Emma Macrae, Bosiljka Milosavljevic, Laura Katus, Luke Mason, Marta Perapoch Amadó, Maria Rozhko, Michelle de Haan, Clare E Elwell, Sophie E Moore, Sarah Lloyd-Fox
Cognitive control is a predictor of later-life outcomes and may underpin higher order executive processes. The present study examines the development of early cognitive control during the first 24-month. We evaluated a tablet-based assessment of cognitive control among infants aged 18- and 24-month. We also examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between attentional disengagement, general cognitive skills and cognitive control. Participants (N = 60, 30 female) completed the tablet-task at 18- and 24-month of age...
May 20, 2024: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Maria J Hagelaars, Milica Nikolic, Maud Vermeulen, Sylvia Dekker, Carlijn V C Bouten, Sandra Loerakker
Apical-basal polarization in renal epithelial cells is crucial to renal function and an important trigger for tubule formation in kidney development. Loss of polarity can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can lead to kidney pathologies. Understanding the relative and combined roles of the involved proteins and their interactions that govern epithelial polarity may provide insights for controlling the process of polarization via chemical or mechanical manipulations in an in vitro or in vivo setting...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Computational Biology
Regina Oakley, Nadja Hedrich, Alexandra Walker, Habtamu Merha Dinkita, Rea Tschopp, Charles Abongomera, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: At the end of 2022, there were over 108 million forcibly displaced people globally, including refugees, asylum seekers (AS) and internally displaced people (IDPs). Forced migration increases the risk of infectious disease transmission, and zoonotic pathogens account for 61% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Zoonoses create a high burden of disease and have the potential to cause large-scale outbreaks. This scoping review aimed to assess the state of research on a range of clinically relevant zoonotic pathogens in displaced populations in order to identify the gaps in literature and guide future research...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Etienne Frumence, David A Wilkinson, Raphaelle Klitting, Muriel Vincent, Nicolas Mnemosyme, Gilda Grard, Nicolas Traversier, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Diana Heaugwane, Laurent Souply, Claude Giry, Marie-Claire Paty, Louis Collet, Patrick Gérardin, Fabian Thouillot, Xavier De Lamballerie, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major public health concern in Reunion Island, marked by recurrent epidemics, including successive outbreaks of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 (DENV1 and DENV2) with over 70,000 cases confirmed since 2017. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used Oxford Nanopore NGS technology for sequencing virologically-confirmed samples and clinical isolates collected between 2012 and 2022 to investigate the molecular epidemiology and evolution of DENV in Reunion Island...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nidhi Shukla, Sarah M Roelle, John C Snell, Olivia DelSignore, Anna M Bruchez, Kenneth A Matreyek
Pairwise compatibility between virus and host proteins can dictate the outcome of infection. During transmission, both inter- and intraspecies variabilities in receptor protein sequences can impact cell susceptibility. Many viruses possess mutable viral entry proteins and the patterns of host compatibility can shift as the viral protein sequence changes. This combinatorial sequence space between virus and host is poorly understood, as traditional experimental approaches lack the throughput to simultaneously test all possible combinations of protein sequences...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Pathogens
Amanda O Shaver, Isabella R Miller, Etta S Schaye, Nicolas D Moya, J B Collins, Janneke Wit, Alyssa H Blanco, Fiona M Shao, Elliot J Andersen, Sharik A Khan, Gracie Paredes, Erik C Andersen
Albendazole (a benzimidazole) and ivermectin (a macrocyclic lactone) are the two most commonly co-administered anthelmintic drugs in mass-drug administration programs worldwide. Despite emerging resistance, we do not fully understand the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs nor the consequences of delivering them in combination. Albendazole resistance has primarily been attributed to variation in the drug target, a beta-tubulin gene. Ivermectin targets glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls), but it is unknown whether GluCl genes are involved in ivermectin resistance in nature...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Pathogens
Bianca A Ferreira, Elizabeth M Coser, Stephane de la Roca, Juliana I Aoki, Nilson Branco, Gustavo H C Soares, Mayara I S Lima, Adriano C Coelho
In Brazil, Leishmania amazonensis is the etiological agent of cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The state of Maranhão in the Northeast of Brazil is prevalent for these clinical forms of the disease and also has high rates of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the drug susceptibility of a L. amazonensis clinical isolate from a 46-year-old man with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis coinfected with HIV from this endemic area. This patient underwent several therapeutic regimens with meglumine antimoniate, liposomal amphotericin B, and pentamidine, without success...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael S Reichert, Barney Luttbeg, Elizabeth A Hobson
Communication takes place within a network of multiple signallers and receivers. Social network analysis provides tools to quantify how an individual's social positioning affects group dynamics and the subsequent biological consequences. However, network analysis is rarely applied to animal communication, likely due to the logistical difficulties of monitoring natural communication networks. We generated a simulated communication network to investigate how variation in individual communication behaviours generates network effects, and how this communication network's structure feeds back to affect future signalling interactions...
July 8, 2024: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Evan D Gorman, Manuel E Lladser
Random forests have emerged as a promising tool in comparative metagenomics because they can predict environmental characteristics based on microbial composition in datasets where β-diversity metrics fall short of revealing meaningful relationships between samples. Nevertheless, despite this efficacy, they lack biological insight in tandem with their predictions, potentially hindering scientific advancement. To overcome this limitation, we leverage a geometric characterization of random forests to introduce a data-driven phylogenetic β-diversity metric, the adaptive Haar-like distance...
May 20, 2024: PLoS Computational Biology
R Constance Wiener, Christopher Waters, Ruchi Bhandari
INTRODUCTION: People make oral healthcare decisions regardless of having partial information, misinformation, sources that deliberately mislead, or information that is culturally influenced. This is particularly true in the Appalachian culture where oral healthcare decision-making practices are not well understood by researchers and dental professionals. Despite efforts to improve dental care utilization, the Appalachia region remains low in oral healthcare utilization. There is a need for a theory to identify concepts in decision-making when seeking oral healthcare...
2024: PloS One
Jeeraphong Thanongsaksrikul, Paskorn Sritipsukho, Potjanee Srimanote, Onruedee Khantisitthiporn, Wipawadee Sianglum, Uayporn Pinitchai, Yong Poovorawan
A dynamic of virus adaptation and a mass vaccination campaign could significantly reduce the severity of clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and transmission. Hence, COVID-19 may become an endemic disease globally. Moreover, mass infection as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed affected the serology of the patients as a result of virus mutation and vaccination. Therefore, a need exists to acquire accurate serological testing to monitor the emergence of new outbreaks of COVID-19 to promptly prevent and control the disease spreading...
2024: PloS One
Tamene Belay, Agumasie Semahegn, Haymanot Mezmur, Teshale Mulatu
INTRODUCTION: Maternal morbidity and mortality has remained a major public health concern worldwide. Basic emergency obstetric care is the primary intervention to prevent obstetric complications and maternal death. Episiotomy is one of the basic obstetrical procedures used to facilitate vaginal delivery, shorten the second stage of labor and prevent complications. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with episiotomy among women who gave birth in eastern Ethiopia...
2024: PLOS Glob Public Health
Dinesh S Chandel, Wesley A Tom, Chao Jiang, Gary Krzyzanowski, Nirmalee Fernando, Appolinaire Olou, M Rohan Fernando
Circulating miRNA has recently emerged as important biomolecules with potential clinical values as diagnostic markers for several diseases. However, to be used as such, it is critical to accurately quantify miRNAs in the clinic. Yet, preanalytical factors that can affect an error-free quantification of these miRNAs have not been explored. This study aimed at investigating several of these preanalytical factors that may affect the accurate quantification of miRNA-451a, miRNA-423-5p and miRNA-199a-3p in human blood samples...
2024: PloS One
M Gabriela Cabanilla, Michael L Bernauer, Liana M Atallah, Matthew J Briski, Jason Koury, Cecilia M Thompson, Chelsea N Rodriguez, Bernadette Jakeman, Thomas F Byrd
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with high mortality rates. Despite antibiotic therapy, persistent bacteremia is challenging to treat. Combination therapy with ceftaroline has emerged as a potential treatment option; however, the optimal duration and clinical implications after bacteremia clearance are unknown. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined patients with high-grade or persistent MRSA bacteremia who were treated with ceftaroline combination therapy at the University of New Mexico Hospital between January 2014 and June 2021...
2024: PloS One
Chuansheng Wang, Zixian Guo, Fulei Shi, Mingyue Chen, Xinyu Wang, Jia Liu
In response to increasingly complex social emergencies, this study realizes the optimization of logistics information flow and resource allocation by constructing the Emergency logistics information Traceability model (ELITM-CBT) based on alliance blockchain technology. Using the decentralized, data immutable and transparent characteristics of alliance blockchain technology, this research breaks through the limitations of traditional emergency logistics models and improves the accuracy and efficiency of information management...
2024: PloS One
Edwin Maas
PURPOSE: The purposes of this review article were to provide an introduction to and "bird's-eye" overview of the current evidence base for treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), identify some gaps and trends in this rapidly growing literature, and formulate some future research directions, in order to advance the evidence base and clinical practice for children with CAS. METHOD: Following a brief introduction outlining important concepts, a narrative review of the CAS treatment literature is provided, and trends and future directions are identified based on this review...
May 20, 2024: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Dragana Tomić Naglić, Aljoša Mandić, Andrijana Milankov, Slađana Pejaković, Stefan Janičić, Nikolina Vuković, Ivana Bajkin, Tijana Ičin, Mia Manojlović, Edita Stokić
Obesity is a significant health issue associated with increased cancer risks, including gynecological malignancies. The worldwide rise in obesity rates is significantly impacting both cancer development and treatment outcomes. Adipose tissue plays a crucial role in metabolism, secreting various substances that can influence cancer formation. In obese individuals, dysfunctional adipose tissue can contribute to cancer development through inflammation, insulin resistance, hormonal changes, and abnormal cholesterol metabolism...
May 19, 2024: Biomol Biomed
Bharati Beatrix Bansal, Sriharsha Kambala, Jo-Ann Nesiama
Epistaxis is a common problem in pediatric patients. Most cases are benign in nature and resolve with minimal intervention. However, there are many unusual conditions that present with epistaxis that can be very serious and should be promptly investigated and treated. This review aids in the distinction between the benign causes of epistaxis and those that are more serious and require further evaluation. The various etiologies of epistaxis are discussed, and recommendations for general and scenario-specific management of pediatric patients with epistaxis are provided...
June 2024: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Eric Leslie, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Jonathan Specht, Zachary J McKenna, Rebekah Gridley, Vincent Luna, David T Jones, Benjamin J Lantz, Mika Moriwaki, Yu-Yu Hsiao, Ann L Gibson, Christine Mermier, Sean M Wilson, Michael R Deyhle
PURPOSE: Chronic, high-altitude hypoxic exposure increases the risk of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (PH). Emerging evidence shows maternal exercise may improve offspring resistance to disease throughout life. The purpose of this study is to determine if maternal exercise mitigates chronic hypoxic-induced changes in the offspring indicative of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension development. METHODS: Female adult C57BL/6 J mice were randomly allocated to nonexercise or exercise conditions...
May 15, 2024: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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