingi
AIMS: We assessed the performance of modelsf (risk scores) for predicting recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who have undergone catheter ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic searches of bibliographic databases were conducted (November 2018). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported the development, validation, or impact assessment of a model for predicting AF recurrence after ablation. Model performance (discrimination and calibration) measures were extracted...
March 30, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Lia Crotti, Katja E Odening, Michael C Sanguinetti
Cardiomyocytes express a surprisingly large number of potassium channel types. The primary physiological functions of the currents conducted by these channels are to maintain the resting membrane potential and mediate action potential repolarization under basal conditions and in response to changes in the concentrations of intracellular sodium, calcium and ATP/ADP. Here we review the diversity and functional roles of cardiac potassium channels under normal conditions and how heritable mutations in the genes encoding these channels can lead to distinct arrhythmias...
March 30, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
Masanari Kuwabara, Claudio Borghi, Richard J Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2020: European Heart Journal
Michelle Samuel, Michal Abrahamowicz, Jacqueline Joza, Marie-Eve Beauchamp, Vidal Essebag, Louise Pilote
AIMS: Randomized trials suggest reductions in all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) rehospitalizations with catheter ablation (CA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF. Whether these results can be replicated in a real-world population with long-term follow-up or varies over time is unknown. We sought to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of CA in reducing the incidence of all-cause mortality, HF hospitalizations, stroke, and major bleeding in AF-HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cohort of patients newly diagnosed with AF-HF in Quebec, Canada (2000-2017), CA patients were matched 1:2 to controls on time and frequency of hospitalizations...
March 30, 2020: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Giulia Grande, Petter L S Ljungman, Kristina Eneroth, Tom Bellander, Debora Rizzuto
Importance: Emerging yet contrasting evidence associates air pollution with incident dementia, and the potential role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this association is unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and dementia and to assess the role of CVD in that association. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for this cohort study were extracted from the ongoing Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), a longitudinal population-based study with baseline assessments from March 21, 2001, through August 30, 2004...
March 30, 2020: JAMA Neurology
Li-Min Liu, Li-Shui Shen, Shang-Yu Liu, Bin Tu, Guo-Liang Li, Feng Hu, Zhi-Cheng Hu, Ling-Min Wu, Xiao-Han Fan, Li-Hui Zheng, Li-Gang Ding, Yan Yao
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Data regarding the correlations of thyroid dysfunction and the incidence of AF in HOCM are quite limited. This study aimed to reveal the correlations between different thyroid status and the corresponding incidence of AF in a large HOCM cohort. Methods: A total of 806 HOCM patients with complete information on thyroid function tests and comprehensive cardiac evaluations were recruited...
March 2020: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
Ban Liu, Xin Shi, Keke Ding, Mengwei Lv, Yongjun Qian, Shijie Zhu, Changfa Guo, Yangyang Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most prevalent heart rhythm disorder. The causes of AF include age, male sex, diabetes, hypertension, valve disease, and systolic/diastolic dysfunction. But on molecular level, its mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we collected 10 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, 10 patients with paroxymal atrial fibrillation and 10 healthy individuals and did Methylation EPICBead Chip and RNA sequencing. By analyzing the methylation and gene expression data using machine learning based feature selection method Boruta, we identified the key genes that were strongly associated with AF and found their interconnections...
2020: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Manar Hasabullah, Fatamah Kahtani, Tasneem Balkhoyor, Lama Al-Harbi, Abdulhalim J Kinsara
Introduction Several cardiovascular risk calculators are available online to measure the probability of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) without defining the appropriate population. In the current study, four risk assessment instruments were investigated with Saudi Arabian patients with CVD to identify the instrument with the best predictability. The chosen instruments were the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator, and the United Kingdom score which is called QRISK® ...
February 24, 2020: Curēus
Jason Zagrodzky, Mark M Gallagher, Lisa W M Leung, Tiffany Sharkoski, Pasquale Santangeli, Cory Tschabrunn, Jose M Guerra, Bieito Campos, John MacGregor, Jamal Hayat, Brad Clark, Alex Mazur, Marcel Feher, Martin Arnold, Mark Metzl, Jose Nazari, Erik Kulstad
Ablation of the left atrium using either radiofrequency (RF) or cryothermal energy is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) and is the most frequent type of cardiac ablation procedure performed. Although generally safe, collateral injury to surrounding structures, particularly the esophagus, remains a concern. Cooling or warming the esophagus to counteract the heat from RF ablation, or the cold from cryoablation, is a method that is used to reduce thermal esophageal injury, and there are increasing data to support this approach...
March 15, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anthony S Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the evidence base and recommendations for medical management for secondary stroke prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments for secondary stroke prevention include evidence to support the use of short-term dual antiplatelet therapy after minor stroke and transient ischemic attack, direct oral anticoagulants for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, reversal agents for direct oral anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage, and aspirin rather than presumptive anticoagulation with a direct oral anticoagulant for embolic stroke of undetermined source...
April 2020: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Hanne Christensen, Cheryl Bushnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews sex differences in stroke risk and presentation, with a particular emphasis on the unique risk factors women experience throughout the lifespan. RECENT FINDINGS: Although prior studies suggested women have worse outcomes after stroke, it is now clear that age, prestroke functional status, and comorbidities explain many of the differences between men and women in stroke severity, functional outcomes, and mortality. Several meta-analyses and large cohort studies have evaluated the risk factors for women related to reproductive factors and found that fewer years between menarche and menopause, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia/eclampsia, preterm delivery, and stillbirth), oophorectomy, hormone replacement therapy use, and younger age at menopause all increase the risk of stroke...
April 2020: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Hooman Kamel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses cryptogenic stroke and the results of recent randomized trials that can inform its evaluation and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Most cryptogenic strokes appear embolic, leading to the term embolic stroke of undetermined source. It was previously thought that embolic stroke of undetermined source was a single, therapeutically relevant entity, the underlying sources of which would respond to anticoagulant therapy; however, two large randomized trials found no benefit with anticoagulation compared to antiplatelet therapy for secondary stroke prevention after embolic stroke of undetermined source...
April 2020: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Karen Furie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an update on the epidemiology and prevention of a first stroke. Risk factor modification plays a large role in stroke prevention. Strategies for early intervention, particularly for hypertension, are critical for reducing stroke morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Because of the new criteria for hypertension, more people are now classified as hypertensive and can benefit from lifestyle or medical management. Direct oral anticoagulants have made it easier to safely treat patients with atrial fibrillation and are now considered first-line therapy for patients with an additional stroke risk factor...
April 2020: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Stephanie G Worrell, Karlie Haug, Anna Dubovoy, Jules Lin, Milo Engoren
BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate levels may be caused by increased production suggestive of tissue ischemia; however, it may also occur without evidence of ischemia, via catecholamine activation of beta receptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with increased lactate levels during and after lung transplantation and to evaluate whether lactate levels were associated with increased time to extubation and postoperative complications. METHODS: This retrospective study of patients who underwent lung transplantation between January 2015 and May 2017...
March 26, 2020: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Oana M Cole, Shervin Tosif, Matthew Shaw, Gregory Y H Lip
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that acute kidney injury (AKI) in the postoperative period could be an additional risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and to examine the risk factors for postoperative AF in the authors' cohort of patients. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: Large regional cardiothoracic surgical center in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery at the authors' institution between July 1, 2013, and December 31, 2018...
January 8, 2020: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Shuai Yuan, Ang Lin, Qi-Qiang He, Stephen Burgess, Susanna C Larsson
BACKGROUND: The causal role of interleukins (ILs) for cardiovascular disease has not been fully elucidated. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to investigate the associations of circulating ILs with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-2 receptor subunit alpha, IL-6, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 were identified from genome-wide association studies...
March 21, 2020: International Journal of Cardiology
Young Min Park, Jeonggeun Moon, In Cheol Hwang, Hyunsun Lim, Bokeum Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2020: International Journal of Cardiology
John H Alexander, Daniel Wojdyla, Amit N Vora, Laine Thomas, Christopher B Granger, Shaun G Goodman, Ronald Aronson, Stephan Windecker, Roxana Mehran, Renato D Lopes
Background: In AUGUSTUS, patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) had less bleeding with apixaban than vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and with placebo than aspirin, however, the number of ischemic events was numerically higher with placebo. The aim of this analysis is to assess the tradeoff of risk (bleeding) and benefit (ischemic events) over time with apixaban versus VKA and aspirin versus placebo. Methods: In AUGUSTUS, 4614 patients with AF and recent ACS and/or PCI on a P2Y12 inhibitor were randomized to blinded aspirin or placebo and to open-label apixaban or VKA for 6 months...
March 29, 2020: Circulation
Stephanie Jou, Hiren Patel, Hamza Oglat, Robert Zhang, Li Zhang, Peter Ells, Anthony Nappi, Mohammad El-Hajjar, Augustin DeLago, Mikhail Torosoff
Preoperative hyperbilirubinemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery. However, this clinical significance is unclear with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and prognostic implications of preoperative elevations of serum total bilirubin on TAVR outcomes. In 611 consecutive patients who underwent an elective TAVR procedure, 576 patients had recorded serum total bilirubin levels. Hyperbilirubinemia was defined as any value of serum total bilirubin ≥ 1...
March 28, 2020: Heart and Vessels
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