P T Pisa, N M Pisa, P Chikandiwa, A Chikandiwa
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a global public health problem and is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction and various cancers in later adulthood.Associations between adult obesity and economic growth, technological changes, socioeconomic status and economic inequities have been reported, but limited data are available for children and adolescents in countries that are undergoing an epidemiological health transition exhibiting both under- and overnutrition...
March 2, 2021: South African Medical Journal
Shubhankar Mishra, Ashok K Mallick, Geeta Mohanty, Priyabrata Nayak
Context: Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous) thrombosis (CVST) in childhood is a rare, but under recognized, disorder, typically of multifactorial etiology, with neurologic sequelae apparent in up to 40% of survivors and mortality approaching 10%. Aim: The aim of this study was to enlist the patients diagnosed as CVST younger than 14 years of age and to diagnose the etiology along with radiological correlation. Settings and Design: This prospective clinical study was conducted for 2 years in the Department of Neurology, Srirama Chandra Bhanja Medical College & Hospital (SCBMCH), Cuttack, Odisha, India...
October 2020: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Mohamed Faris, Michelle Baliss, Robert Coni, Vinod Nambudiri
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is an autosomal dominant multisystem genetic disorder affecting one in 2,600 individuals. It is caused by a mutation of the NF-1 gene located on chromosome 17q11.2. It is characterized by various cutaneous findings, including cafe-au-lait spots and axillary freckling. Hypertension is a commonly reported finding in adult patients with NF-1 but may also develop during childhood. In most cases, hypertension in NF-1 patients is primary in nature; however, secondary hypertension has been more frequently reported in NF-1 patients due to the association of NF-1 with an increased incidence of pheochromocytomas, bilateral renal artery stenosis, and coarctation of the abdominal aorta...
April 24, 2021: Curēus
Muserref Kasap Cuceoglu, Seher Sener, Ezgi Deniz Batu, Ummusen Kaya Akca, Selcan Demir, Erdal Sag, Erdal Atalay, Zeynep Balık, Ozge Basaran, Yelda Bilginer, Seza Ozen
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) has become challenging after the definition of deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2). We aimed to define the differential features of pediatric PAN and DADA2 patients in our center and in the literature. METHODS: The charts of pediatric PAN and DADA2 patients followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of Hacettepe University between 2010-2020 were analyzed. A systematic literature review was conducted for articles regarding pediatric PAN or DADA2...
April 19, 2021: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Paul Hammerness, Adam Cassidy, Heather Potts, Alanna Richardson, Jason Fogler, Kevin Daly, Marilyn Augustyn
Phillip is a young man born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome referred to your practice for a range of mental health concerns. He underwent palliation to an extracardiac Fontan in infancy and experienced multiple complications over the next decade including valvular regurgitation and arrhythmias necessitating a pacemaker. Phillip continued to have systolic heart failure with New York Heart Association class II symptoms, managed with 4 medications and anticoagulation. Despite this complex history, Phillip had intact cognitive abilities, achieved typical milestones, and performed well academically in secondary school...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Angela S Quan, Jürgen Brunner, Benjamin Rose, Martin Smitka, Gabriele Hahn, Clare E Pain, Renate Häfner, Fabian Speth, Lucia Gerstl, Christian M Hedrich
Childhood Primary Angiitis of Central Nervous System (cPACNS) is rare, but can cause significant damage and result in disability or even death. Because of its rarity, the sometimes acute and variable presentation, limited awareness, and the absence of widely accepted diagnostic and therapeutic standards, cPACNS is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Three subcategories of cPACNS exist, including angiography-positive non-progressive p-cPACNS, angiography-positive progressive p-cPACNS which both affects the medium to large vessels, and angiography-negative small vessel sv-cPACNS...
2021: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lisa R Sun, Dana Harrar, Gerald Drocton, Carlos Castillo-Pinto, Philippe Gailloud, Monica S Pearl
Endovascular therapies for acute childhood stroke remain controversial and little evidence exists to determine the minimum age and size cut-off for thrombectomy in children. Despite this, an increasing number of reports suggest feasibility of thrombectomy in at least some children by experienced operators. When compared with adults, technical modifications may be necessary in children owing to differences in vessel sizes, tolerance of blood loss, safety of contrast and radiation exposure, and differing stroke etiologies...
April 8, 2021: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Shrina Patel, Christopher Dadnam, Rebecca Hewitson, Indu Thakur, Jeff Morgan
Children with sickle cell disease can develop life-threatening and painful crises that require prompt assessment and efficient management by healthcare professionals in the emergency or acute care setting. Due to migration patterns and improved survival rates in high-prevalence countries, there is an increased tendency to encounter these patients across the UK. These factors warrant regular revisions in sickle cell crisis management, along with education for medical personnel and patients to improve clinical care and patient management...
April 8, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Nicholas P Ryan, Mardee Greenham, Anne L Gordon, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Anna Cooper, Louise Crowe, Rod W Hunt, Paul Monagle, Mark T Mackay, Vicki Anderson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation of distributed brain networks supporting social cognition; however, little is known about the impact of early ischemic brain insult on the acquisition of these skills. This study aimed to examine the influence of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) on facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM) abilities of children and adolescents initially recruited to a single-center, prospective longitudinal study of recovery following AIS...
April 8, 2021: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Pavel Ryska, Miroslav Lojik, Naci Kocer, Kamil Zelenak, Tomas Cesak, Petra Cimflova, Aprajita Milind Bhorkar, Eva Vitkova, Antonin Krajina
INTRODUCTION: Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is reported as a possible complication of craniopharyngioma resection in childhood. Here, the authors describe such a complication in an adult patient who presented with acute symptomatic thrombosis 7 months after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 45-year-old woman presented with left hemispheric stroke due to a thrombotic supraclinoid occlusion of the terminal ICA (so called "T" occlusion)...
March 31, 2021: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Beata Sarecka-Hujar, Joanna Sordyl, Ewa Małecka-Tendera, Ilona Kopyta
Background: Abnormalities in levels of lipid parameters are one of the main causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in adults. There are limited data on the role of disturbances of lipid metabolism in the etiopathogenesis of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and the results provided are ambiguous. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]) between children with AIS, children with headache and healthy children...
March 26, 2021: Brain Sciences
Benzeeta Pinto, Prateek Deo, Susmita Sharma, Arshi Syal, Aman Sharma
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a monogenic disease caused by biallelic mutations in ADA2 gene (previously CECR1). The aim of this review was to describe the clinical phenotypes, genetics, pathogenesis and treatment of DADA2. ADA2 is highly expressed on myeloid cells and deficiency leads to polarisation of macrophages to an M1 inflammatory type and activation of neutrophils. The pathogenesis of immunological and haematological manifestations is less clear. The spectrum of clinical presentations varies widely from asymptomatic individual to severe vasculitis, several autoinflammatory, immunological and haematological manifestations...
March 31, 2021: Clinical Rheumatology
Nicholas A Marston, Larry Han, Iacopo Olivotto, Sharlene M Day, Euan A Ashley, Michelle Michels, Alexandre C Pereira, Jodie Ingles, Christopher Semsarian, Daniel Jacoby, Steven D Colan, Joseph W Rossano, Samuel G Wittekind, James S Ware, Sara Saberi, Adam S Helms, Carolyn Y Ho
AIMS: Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is far less common than adult-onset disease, thus natural history is not well characterized. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an observational cohort study of 7677 HCM patients from the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [<1 year (infancy), 1-18 years (childhood), >18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints reflecting heart failure (HF), life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), and an overall composite that also included stroke and death...
March 26, 2021: European Heart Journal
Matylda Hennig, Agnieszka Brandt, Joanna Bautembach-Minkowska, Dominik Świętoń, Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Magdalenia Chmara, Bartosz Wasąg, Ewa Kamińska, Anna Balcerska, Janusz Limon, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Marcin Gruchała, Małgorzata Myśliwiec
INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders. It is characterized by elevated LDL cholesterol levels occurring already by early childhood. Awareness of health risks in FH patients should incite health professionals to actively seek and treat children with lipid disorders to reduce their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of taking into account the following parameters: ApoB/ApoA index, IMT and e-tracking examination, when initiating statin therapy in FH patients...
January 29, 2021: Journal of mother and child
David Clifford Mawhinney, Stephen Mullen, Nicholas Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Megan Barry, Dwight Barry, Akash P Kansagra, Danial Hallam, Michael Abraham, Catherine Amlie-Lefond
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because children often have lifelong morbidity after stroke, there is considerable enthusiasm to pursue mechanical thrombectomy in childhood stroke based on literature reports. However, current published data may reflect inconsistent reporting and publication bias, which limit the ability to assess safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in childhood stroke. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared reporting quality and clinical outcomes for mechanical thrombectomy between a trial-derived cohort of 42 children treated with mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke at study sites and 133 patients reported in the literature...
March 15, 2021: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rajni Farmania, Divyani Garg, Suvasini Sharma
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency in childhood associated with high mortality and morbidity. Acute management of seizures along with aggressive evaluation for establishing the underlying cause are crucial determinants of outcome. Neonatal status epilepticus carries the burden of poor neurological outcomes and may lead to global developmental delay as well as persistent seizures. The aetiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of SE in neonates and young infants differ compared to older children and adults...
November 2020: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Amanda Leong, Amalia Floer, Adam Kirton, Aleksandra Mineyko
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy and lifelong disability. Neurodevelopmental outcomes are difficult to predict and markers of long-term poor outcome continue to be investigated. Deceleration in growth of head circumference has been associated with worse developmental outcomes in neonatal brain injury. We hypothesized that perinatal stroke would result in decreased rates of head growth during childhood that would be associated with worse developmental outcomes...
March 8, 2021: Journal of Child Neurology
Abhishek Bavle, Anand Srinivasan, Farooq Choudhry, Michael Anderson, Michael Confer, Hilarie Simpson, Theresa Gavula, J Spencer Thompson, Shari Clifton, Naina L Gross, Rene McNall-Knapp
Background: The aim of our study is to determine the incidence, timing, and risk factors for cerebral vasculopathy after cranial proton and photon radiation for pediatric brain tumors. Methods: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of a cohort of children treated with proton radiation for brain tumors. MRA and/or MRI were reviewed for evidence of cerebral vascular stenosis and infarcts. Twenty-one similar studies (17 photon, 4 proton) were identified by systematic literature review...
February 2021: Neuro-oncology Practice
A David Smith, Helga Refsum
We have reviewed the literature and have identified more than 100 diseases or conditions that are associated with raised concentrations of plasma total homocysteine. The commonest associations are with cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the central nervous system, but a large number of developmental and age-related conditions are also associated. Few other disease biomarkers have so many associations. The clinical importance of these associations becomes especially relevant if lowering plasma total homocysteine by B vitamin treatment can prevent disease and so improve health...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Internal Medicine
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