David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Cecily L Betz, Sharon M Hudson, Adam L Skura, Nithya D Rajeev, Kathryn A Smith, Alexander Van Speybroeck
PURPOSE: The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the types of academic and health-related accommodations provided to adolescents and emerging adults with spina bifida aged 9-20 years. METHODS: Data was extracted from the paper and electronic records of transition-age youth enrolled in the study. Four open ended items involved content analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently identified accommodation was enrollment in special education classes in 47...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Mohammad Rafi Khezri, Morteza Ghasemnejad-Berenji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Although the main cause of the onset and development of AD is not known yet, neuronal death due to pathologic changes such as amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, tau aggregation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and calcium dyshomeostasis are considered to be the main cause. At the present, there is no cure for this insidious disorder. However, accurate identification of molecular changes in AD can help provide new therapeutic goals...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Li-Tian Hu, Xiao-Yong Xie, Gui-Feng Zhou, Qi-Xin Wen, Li Song, Biao Luo, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qiu-Ling Pan, Guo-Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau (pTau) contributes to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and targeting Tau/pTau metabolism has emerged as a therapeutic approach. We have previously reported that mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-COA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) is involved in AD by promoting autophagic clearance of amyloid-β protein precursor via ketone body-associated mechanism, whether HMGCS2 may also regulate Tau metabolism remains elusive...
November 22, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Oliver Watson, Jun-Cezar Zaldua, Suresh Pillai, Janet Whitley, Matthew Howard, Matthew Lawrence, Karl Hawkins, Keith Morris, Phillip Adrian Evans
BACKGROUND: A significant degree of mortality and morbidity in Covid-19 is through thromboembolic complications, only partially mitigated by anticoagulant therapy. Reliable markers of infection severity are not fully established. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether visco-elastic biomarkers predict disease severity on presentation to the Emergency Department (ED) and how they measure response to anticoagulationMETHODS:Patients testing positive for Covid-19 at a large University Teaching Hospital ED were recruited at presentation...
November 19, 2022: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Charlotte Labrecque, Alexandra Lecours, Marie-Hélène Gilbert, Frédérique Boucher
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented health emergency across the world. Public health measures aimed at slowing the spread of the virus impose measures concerning physical distancing that citizens must observe. Thousands of workers quickly found themselves having to telework, with no preparation by their organizations. The literature reports the positive effects of teleworking on certain indicators of well-being, as well as best teleworking practices in a normal context...
November 25, 2022: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Gordon Mansergh, Krishna Kiran Kota, Neal Carnes, Deb Gelaude
BACKGROUND: An important subgroup of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) with behavioral indications refuse daily oral PrEP when recommended by a provider. Emerging HIV prophylaxis products (e.g., injectable, event-driven) offer more options to MSM who refuse daily PrEP. Herein we assess reasons for refusal and likelihood to use various products among MSM who refused PrEP. METHODS: MSM who reported anal sex without condoms or PrEP and refused daily oral PrEP in the past 6 months were recruited through clinics, community venues, and online in Atlanta, Chicago, and Raleigh-Durham...
November 24, 2022: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Emilio F Moran, Maria Claudia Lopez, Rachel Mourão, Erik Brown, Aaron M McCright, Judith Walgren, Ana Paula Bortoleto, Adam Mayer, Igor Cavallini Johansen, Karina Ninni Ramos, Laura Castro-Diaz, Maria Alejandra Garcia, Rafael Cavalcanti Lembi, Norbert Mueller
Millions of people across the world live off-grid not by choice but because they live in rural areas, have low income, and have no political clout. Delivering sustainable energy solutions to such a substantial amount of the world's population requires more than a technological fix; it requires leveraging the knowledge of underserved populations working together with a transdisciplinary team to find holistically derived solutions. Our original research has resulted in an innovative Convergence Framework integrating the fields of engineering, social sciences, and communication, and is based on working together with communities and other stakeholders to address the challenges posed by delivering clean energy solutions...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wataru Higemoto, Makoto Yokoyama, Takashi U Ito, Taiga Suzuki, Stéphane Raymond, Youichi Yanase
Nontrivial quantum states can be realized in the vicinity of the quantum critical point (QCP) in many strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, an emergence of unconventional superconductivity around the QCP strongly suggests that the quantum critical fluctuations play a central role in the superconducting pairing mechanism. However, a clear signature of the direct coupling between the superconducting pairing states and the quantum criticality has not yet been elucidated by the microscopic probes...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sifan Yin, Bo Li, Xi-Qiao Feng
Morphogenesis of active shells such as cells is a fundamental chemomechanical process that often exhibits three-dimensional (3D) large deformations and chemical pattern dynamics simultaneously. Here, we establish a chemomechanical active shell theory accounting for mechanical feedback and biochemical regulation to investigate the symmetry-breaking and 3D chiral morphodynamics emerging in the cell cortex. The active bending and stretching of the elastic shells are regulated by biochemical signals like actomyosin and RhoA, which, in turn, exert mechanical feedback on the biochemical events via deformation-dependent diffusion and inhibition...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lance D Langston, Zuanning Yuan, Roxana Georgescu, Huilin Li, Michael E O'Donnell
Duplication of DNA genomes requires unwinding of the double-strand (ds) DNA so that each single strand (ss) can be copied by a DNA polymerase. The genomes of eukaryotic cells are unwound by two ring-shaped hexameric helicases that initially encircle dsDNA but transition to ssDNA for function as replicative helicases. How the duplex is initially unwound, and the role of the two helicases in this process, is poorly understood. We recently described an initiation mechanism for eukaryotes in which the two helicases are directed inward toward one another and shear the duplex open by pulling on opposite strands of the duplex while encircling dsDNA [L...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Deborah Palazzotti, Martina Fiorelli, Stefano Sabatini, Serena Massari, Maria Letizia Barreca, Andrea Astolfi
The recent increase of bioactivity data freely available to the scientific community and stored as activity data points in chemogenomic repositories provides a huge amount of ready-to-use information to support the development of predictive models. However, the benefits provided by the availability of such a vast amount of accessible information are strongly counteracted by the lack of uniformity and consistency of data from multiple sources, requiring a process of integration and harmonization. While different automated pipelines for processing and assessing chemical data have emerged in the last years, the curation of bioactivity data points is a less investigated topic, with useful concepts provided but no tangible tools available...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
David E Jacobs, Mary Jean Brown
CONTEXT: Childhood lead poisoning prevention in the United States was marked by a largely failed medical approach from 1971 to 1990; an emergent (but small) healthy housing primary prevention strategy from 1991 to 2015; and implementation of large-scale proven interventions since then. PROGRAM: Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention & Healthy Housing. METHODS: Historic and recent health and housing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS) were retrieved to analyze trends and associated policy gaps...
November 23, 2022: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Amir Qaseem, Jennifer Yost, Matthew C Miller, Rebecca Andrews, Janet A Jokela, Mary Ann Forciea, George M Abraham, Linda L Humphrey
Description: Strategies to manage COVID-19 in the outpatient setting continue to evolve as new data emerge on SARS-CoV-2 variants and the availability of newer treatments. The Scientific Medical Policy Committee (SMPC) of the American College of Physicians (ACP) developed these living, rapid practice points to summarize the best available evidence on the treatment of adults with confirmed COVID-19 in an outpatient setting. These practice points do not evaluate COVID-19 treatments in the inpatient setting or adjunctive COVID-19 treatments in the outpatient setting...
November 29, 2022: Annals of Internal Medicine
Haley K Holmer, Katherine Mackey, Celia V Fiordalisi, Mark Helfand
BACKGROUND: The durability of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of antibodies in protection against reinfection are unclear. PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and reinfection risk with a focus on gaps identified in our prior reports. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CINAHL, World Health Organization Research Database, and reference lists from 16 December 2021 through 8 July 2022, with surveillance through 22 August 2022...
November 29, 2022: Annals of Internal Medicine
Isolde Sommer, Andreea Dobrescu, Dominic Ledinger, Isabel Moser, Kylie Thaler, Emma Persad, Martin Fangmeyer, Robert Emprechtinger, Irma Klerings, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Clinicians and patients want to know the benefits and harms of outpatient treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infection. PURPOSE: To assess the benefits and harms of 12 different COVID-19 treatments in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES: Epistemonikos COVID-19 L·OVE Platform, searched on 4 April 2022. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts against a priori-defined criteria...
November 29, 2022: Annals of Internal Medicine
Genevieve F Dash, Emily Carter, Sarah L Karalunas, Karen A Hudson, Damien Fair, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that caffeine use disproportionately impacts sleep functioning among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study aimed to examine the association of caffeine use with disrupted sleep, and to test moderating effects of ADHD, by leveraging differences within twin pairs to explore potential quasi-causal (i.e., within-pair) effects. METHOD: N = 765 complete same-sex twin pairs (mean age at baseline = 10...
November 28, 2022: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Brett A Murphy, Ashley L Watts, Zachary G Baker, Brian P Don, Tatum A Jolink, Sara B Algoe
In basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), the separable constructs of need satisfaction and need frustration are theorized as pivotally related to psychopathology and broader aspects of well-being. The Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scales (BPNSFS; Chen et al., 2015) have rapidly emerged as the dominant self-report measure in the BPNT domain, with translated versions available in a wide range of languages and a plethora of versions adapted for specific populations and life contexts...
November 28, 2022: Psychological Assessment
Rebekka S Steiner, Andreas Hirschi, Mo Wang
Work-to-family conflict (WFC) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE) are prevalent experiences among working parents. Past research has highlighted the negative consequences of WFC and the positive implications of WFE for the focal person and crossover effects on significant others, such as spouses. However, research on crossover effects on children is sparse, especially in terms of their emerging work beliefs, such as work centrality. To address this research void, based on social support and role-modeling literature, we propose that parental WFC and WFE relate to child work centrality through perceptions of parental career support (an instrumental path) and parental job satisfaction (a sociocognitive path)...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Applied Psychology
Melanie K Prengler, Nitya Chawla, Angelica Leigh, Kristie M Rogers
Organizations are key mechanisms by which racism is enacted and perpetuated. Although much of the management literature has focused on organizational efforts to combat racial discrimination, some of the most transformative changes come from the everyday actions of employees themselves. In this study, we develop grounded theory on racial minority employees who choose to challenge racism from within the organizational structures that perpetuate it most (i.e., highly racialized organizations). We present a theoretical model of employee anti-racism that emerged from our analysis of qualitative data-comprising 80...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Applied Psychology
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