David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
Ming Sun, Jiaxing Zhao, Qing Mao, Chengda Yan, Bing Zhang, Yuwei Yang, Xiwen Dai, Jun Gao, Fengwei Lin, Yulin Duan, Tingjian Zhang, Shaojie Wang
Xanthine oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for the synthesis of uric acid, and therefore xanthine oxidase inhibitors are considered as one of the promising therapies for hyperuricemia and gout. In our previous study, series of 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids and 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-imino-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids were synthesized that presented excellent in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potency. Interestingly, molecular docking studies revealed that the interaction behavior of these compounds with xanthine oxidase was changed after the conversion from a hydroxy group to amine group...
April 2, 2021: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Nilesh Prakash Nirmal, Ram Mereddy, Sajid Maqsood
Beetroot is well known for its deep red-purple colouring pigments called betalains. Betalains also found its application in the preparation of functional foods and drinks. Therefore, extraction of pigments with higher recovery and stability is the prime need for the industry. Conventional extraction techniques such as maceration, grinding or pressing have reported low yield of betalains and required large volume of solvent and energy. On the other hand, emerging technologies such as ultrasound, microwave and pulse electric field techniques are highly efficient processes and can achieve higher recovery...
March 19, 2021: Food Chemistry
Taeyoung Kim, Manushi Sharma, Yot Teerawattananon, Cecilia Oh, Leslie Ong, Peter Hangoma, Deepika Adhikari, Pempa Pempa, Angela Kairu, Stacey Orangi, Saudamini Vishwanath Dabak
Health Technology Assessment (HTA), a tool for priority setting, has emerged as a means of ensuring the sustainability of a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) system. However, setting up an effective HTA system poses multiple challenges and knowledge exchange can play a crucial role in helping countries achieve their UHC targets. This article reports the results of the discussion during a preconference session at the 2019 HTAsiaLink Conference, an annual gathering of HTA agencies in Asia, which supports knowledge transfer and exchange among HTA practitioners...
April 7, 2021: Value in Health Regional Issues
Njål Andersen, Viren Swami
Science mapping is a methodology that combines quantitative analysis, classification, and visualisation to identify the composition and inter-relationships between bibliographic objects. Here, we used bibliometric science mapping to identify the overarching structure, evolution of research themes and research fronts, and geographic spread of body image research. We examined 2,783 keywords in 1,107 articles published in Body Image between 2004 and 2020, selected as being representative of body image research during this period...
April 7, 2021: Body Image
Anqi Liu, Dan Lin, Hanjiang Zhao, Long Chen, Bolei Cai, Kaili Lin, Steve Gf Shen
Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-exos), with its inherent capacity to modulate cellular behavior, are emerging as a novel cell-free therapy for bone regeneration. Herein, focusing on practical applying problems, the osteoinductivity of MSC-exos produced by different stem cell sources (rBMSCs/rASCs) and culture conditions (osteoinductive/common) were systematically compared to screen out an optimized osteogenic exosome (BMSC-OI-exo). Via bioinformatic analyses by miRNA microarray and in vitro pathway verification by gene silencing and miRNA transfection, we first revealed that the osteoinductivity of BMSC-OI-exo was attributed to multi-component exosomal miRNAs (let-7a-5p, let-7c-5p, miR-328a-5p and miR-31a-5p)...
March 27, 2021: Biomaterials
Wei Wei, Xueming Chen, Yiwen Liu, Bing-Jie Ni
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widespread emerging pollutants raising global concerns about their influences on biological wastewater treatment processes. However, the impacts of ZnO NPs on aerobic sludge digestion that is a major sludge treatment process remain unknown. Herein, this study comprehensively investigated the key influences of ZnO NPs on aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) and the potential mechanisms involved. Two different entering pathways, i.e., ZnO NPs directly entered into aerobic sludge digester and ZnO NPs initially entered into wastewater bio-treatment reactor, were tested to evaluate the different impacts...
April 1, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Milagros Sempere Borau, Silke Stertz
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major burden for human health and thus the topic of intense research efforts. The entry of IAV into host cells is of particular interest as early infection steps are the ideal target for intervention strategies. Here, we review recent key findings in the field of IAV entry. Specifically, we discuss the identification of novel entry receptors, the emerging role of the viral neuraminidase in entry, as well as recent progress from structural studies on the viral hemagglutinin during the fusion process and the viral matrix protein involved in virus uncoating...
April 7, 2021: Current Opinion in Virology
Natacha Koenig, Christine Almunia, Aurore Bonnal-Conduzorgues, Jean Armengaud, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Davide Degli Esposti
Omics approaches are continuously providing new clues on the mechanisms of action of contaminants in species of environmental relevance, contributing to the emergence of molecular ecotoxicology. Co-expression network approaches represent a suitable methodological framework for studying the rich content of omics datasets. This study aimed to find evidence of key pathways and proteins related to the testicular toxicity in the sentinel crustacean species Gammarus fossarum exposed to endocrine disruptors using a weighted protein co-expression network analysis...
March 26, 2021: Aquatic Toxicology
Khadija Salama, Boutaina Merzouki, Omar Berrada, Youssef Oukessou, Sami Rouadi, Redallah Larbi Abada, Mohamed Roubal, Mohamed Mahtar
INTRODUCTION: Leiomyosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor that originates from smooth muscle cells. Head and neck LMSs represent only 3% of all leiomyosarcomas with less than 50 cases of laryngeal LMS reported in the literature till now. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of 50-year-old male presented at our ENT department for a chronic hoarseness. Clinical examination investigations found small submucosal lesion in the right vocal cord. Treatment consisted of CO2 Laser excision of the lesion...
March 23, 2021: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Kadir Küçükceran, Mustafa Kürşat Ayrancı, Abdullah Sadık Girişgin, Sedat Koçak, Zerrin Defne Dündar
INTRODUCTION: Due to the high mortality and spread rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are currently serious challenges in emergency department management. As such, we investigated whether the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/albumin ratio (BAR) predicts mortality in the COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. METHODS: A total of 602 COVID-19 patients who were brought to the emergency department within the period from March to September 2020 were included in the study...
April 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jesse T T McLaren, Ahmed K Taher, Monika Kapoor, Soojin L Yi, Lucas B Chartier
BACKGROUND: Limits to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) criteria may lead to prolonged diagnostic time for acute coronary occlusion. We aimed to reduce ECG-to-Activation (ETA) time through audit and feedback on STEMI-equivalents and subtle occlusions, without increasing Code STEMIs without culprit lesions. METHODS: This multi-centre, quality improvement initiative reviewed all Code STEMI patients from the emergency department (ED) over a one-year baseline and one-year intervention period...
March 25, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ekrem Taha Sert, Kamil Kokulu, Hüseyin Mutlu
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is to prevent delayed neurological sequelae (DNS). However, today there is still no objective screening tool to identify patients at high risk of developing DNS. The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors that could predict DNS after acute charcoal-burning CO poisoning. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from September 1, 2019 to August 31, 2020 in a single academic medical center...
April 3, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Carolyn Sawyer, Julia Adrian, Roger Bakeman, Martha Fuller, Natacha Akshoomoff
BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at risk for difficulties in executive function (EF), however there are limited tools to assess EF in young children and it is not fully understood how these early deficits are related to emerging academic skills. AIMS: To examine (a) early EF differences in young children born preterm, (b) how a measure of behavioral self-regulation correlates with other measures of EF in children born preterm, and (c) how this measure relates to academic outcomes in children born preterm...
March 26, 2021: Early Human Development
Ahmed Yusuf, Samar Al Jitan, Corrado Garlisi, Giovanni Palmisano
In this paper, we present a critical review on antimicrobial nanomaterials with demonstrated potential for application as a disinfection technology in wastewater treatment. Studies involving fabrication and testing of antimicrobial nanomaterials for wastewater treatment were gathered, critically reviewed, and analyzed. Our review shows that there are only a few eligible candidate nanoparticles (NPs) (metal and metal oxide) that can adequately serve as an antimicrobial agent. Nanosilver (nAg) was the most studied and moderately understood metal NPs with proven antimicrobial activity followed by ZnO (among antimicrobial metal oxide NPs) which outperformed titania (in the absence of light) in efficacy due to its better solubility in aqueous condition...
April 1, 2021: Chemosphere
Sarah J Dittmer, Daniel L Davenport, Douglas R Oyler, Andrew C Bernard
BACKGROUND: The opioid crisis is a major public health emergency. Current data likely underestimate the full impact on mortality due to limitations in reporting and toxicology screening. We explored the relationship between opioid overdose and firearm-associated emergency department visits (ODED & FAED, respectively). METHODS: For the years 2010 to 2017, we analyzed county-level ODED and FAED visits in Kentucky using Office of Health Policy and US Census Bureau data...
April 6, 2021: Journal of Surgical Research
Denise I Garcia, Katie E Hurst, Alexandra Bradshaw, Harinarayanan Janakiraman, Cindy Wang, E Ramsay Camp
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates associations between high-fat diet (HFD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, individual components of an HFD that increase cancer risk have not been isolated. In addition, a specific pattern of cytokine elevation by which MetS drives pancreatic tumor progression is not well described. We hypothesized that oleic acid (OA), a major component of HFD, would augment pancreatic neoplastic processes. METHODS: An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model with Panc02 cells was used to compare the effect of low-fat diet to OA-based HFD on cancer progression...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Surgical Research
Dileepa Rathnayake, K C Bal Krishna, George Kastl, Arumugam Sathasivan
The production and emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in sewer systems is associated with the corrosion of sewer structures and harmful odour. Numerous studies have been conducted to find the best solution to overcome this issue. The pH plays a critical role not only on microbial and chemical processes that are responsible for all processes of corrosion but also on the efficiency of several control methods. This paper first critically reviews the literature on the interplay between pH and various chemical and microbial in-sewer processes, followed by a review of the control methods that depend on pH or indirectly alter pH...
March 19, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
M García Valverde, M J Martínez Bueno, M M Gómez-Ramos, A Aguilera, M D Gil García, A R Fernández-Alba
In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a quick, easy, and robust extraction method for the simultaneous determination of 30 organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) including some transformation products in soil samples. Three different extraction methods based on an ultrasonic cylindrical probe (UAE), a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and a QuEChERS method were compared. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for identification and quantification of the target analytes...
March 31, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmet Doblan, Mehmet Erkan Kaplama, Semih Ak, Nazlı Basmacı, Emine Zeynep Tarini, Şeniz Engür Göktaş, Süleyman Güler, Togay Müderris
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 disease emerged in Wuhan province of China in November 2019 and spread across the world in a short time, resulting in a pandemic. The first case in Turkey was detected on March 11, 2020. The aim of the current study was to reveal the effects of COVID-19 on cranial nerves by monitoring people infected with the disease based on repeated examinations and surveys. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The data of 356 patients with a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test who received treatment between June 2020 and August 2020 in our hospital were prospectively evaluated after the study was approved by the relevant ethics committee...
March 26, 2021: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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