David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Beiwen Zheng, Wenhong Liu, Hao Xu, Junfeng Li, Xiawei Jiang
As zoned areas of industries, industrial parks have great impacts on the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that chemical compounds and heavy metals released from industrial parks can contaminate soil, water, and air. However, as an emerging pollutant, antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in industrial parks have not yet been investigated. Here, we collected soil samples from 35 sites in an industrial park in China and applied a metagenomics strategy to profile the ARGs and virulence factors (VFs)...
January 8, 2021: Environmental Pollution
Gillian King, Shauna Kingsnorth, Andrea Morrison, Jan Willem Gorter, Andrea DeFinney, Barbara Kehl
PURPOSE: To examine parents' views of the benefits of residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities. METHOD: Three- and 12-month post-session interviews were held with ten parents of youth with disabilities who had attended one of three residential immersive life skills programs in one of three years of data collection. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted to describe the types of benefits reported by parents. RESULTS: Parents discussed foundational benefits that were common to youth and more individualized emergent benefits...
January 13, 2021: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Christoph U Correll, Kimberly E Vanover, Robert E Davis, Richard Chen, Andrew Satlin, Sharon Mates
BACKGROUND: Lumateperone is a mechanistically novel agent FDA-approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Efficacy and favorable tolerability of lumateperone were demonstrated in 2 short-term placebo-controlled studies in patients with schizophrenia. This open-label study investigated the short-term safety/tolerability of lumateperone in outpatients with stable schizophrenia switched from previous antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: Adult outpatients with stable schizophrenia were switched from previous antipsychotics to lumateperone 42 mg once daily for six weeks, then patients were switched back to previous or another approved antipsychotic for 2 weeks...
January 12, 2021: Schizophrenia Research
Mor Saban, Anna Reznik, Tal Shachar, Rachel Wilf-Miron, Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation and care provided to patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at the emergency department (ED). METHOD: A retrospective-archive study was conducted between January-April 2020, compared with the parallel months in 2017-2019, in a comprehensive stroke center. We compared the time from symptoms onset to ED arrival, the number of neurologic consultations completed in the ED, patients diagnosed with AIS, patients receiving acute treatment and hospital mortality...
December 26, 2020: Journal of Critical Care
Guoqiang Shan, Xiang Qian, Xin Chen, Xuemin Feng, Minghong Cai, Liping Yang, Meng Chen, Lingyan Zhu, Shufeng Zhang
Knowledge on distribution of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in open oceans is limited. By taking part in the 32nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition, 41 surface seawater samples were collected in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NW-PO), eastern Indian Ocean (E-IO) and Southern Ocean (SO), and 23 PFASs comprised of legacy perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkyl sulfonate acids and some new emerging homologs such as 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) were measured...
January 6, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Takashi Ohba, Koichi Tanigawa, Liudmila Liutsko
Standards and guidelines for preparedness and response in the case of a nuclear accident cover radiation protection, health management and communication with affected populations. Decision makers use these recommendations to decide on measures that protect people residing around a nuclear power plant that suffers an accident from radiation exposure; for example, sheltering, evacuation and relocation. While technological and radiological criteria exist for these protective measures, studies on past radiological and nuclear emergencies have shown that evacuation and relocation result in serious health effects; this needs to be considered in accident preparedness and responses in the future...
January 13, 2021: Environment International
Yunjie He, Hong Zhao, Stephen T C Wong
Technological innovation has accelerated the pathological diagnostic process for cancer, especially in digitizing histopathology slides and incorporating deep learning-based approaches to mine the subvisual morphometric phenotypes for improving pathology diagnosis. In this perspective paper, we provide an overview on major deep learning approaches for digital pathology and discuss challenges and opportunities of such approaches to aid cancer diagnosis in digital pathology. In particular, the emerging graph neural network may further improve the performance and interpretability of deep learning in digital pathology...
December 11, 2020: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Joshua Nagler, Marc Auerbach, Michael C Monuteaux, John A Cheek, Franz E Babl, Ed Oakley, Lucia Nguyen, Arjun Rao, Sarah Dalton, Mark D Lyttle, Santiago Mintegi, Rakesh D Mistry, Andrew Dixon, Pedro Rino, Guillermo Kohn-Loncarica, Stuart R Dalziel, Simon Craig
BACKGROUND: Airway management procedures are critical for emergency medicine (EM) physicians, but rarely performed skills in pediatric patients. Worldwide experience with respect to frequency and confidence in performing airway management skills has not been previously described. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were 1) to determine the frequency with which emergency medicine physicians perform airway procedures including: bag-mask ventilation (BMV), endotracheal intubation (ETI), laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, tracheostomy tube change (TTC), and surgical airways, and 2) to investigate predictors of procedural confidence regarding advanced airway management in children...
December 31, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniel Martin Simadibrata, Julius Calvin, Alya Darin Wijaya, Naufal Arkan Abiyyu Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory marker, was suggested to be predictive of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Here, we investigated whether NLR levels on admission could predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on 23 July 2020 to retrieve all published articles, including grey literature and preprints, investigating the association between on-admission NLR values and severity or mortality in COVID-19 patients...
January 9, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Tharwat El Zahran, Hala Mostafa, Hani Hamade, Zeina Mneimneh, Ziad Kazzi, Mazen J El Sayed
BACKGROUND: Between October 2019 and February 2020, massive crowds protested in Lebanon against economic collapse. Various less than lethal weapons including riot control agents and rubber bullets were used by law enforcement, which led to several traumatic and chemical injuries among victims. This study describes the clinical presentation, management, outcome, and healthcare costs of injuries. METHODS: A retrospective review of the hospital records of all the casualties presenting to the Emergency Department of the American University of Beirut Medical Center between October 17th, 2019, and February 29th, 2020, was conducted...
January 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sommer Jarvis, Evgenia Koumadoraki, Nikolaos Madouros, Shayka Sharif, Amber Saleem, Safeera Khan
Osteosarcoma is extremely malignant, and the most common cancer that affects bone. Current treatments involve surgical resection of the affected area and multi-agent chemotherapy, though survival rate is generally poor for those affected by metastases. As treatment for osteosarcoma has remained unchanged for the past few decades, there is a need for further advancements in the understanding of osteosarcoma biology and therapeutics. Thus, reliable animal models that can accurately recapitulate the disease are required...
January 9, 2021: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Guoyi Yan, Xinxin Zhong, Lin Yue, Chunlan Pu, Huifang Shan, Suke Lan, Meng Zhou, Xueyan Hou, Jie Yang, Rui Li
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was involved in the development of various cancer types. Although several ALK inhibitors have been advanced to clinical trials, the emergence of drug resistance has limited the clinical application of them. To overcome the drug resistance, proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) could be an alternative strategy. In this study, a series of ALK degraders were designed and synthesized. The degraders were developed through the conjugation of LDK378 and CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase ligands...
January 2, 2021: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Christopher R Browning, Jake Tarrence, Eric LaPlant, Bethany Boettner, Kammi K Schmeer, Catherine A Calder, Baldwin M Way, Jodi L Ford
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that exposure to police-related deaths is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes among black people. Yet, no study to date has directly examined the biological consequences of exposure to police-related deaths for urban black youth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We employ unique data from the 2014-16 Adolescent Health and Development in Context (AHDC) study - a representative sample of youth ages 11 to 17 residing in the Columbus, OH area...
September 24, 2020: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maurizio Pompili, Luca Bonanni, Flavia Gualtieri, Giada Trovini, Severino Persechino, Ross J Baldessarini
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of increased suicidal risk in association with psoriasis is growing, but findings concerning atopic dermatitis are inconsistent. METHODS: We systematically reviewed reports of suicidal ideation, attempts, or suicides among subjects diagnosed with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis compared to healthy controls or persons with other illnesses. Reported rates of suicidal ideation and behavior were compared among the groups, using meta-analyses to compare suicidal rates with dermatologic patients versus controls, as well as between dermatological diagnoses...
December 26, 2020: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Kian Niknam, Jason Nesbitt, Tsuyoshi Mitarai, Matthew J R Nudelman, Alexandra June Gordon, Jennifer G Wilson, Michael A Kohn
BACKGROUND: Boarding of ICU patients in the ED is increasing. Illness severity scores may help emergency physicians stratify risk to guide earlier transfer to the ICU and assess pre-ICU interventions by adjusting for baseline mortality risk. Most existing illness severity scores are based on data that is not available at the time of the hospital admission decision or cannot be extracted from the electronic health record (EHR). We adapted the SOFA score to create a new illness severity score (eccSOFA) that can be calculated at the time of ICU admission order entry in the ED using EHR data...
December 14, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Yingjun Yu, Xiao Chen, Yi Wang, Jinfeng Mao, Zhibin Ding, Yaofeng Lu, Xiuchun Wang, Xiaoying Lian, Yue Shi
Drinking water on isolated islands includes treated rainwater, water shipped from the mainland, and desalinated seawater. However, marine transportation and desalination plants are vulnerable to emergencies, such as extreme weather, making self-sustaining stand-by water for emergency response essential. Rainwater is ideal for producing the stand-by water, and rainwater harvesting is sustainable and clean, and prolonged biostability can be ensured by managing biological and chemical parameters. The present study applied a stand-by drinking water purification system (primarily including nanofiltration and low-dose chlorination) to explore the feasibility of producing and storing cleaner drinking water from rainwater and the following conclusions were drawn...
January 7, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Wanggi Jaung
Pandemic outbreaks can cause diverse impacts on society by altering human-nature relations. This study analyzed these relational changes during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Swine flu, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola outbreaks by applying machine learning and big data analyses of global news articles. The results showed that social-ecological systems play vital roles in analyzing indirect pandemic impacts. Herein, major pandemic impacts, including reduced use of cultural ecosystem services, can be analyzed by big data analyses at the global scale...
January 7, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Junyan Wang, Chuncui Huang, Jinyu Zhou, Keli Zhao, Yan Li
Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycan structures are currently believed to closely related to the emergence of cancer. In this review, we summarize the current body of evidence suggesting that differences in serum IgG glycosylation patterns correspond to changes in multiple types of cancer. Modifications include IgG terminal N-link galactosylation, IgG core fucosylation, IgG terminal sialylation, and IgG terminal bisecting N-acetylglucosamine. IgG N-glycomic alterations represent promising novel biomarkers for non-invasive-cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and progression monitoring; they are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, compensating for previously identified glycobiomarkers...
January 6, 2021: Cellular Immunology
Dahee An, Joorim Na, Jinyoung Song, Jinho Jung
Fragmented microplastics (MPs) are emerging contaminants in freshwater environments; however, long-term assessment of their toxicity remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the chronic toxicity (21 d) of synthesized polyethylene MP fragments and commercial polyethylene MP beads to Daphnia magna. Ingestion of small- and large-sized MP fragments (17.23 ± 3.43 and 34.43 ± 13.09 μm, respectively) by D. magna was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, by 8.3 and 5.2 times, respectively, than that of MP beads (39...
January 8, 2021: Chemosphere
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