David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Lynette M Sholl
Current clinical practice guidelines recognize EGFR, BRAF, ALK, and ROS1 as essential molecular biomarkers, and a host of other genetic alterations as emerging biomarkers for non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. The available approaches to detecting relevant alterations in these genes are diverse and often complementary. Laboratories have increasingly migrated away from a "single-gene test" approach, embracing assays that incorporate panels of genes capable of detecting a diverse set of alterations...
June 2020: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Hai Salfity, Betty C Tong
Lung carcinoma widely affects men and women in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thorough workup with radiographic imaging, pathologic diagnosis, and cardiopulmonary functional assessment is key to successful treatment. Accurate staging is essential for both assessing prognosis and directing therapy. Early-stage lung cancer is most often treated with anatomic lobectomy; locally advanced cancers may require induction or adjuvant therapies. Any nonnodal metastases will require definitive systemic therapy...
June 2020: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nicholas A Everett, Anita J Turner, Priscila A Costa, Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The neuropeptide oxytocin has emerged as a promising pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and clinical trials of intranasal oxytocin are underway. However, there is debate as to how peripherally administered oxytocin alters brain signalling to modulate addiction processes. Interestingly, there is evidence for functional interactions between peripheral oxytocin administration and the vagus nerve. Therefore, this study investigated whether the effects of peripherally administered oxytocin require vagal signalling to reduce METH self-administration and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviours...
May 25, 2020: Neuropsychopharmacology
Andrea Sambri, Massimiliano De Paolis, Paolo Spinnato, Davide Maria Donati, Giuseppe Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is among the most highly complex sarcoma types. Molecular cytogenetic studies have identified a high level of genomic complexity. SUMMARY: This review provides an update of the current research related to MFS, with particular emphasis on emerging mechanisms of tumorigenesis and their potential therapeutic impact. Many novel possible molecular markers have been identified, not only for prognostication in MFS, but also to serve as possible therapeutic targets, and thereby improve clinical outcomes...
May 25, 2020: Oncology Research and Treatment
Linhao Li, Yanbing Liang, Guohang Wang, Peng Xu, Lingbing Yang, Sen Hou, Jin Zhou, Lizhen Wang, Xiaoming Li, Li Yang, Yubo Fan
Graphene-based substrates are emerging as a promising functional platform for biomedical applications. Although dispersible graphene sheets have been demonstrated to be biodegradable, their assembled macroscopic architectures are biopersistent because of strong π-π interactions. In this study, we developed a nacre-inspired graphene-silk nanocomposite film by vacuum filtration with a subsequent green chemical reduction procedure. The "brick-and-mortar" architecture not only ensures the mechanical and electrical properties of the film but also endows it with disintegrable and bioresorbable properties following rat subcutaneous implantation...
May 13, 2020: IScience
Mauro Pettorruso, Stephanie Valle, Elizabeth Cavic, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio, Jon E Grant
Problematic Internet Use (PIU) encloses excessive online activities (like video gaming, social media use, web-streaming, pornography viewing, buying). Despite its psychological burden, risk factors related to PIU remain still unclear. In the present study we explored the role of personality traits and emotion dysregulation as potential vulnerability factors for PIU. In a sample of American young adults with different PIU risk levels (established through the Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire), we administered the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale...
May 16, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Mouhamed Yazan Abou-Ismail, Divyaswathi Citla Sridhar, Lalitha Nayak
Estrogen, in the clinical setting is used primarily for contraception and hormone replacement therapy. It has been well established that estrogen increases the risk of both arterial and venous thrombosis. While estrogen is known to induce a prothrombotic milieu through various effects on the hemostatic pathways, the exact molecular mechanism leading to those effects is not known. The most common clinical presentation of estrogen-related thrombosis is venous thromboembolism (VTE) of the deep veins of the legs or pulmonary vessels, usually within the first few months of use...
May 11, 2020: Thrombosis Research
Thaddeus J Puzio, Patrick B Murphy, Piiamaria Virtanen, John A Harvin, Jennifer L Hartwell
BACKGROUND: The handover period has been identified as a particularly vulnerable period for communication breakdown leading to patient safety events. Clear and concise handover is especially critical in high-acuity care settings such as trauma, emergency general surgery, and surgical critical care. There is no consensus for the most effective and efficient means of evaluating or performing handover in this population. We aimed to characterize the current handover practices and perceptions in trauma and acute care surgery...
May 22, 2020: Journal of Surgical Research
Meg Stevens, Aswin Ratheesh, Amity Watson, Kate Filia, Brian O Donoghue, Sue M Cotton
The aim of this scoping review was to: (i) determine rates and types of sexual risk behaviours and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) in those with severe mental illness (SMI); and (ii) delineate correlates of poor sexual health outcome. The online databases OVID MedLine and PsycINFO were searched from databases inception to February 2018 for any literature with a focus on sexual risk behaviours (inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, substance use and transactional sexual acts) or STIs in SMI populations...
May 16, 2020: Psychiatry Research
Yuanyao Ye, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Soon Woong Chang, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Xinbo Zhang, Shicheng Zhang, Gang Luo, Yi Liu
Nutrients recovery has become a meaningful solution to address shortage in the fertilizer production which is the key issue of nations' food security. The concept of municipal wastewater is based on its ability to be a major potential source for recovered nutrients because of its vast quantity and nutrient-rich base. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has emerged as a sustainable technology, which is able to recover nutrients and simultaneously generate electricity. In this study a two-chambered MFC was constructed, and operated in a continuous flow mode employing artificial municipal wastewater as a substrate...
May 6, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Ju, Yu Zhang, Yifan Zheng, Fenglei Gao, Fenghua Jiang, Jingxi Li, Chengjun Sun
In this study, the interaction of emerging pollutant polyvinyl chloride microplastics (PVC MPs) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence results showed that PVC MPs (about 5000 nm in size) can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through static quenching owing to the formation of HSA-PVC complex...
May 8, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
Priscila Longhin Bosquesi, Aylime Castanho Bolognesi Melchior, Aline Renata Pavan, Carolina Lanaro, Cristiane Maria de Souza, Radda Rusinova, Rafael Consolin Chelucci, Karina Pereira Barbieri, Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Iracilda Zepone Carlos, Olaf Sparre Andersen, Fernando Ferreira Costa, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Resveratrol (RVT) derivatives (10a-i) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their potential as gamma-globin inducers in treating Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) symptoms. All compounds were able to release NO at different levels ranging from 0 to 26.3%, while RVT did not demonstrate this effect. In vivo, the antinociceptive effect was characterized using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contortion model. All compounds exhibited different levels of protection, ranging from 5.9 to 37.3%; the compound 10a was the most potent among the series...
May 16, 2020: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jian Liu, Ziyi Guo, Marija Kordanovski, Jonas Kaltbeitzel, He Zhang, Zhenbang Cao, Zi Gu, Peter R Wich, Megan Lord, Kang Liang
An increasing number of peptide drugs have been identified or synthesized in recent decades, and they have played an important role in disease treatments and scientific research. Peptide drugs have become emerging candidates in the pharmaceutical market, despite some inherent disadvantages that have hindered their further development (i.e., they are chemically and physically unstable). Considering that cold-storage conditions are not easily accessible, particularly in developing countries, it remains a significant challenge to find a facile way to enhance the stability of peptide drugs...
May 19, 2020: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2020: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC
Mohammad Hassan A Noureldine, Elliot Pressman, Paul R Krafft, Mark S Greenberg, Siviero Agazzi, Harry van Loveren, Puya Alikhani
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical services are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and several departments reported their experiences and responses to the COVID-19 crisis in an attempt to provide insights from which other impacted departments can benefit. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study are to report the load and variety of emergent/urgent neurosurgical cases after implementing the 'Battle Plan' at an academic tertiary referral center during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare these variables to previous practice at the same institution...
May 22, 2020: World Neurosurgery
Joyce Antony, William Thomas James, Anna Jolly Neriamparambil, Dwarkesh Dharmendra Barot, Teresa Withers
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the impact of public health policy in Australia in response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the delivery of neurosurgical services. Being essential services, we postulated that there would not be a decrease in elective and emergency neurosurgical presentations and surgeries. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, epidemiological study in strict adherence to the STROBE guidelines. It is a cross-sectional, multicentric study involving five tertiary neurosurgical centres to capture all public neurosurgical admissions in Queensland during the last three months (Feb-April, 2020) of significant public health policy changes to combat COVID-19...
May 22, 2020: World Neurosurgery
Tomasz Jaworski
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) is an enzyme with a variety of cellular functions in addition to the regulation of glycogen metabolism. In the central nervous system, different intracellular signaling pathways converge on GSK-3β through a cascade of phosphorylation events that ultimately control a broad range of neuronal functions in the development and adulthood. In mice, genetically removing or increasing GSK-3β cause distinct functional and structural neuronal phenotypes and consequently affect cognition...
May 22, 2020: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Cell Research
M Ali Khan, Arunan Sivalingam, Julia A Haller
PURPOSE: To assess perceptions of occupational risk and changes to clinical practice of ophthalmology trainees in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An anonymous, non-validated, cross-sectional survey was conducted online. Data was collected from April 7-16, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 2019-2020 second year U.S. vitreoretinal surgery fellows in two-year vitreoretinal surgery training programs were invited to participate. INTERVENTION: Online survey...
May 22, 2020: Ophthalmology Retina
Marta Colaneri, Elena Seminari, Stefano Novati, Erika Asperges, Simona Biscarini, Antonio Piralla, Elena Percivalle, Irene Cassaniti, Fausto Baldanti, Raffaele Bruno, Mario U Mondelli
OBJECTIVES: To detect possible SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination of inanimate surfaces in areas at high risk of aerosol formation by patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sampling was performed in the emergency unit and the sub-intensive care ward. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was extracted from swabbed surfaces and objects and subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and E genes. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted in vitro on Vero E6 cells...
May 22, 2020: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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