David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Trine Holt Clemmensen, Henrik Hein Lauridsen, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Hanne Kaae Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Informal carers of people with dementia report having unmet needs for support and few supportive interventions have been shown to be effective. There is a need to develop needs assessment instruments and supportive interventions with a holistic and person-centred approach to meet the various and complex needs of carers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of carers' support needs when caring for people with dementia with the objectives to map and synthesise knowledge on key concepts of carers' support needs...
August 11, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Thomas Foth
In August 2017, a group of activists erected in Ottawa's downtown a tent as a first overdose prevention site as a response to what the public and the activists perceived as an epidemic-a devastating wave of opioid and fentanyl overdoses in Canada. The Ontario premier was urged to declare an emergency that would provide increased funding for harm reduction and also send a message to survivors and families that the lives of their loved ones mattered. Thus, the discourses around the so-called opioid crisis used a language of moral sentiments to legitimate political action...
August 11, 2020: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
John Kramer, Danielle M Dick, Andrea King, Lara A Ray, Kenneth J Sher, Ashley Vena, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Laura Acion
AIM: The purpose of this brief narrative review is to address the complexities and benefits of extending animal alcohol addiction research to the human domain, emphasizing Allostasis and Incentive Sensitization, two models that inform many pre-clinical and clinical studies. METHODS: The work reviewed includes a range of approaches, including: a) animal and human studies that target the biology of craving and compulsive consumption; b) human investigations that utilize alcohol self-administration and alcohol challenge paradigms, in some cases across 10 years; c) questionnaires that document changes in the positive and negative reinforcing effects of alcohol with increasing severity of addiction; and d) genomic structural equation modeling based on data from animal and human studies...
August 11, 2020: Alcohol and Alcoholism
Minmin Hu, Hui Zhang, Tao Hu, Bingbing Fan, Xiaohui Wang, Zhenjiang Li
MXenes refer to a family of 2D transition metal carbides/nitrides that are rich in chemistry. The first member of the family, Ti3C2Tx, was reported in 2011. Since then MXenes have opened up an exciting new field in 2D inorganic functional materials by virtue of their intrinsic electronic conductivity, superior hydrophilicity, rich surface chemistry and layered structure, as evidenced by the fact that the number of papers on MXenes has increased exponentially. The unique properties and ease of processing have positioned them as promising materials for a variety of applications including energy storage, especially for supercapacitors...
August 11, 2020: Chemical Society Reviews
G Samuel, D Kennett
Law enforcement authorities in the United States have been increasingly employing genealogists to search genetic genealogy databases with unknown origin DNA from unidentified human remains, or from a serious crime scene, to identify the victim or a potential suspected perpetrator. There are benefits to this form of searching in terms of public safety and bringing justice to victims of crime, and such searches are legally permissible. However, ethical questions arise regarding whether database users have a reasonable expectation that their DNA information will be searched by law enforcement in this way, and so, in turn, questions about consent and privacy have emerged...
August 2, 2020: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Evan L O'Keefe, Tyler M Peterson, Carl J Lavie
For the first time in the history of the modern era smoking tobacco is not the most popular inhaled product. After a flurry of legislature, cannabis has come to the forefront of both medicinal and recreational drug use. A confluence of evidence suggests, however, that marijuana consumption may confer a particularly worrisome cardiovascular risk profile. While combustible forms still contain many of the same harmful chemicals found in tobacco such as aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitric oxide, some in even greater concentrations than tobacco, edible preparations have been evidenced to cause more cardiovascular-related emergency department visits...
July 13, 2020: Current Opinion in Psychology
José Luis Malvar, Juan Luis Santos, Julia Martín, Irene Aparicio, Esteban Alonso
In Europe, approximately 40% of sludge yearly produced in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is applied in agricultural lands as organic amendment, especially in arid regions. Sludge tends to concentrate wastewater pollutants. Many of them are not removed by sludge stabilization treatments and, as a result, they could originate adverse effects on soils, vegetation, animals, and humans. Although sludge stabilization treatments play an important role in removal contaminants from sludge and, therefore, in preventing contaminant discharges onto soils, there is scarce information about the occurrence of these compounds in these treatments...
August 8, 2020: Waste Management
Martin Obermair, Simon Hettler, Chyongere Hsieh, Manuel Dries, Michael Marko, Dagmar Gerthsen
Phase plates (PPs) are beneficial devices to improve the phase contrast of life-science objects in cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The development of the hole-free (HF) PP, which consists of a thin carbon film, has led to impressive results due to its ease in fabrication, implementation and application. However, the phase shift of the HFPP can be controlled only indirectly. The electrostatic Zach PP uses a strongly localized and adjustable electrostatic potential to generate well-defined and variable phase shifts between scattered and unscattered electrons...
July 29, 2020: Ultramicroscopy
A B Solovieva, T G Rudenko, A B Shekhter, N N Glagolev, A L Spokoinyi, A L Fayzullin, N A Aksenova, A I Shpichka, V V Kardumyan, P S Timashev
Emerging global danger of multidrug resistant microbes makes it essential to explore new approaches to treat infections. We studied antibacterial and pro-regenerative effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) performed with water solutions of photodithazine and its complexes with Pluronic F127 and chitosan in rat model of full thickness wound (n = 24) infected by an associated Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria culture. Laboratory rats were exposed to PDT 24 and 72 h after the injury. Exudate samples were collected before and after PDT for a microbiological study...
July 7, 2020: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kritika Saxena, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Kuppusamy Balamurugan
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular biological process involved in migration of primary cancer cells to secondary sites facilitating metastasis. Besides, EMT also confers properties such as stemness, drug resistance and immune evasion which can aid a successful colonization at the distant site. EMT is not a binary process; recent evidence suggests that cells in partial EMT or hybrid E/M phenotype(s) can have enhanced stemness and drug resistance as compared to those undergoing a complete EMT...
August 8, 2020: Translational Oncology
Chen Huang, Xian Xing, Xinyu Xiang, Xiaoli Fan, Ruoting Men, Tinghong Ye, Li Yang
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are a group of liver disorders composed of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) characterized by chronic hepatic and biliary inflammation. Although several genetic factors, such as HLA alleles, TNFA, and CTLA-4, have been reported in the pathogenesis of AILDs, many details remain unknown. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial components in the diagnosis and therapeutic applications of various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), glomerulonephritis, and AILDs...
August 8, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Qianqian Cui, Yitao Pan, Jinghua Wang, Hongxiu Liu, Bing Yao, Jiayin Dai
Given that per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exhibit different distribution in the serum and semen of adult men, improving our understanding of the predictors of PFAS concentrations in paired serum and semen samples from an individual is essential. Here, we investigated and compared the effects of emerging and legacy PFAS concentrations in serum and semen on reproductive hormone levels in serum within a Chinese adult male population. We explored the relationships among perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA) in serum and semen with reproductive hormones in serum among 651 adult men from Nanjing, China...
August 6, 2020: Environmental Pollution
Harshini Weerasinghe, Ana Traven
Immune cells, including macrophages and monocytes, remodel their metabolism and have specific nutritional needs when dealing with microbial pathogens. While we are just beginning to understand immunometabolism in fungal infections, emerging themes include recognition of fungal cell surface molecule driving metabolic remodelling to increase glycolysis, the critical role of glycolysis in the production of antifungal cytokines and fungicidal effector molecules, and the need for maintaining host glucose homeostasis to defeat fungal infections...
August 8, 2020: Current Opinion in Microbiology
James P Meador, Lisa F Bettcher, Mathew C Ellenberger, Taurence D Senn
Both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analyses were conducted on juvenile ocean-type fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) residing in two estuaries receiving wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and one reference estuary. The data show that the metabolome patterns for fish from the two WWTP-receiving estuaries were more similar to each other compared to that for the reference site fish. Also, a comparison of the metabolome for fish from the reference site and fish from a hatchery upstream of one of the effluent-receiving estuaries indicated no differences, implying that residency for fish in the contaminated estuary resulted in major changes to the metabolome...
July 24, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
Je-Won Yoo, Hayoung Cho, Kyun-Woo Lee, Eun-Ji Won, Young-Mi Lee
The combined effect of toxic inducers has emerged as a challenging topic, particularly due to their inconsistent impacts on the environment. Using toxic unit (TU) based on LC50 value, we investigated the 48 h acute toxicities of the following combinations: Cd + As, Cd + Pb, As + Pb, and Cd + As + Pb, and binary and ternary combined effects were interpreted using concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. The molecular effects of these combinations were further examined on the basis of gene expression (four GST and two SOD isoforms) and antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and GST)...
August 8, 2020: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rebekah Tritz, Tyler Benson, Valerie Harris, Farlyn Z Hudson, James Mintz, Hanfang Zhang, Simone Kennard, Weiqin Chen, David W Stepp, Gabor Csanyi, Eric J Belin de Chantemèle, Neal L Weintraub, Brian K Stansfield
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a heritable cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations for NF1 are rare due to the large number of NF1 mutations and role of modifier genes in manifestations of NF1; however, emerging reports suggest that persons with NF1 display a distinct anthropometric and metabolic phenotype featuring short stature, low body mass index (BMI), increased insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Nf1 heterozygous (Nf1+/-) mice accurately reflect the dominant inheritance of NF1 and are regularly employed as a model of NF1...
August 8, 2020: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Trista McKenzie, Ceylena Holloway, Henrietta Dulai, James P Tucker, Ryo Sugimoto, Toshimi Nakajima, Kana Harada, Isaac R Santos
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is rarely considered as a pathway for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Here, we investigated SGD as a source of CECs in Sydney Harbour, Australia. CEC detection frequencies based on presence/absence of a specific compound were >90% for caffeine, carbamazepine, and dioxins, and overall ranged from 25 to 100% in five studied embayments. SGD rates estimated from radium isotopes explained >80% of observed CEC inventories for one or more compounds (caffeine, carbamazepine, dioxins, sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones and ibuprofen) in four out of the five embayments...
August 8, 2020: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Elizabeth B Jeans, Yue-Houng Hu, Bradley J Stish, Brian King, Mark Davis, William S Harmsen, Kristin M Fruth, Sarah E Locher, Christopher L Deufel, Jaden D Evans, James A Martenson, Scott C Lester
OBJECTIVES: Historically, the standard of care for total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) delivered 30-36 Gray (Gy) over 5-10 weeks. Given the high-risk of relapse, a majority of patients require additional treatments. Therefore, attempts to utilize a shortened course of TSEBT have been investigated. METHODS: We conducted a single-institution retrospective review to evaluate disease response, control, and toxicity using a low-dose, hypofractionated course of TSEBT (HTSEBT) in patients with mycosis fungoides...
August 8, 2020: Practical Radiation Oncology
Sherif M Shehata, Ahmed Elgendy, Ahmed A Elhaddad, Mohamed E Awad, Mohamed M Shalaby, Ahmed M AboElyazeed
OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of laparoscopic resection of pediatric benign ovarian teratomas with gonadal preservation, using homemade glove retrieval bag. DESIGN: Review of all girls with benign ovarian teratomas who managed by laparoscopic ovarian sparing surgery (OSS) at our hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. RESULTS: Eleven patients were included for analysis with a mean age of 6.1 years. Ten cases were operated electively, while one patient was managed at emergency due to ovarian torsion...
August 8, 2020: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
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