David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Candice Tien-da Cheung, Matthew Jayasekara, Munawar Hussain, Narayanaswamy Raman
BACKGROUND: Ovarian torsion (OT) is a gynaecological emergency and requires prompt recognition and treatment in order to prevent the loss of ovarian function. Patients who are undergoing fertility treatment are at an increased risk of developing OT. OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of OT in patients undergoing fertility treatment can be challenging as they often present with abdominal pain and other non-specific symptoms. We highlight the importance of early diagnosis of suspected torsion and performed a literature review on cases of bilateral OT to review its presentation, investigation, and subsequent management...
August 29, 2023: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yuqian Luo, Yi-Hua Zhou, Hong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can occur intrauterine, intrapartum, and postpartum. Currently, infants with confirmed positive results in virological tests before 48 h of age are defined as having intrauterine infection. AIM: We herein review the literature that identifies emerging challenges in diagnosing intrauterine HIV infection to rethink the current diagnostic criteria. FINDINGS: A number of reports have shown that some infants who were diagnosed with intrauterine HIV infection after birth became negative for HIV in the subsequent follow-ups, including negative HIV antibodies at the age of 12-18 months...
August 25, 2023: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Kirby L Wycoff, Jabina G Coleman, Christine M Santoro, Leah L Zullig, Niesha Darden, Porsche M Holland, Jane F Cruice, Shukriyyah Mitchell, Michelle Smith, Saleemah J McNeil, Sharon J Herring
OBJECTIVE: To explore how patients, community-based perinatal support professionals, and health system clinicians and staff perceived facilitators and barriers to implementation of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) designed to optimize Black maternal heart health. METHODS: This article describes the formative work that we believed needed to occur before the start of the Change of H.E.A.R.T (Here for Equity, Advocacy, Reflection and Transformation) RCT. We used a qualitative, descriptive design and community-based, participatory approach, the latter of which allowed our team to intentionally focus on avoiding harm and equalizing power dynamics throughout the research process...
October 1, 2023: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anna Kheyfets, Kali Vitek, Claire Conklin, Christianna Tu, Elysia Larson, Chloe Zera, Ronald Iverson, Emily Reiff, Andrew Healy, Julianne Lauring, Corina Schoen, Karen Manganaro, Mary Pomerleau, Bonnell Glass, Ndidiamaka Amutah-Onukagha, Hafsatou Diop, Audra R Meadows
OBJECTIVE: The PNQIN (Perinatal-Neonatal Quality Improvement Network of Massachusetts) sought to adapt the Reduction of Peripartum Racial and Ethnic Disparities Conceptual Framework and Maternal Safety Consensus Bundle by selecting and defining measures to create a bundle to address maternal health inequities in Massachusetts. This study describes the process of developing consensus-based measures to implement the PNQIN Maternal Equity Bundle across Massachusetts hospitals participating in the Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health Initiative...
October 1, 2023: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Annika van Oosbree, Lindsay Leigh, Michael Burt, Ryan Garry
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer to cause death in the world. Despite the recent change in age from 50 to 45 in some societies' recommendations for CRC screening, its incidence is increasing in patients under 50 years. We present a case of a 35-year-old female with no family history of CRC who presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and obstipation and was found to have sporadic obstructing transverse colon adenocarcinoma.
August 2023: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Miguel Hueso, Rafael Álvarez, David Marí, Vicent Ribas-Ripoll, Karim Lekadir, Alfredo Vellido
Artificial intelligence (AI) generative models driven by the integration of AI and natural language processing technologies, such as OpenAI's chatbot generative pre-trained transformer large language model (LLM), are receiving much public attention and have the potential to transform personalized medicine. Dialysis patients are highly dependent on technology and their treatment generates a challenging large volume of data that has to be analyzed for knowledge extraction. We argue that, by integrating the data acquired from hemodialysis treatments with the powerful conversational capabilities of LLMs, nephrologists could personalize treatments adapted to patients' lifestyles and preferences...
September 21, 2023: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Shiju Wang, Yuannan Zheng, Bingyou Jiang, Chang-Fei Yu, Yi Zhang, Wenhan Tao, Ben Ji
Green biosurfactants are emerging as a promising area of research. However, there is a limited focus on the adsorption and wetting characteristics of biosurfactants on coal dust. This study explores the effects of sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants on the microstructure and wettability of different coalification degree coal. The microstructure parameters of SL adsorbed on coal dust were measured using a surface tensiometer, contact angle analyzer, and particle size analyzer. The results indicate that SL has the lowest critical surface tension, leading to a 9...
September 21, 2023: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Vaishnavi Tammara, Atanu Das
The emergence of a novel cross-α fibrillar structure, unlike the commonly observed sequence-independent cross-β one, of a 22-residue bacterial virulent amphipathic α-helical peptide of the phenol soluble modulin (PSM) family, PSMα3, with many deleterious effects on human life, has infused uncertainty to the paradigm of the intrinsically polymorphic, multivariate, multiphasic, and cross-sequence-cross-disease entangled protein aggregation landscape and hence on the identity of the therapeutic target...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mymuna Ashna, Neeharika Senthilkumar, Pallab Sanpui
Regenerative medicine (RM) is a multidisciplinary field that utilizes the inherent regenerative potential of human cells to generate functionally and physiologically acceptable human cells, tissues, and organs in vivo or ex vivo . An appropriate biomaterial scaffold with desired physicochemical properties constitutes an important component of a successful RM approach. Among various forms of biomaterials explored until the present day, hydrogels have emerged as a versatile candidate for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) applications such as scaffolds for spatial patterning and delivering therapeutic agents, or substrates to enhance cell growth, differentiation, and migration...
September 21, 2023: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Shaoxuan Zhang, Jiazhe Chen, Zhanyun Wang, Chengkang Chen, Anna Chen, Qiaonan Jing, Jianguo Liu
Persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) substances are affecting the safety of drinking water and are threatening the environment and human health. Many PMT substances are used in industrial processing or consumer products, but their sources and emissions mostly remain unclear. This study presents a long-term source distribution and emission estimation of melamine, a high-production-volume PMT substance of emerging global concern. The results indicate that in China, approximately 1858.7 kilotonnes (kt) of melamine were released into the water (∼58...
September 21, 2023: Environmental Science & Technology
Eduard Valdes, Taolin Fang, Michael Boffa, Jennifer A Frontera
OBJECTIVES: Critically ill patients eliminate levetiracetam (LEV) more rapidly than healthy controls, yet low doses are commonly used for seizure prophylaxis in the ICU setting. We compared the rates of achievement of target serum levels and new onset seizure (clinical and/or electrographic) among patients who received low (500 mg bid) versus high (750-1,000 ;mg bid) dose LEV. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care, academic center...
September 20, 2023: Critical Care Medicine
Elizabeth Heavey, Kathleen Peterson
In late 2021, the CDC was alerted to a cluster of children with hepatitis of unknown etiology at a US hospital. Similar reports began to emerge out of Europe. This article discusses the systematic investigation into these cases.
October 1, 2023: Nursing
Recai Ergün, Dilek Ergün, Esin Özkan, Özlem Kar Kurt, Merve Bacanlı, Muslu Kazım Körez
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the enzyme activity of chitotriosidase as a biomarker in early diagnosis silicosis, and to investigate immune system response and oxidative stress caused by silica exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silicosis patients (n = 116), exposed to silica without disease (n = 76), and healthy individuals(n = 55) were included. Serum levels of chitotriosidase, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidant-antioxidant and immune parameters were measured...
September 19, 2023: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
J Dixon Johns, Rafal Olszewski, Dillon Strepay, Ivan A Lopez, Akira Ishiyama, Michael Hoa
HYPOTHESIS: Analysis of human temporal bone specimens of patients with Menière's disease (MD) may demonstrate altered expression of gene products related to barrier formation and ionic homeostasis within cochlear structures compared with control specimens. BACKGROUND: MD represents a challenging otologic disorder for investigation. Despite attempts to define the pathogenesis of MD, there remain many gaps in our understanding, including differences in protein expression within the inner ear...
September 20, 2023: Otology & Neurotology
Xudong Sun, Yongjie Shan, Minghong Jian, Zhenxin Wang
The landscape of diagnostic assessments has experienced a paradigm shift driven by the advent of isothermal amplification techniques on point-of-care testing (POCT). The development of compact, portable isothermal amplification devices further emphasizes their transformative influence on diagnostic approaches. However, in prioritizing portability, these devices may exhibit limitations in functionality, rendering them less effective in addressing urgent public health emergencies during sudden pathogen outbreaks...
September 21, 2023: Analytical Chemistry
Ugur Kucuk, Melissa Pham, Mohummad Hassan Raza Raja, Muhammad Hamza Saad Shaukat, Richard Clark
INTRODUCTION: Increasing and easy availability of so-called natural/herbal supplements pose the unique challenge of identifying associated side effects, including arrhythmias in otherwise-healthy individuals. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with fatigue and lightheadedness. The electrocardiogram showed complete AV block with a junctional escape rhythm at 55 beats per minute with QT prolongation (542ms). One week ago, she started to use a herbal medication (Muscle Eze Advanced) for muscle cramps after workouts...
July 2023: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
R Aver Yakubu, Alyssa Coleman, Alina Ainyette, Anisha Katyayan, Kimberly R Enard
INTRODUCTION: Forty-seven percent of all adults in the US have a diagnosis of high blood pressure. Among all US emergency department (ED) users, an estimated 45% have high blood pressure. The success of high blood pressure interventions in reducing ED visits is partially predicated on patients' adherence to treatment plans. One method for promoting adherence to treatment plans is shared decision-making between patients and medical providers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using 2015-2019 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data...
September 21, 2023: Preventing Chronic Disease
Lacey M Smith, Yuchiao Chang, Candace H Feldman, Leah M Santacroce, Madison Earle, Jeffrey N Katz, Eduardo N Novais
BACKGROUND: Extensive literature documents the adverse sequelae of delayed diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), including worsening deformity and surgical complications. Less is known about predictors of delayed diagnosis of SCFE, particularly the effects of social determinants of health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of insurance type, family structure, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic vulnerability on the delay of SCFE diagnosis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent surgical fixation for stable SCFE at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2002 to 2021...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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January 2023: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
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