Matthew M Mille, Keith T Griffin, Roberto Maass-Moreno, Choonsik Lee
PURPOSE: To demonstrate an on-demand and nearly automatic method for fabricating tissue-equivalent physical anthropomorphic phantoms for imaging and dosimetry applications using a dual nozzle thermoplastic three-dimensional (3D) printer and two types of plastic. METHODS: Two 3D printing plastics were investigated: (a) Normal polylactic acid (PLA) as a soft tissue simulant and (b) Iron PLA (PLA-Fe), a composite of PLA and iron powder, as a bone simulant. The plastics and geometry of a 1-yr-old computational phantom were combined with a dual extrusion 3D printer to fabricate an anthropomorphic imaging phantom...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mona S El Ashry, Ghada M Elsayed, Youssef Madney, Omar Arafah, Rasha M Allam, Eman O Rasekh
BACKGROUND: The role of structural abnormalities in high hyperdiploidy (HeH) has been debatable, with few studies that addressed recurrent translocations with concurrent HeH (t-HeH). We aimed at the characterization of HeH cases in pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients with special emphasis on the structural abnormalities including t-HeH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study included all patients diagnosed with HeH over the period from January 2016 to April 2019 presenting to the Pediatric Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University...
October 19, 2020: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Myles Rizvi, Hannah Smilansky, Rachel Porth, Nicholas Myers, Daniel Geller, Brent J Small, Joseph F McGuire, Sabine Wilhelm, Eric A Storch
Although considerable research has highlighted the importance of cognitive and metacognitive beliefs in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there has been limited investigation of these beliefs in pediatric OCD. The present study investigated the clinical correlates of cognitive and metacognitive beliefs in pediatric OCD. Previous studies found positive relations between OCD symptoms and these beliefs in pediatric patients, and we hypothesized these beliefs would also be positively related to pediatric OCD symptom severity...
October 19, 2020: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Petra Grahn, Tero Hämäläinen, Yrjänä Nietosvaara, Matti Ahonen
Background and purpose - Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment for displaced medial epicondyle fractures. We compared the results of nonoperative and operative treatment and calculated the incidence of medial epicondyle fractures in the pediatric census population. Patients and methods - 112 children under 16 years old who sustained > 2 mm displaced fracture of the medial epicondyle were treated in our institution between 2014 and 2019. 80/83 patients with 81 non-incarcerated fractures were available for minimum 1-year follow-up...
October 19, 2020: Acta Orthopaedica
Rupesh Raina, Hirva Joshi, Ronith Chakraborty, Sidharth Kumar Sethi
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment of end-stage renal disease in children. However, time to transplant varies, making a well-functioning long-term vascular access essential for performing hemodialysis efficiently and without disruption until a kidney becomes available. However, establishing long-term vascular access in pediatric patients can present distinct challenges due to this population's unique characteristics, such as smaller body size and lower-diameter blood vessels. There are three main pediatric long-term vascular access options, which include central venous catheters (CVC), arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and arteriovenous graft (AVG)...
October 18, 2020: Hemodialysis International
Vedat Uygun, Gülsün Karasu, Hayriye Daloğlu, Seda Öztürkmen, Koray Yalçın, Safiye Suna Çelen, Akif Yeşilipek
Although advancements have been made in monitoring and preventing viral infections in HSCT patients, CMV reactivation still remains a critical post-transplant complication. Adoptive cell therapy is an alternative to pharmacotherapy of CMV infection in refractory patients. We retrospectively reviewed CMV infection cases after allogeneic HSCT who received U-DLI as treatment. In total, five pediatric patients between the ages of 0.5-16 years that received U-DLI for a post-HSCT CMV infection were evaluated. The dose of CD3+ lymphocytes administered in DLI was 5 × 104 /kg, except in one patient transplanted from his sibling...
October 19, 2020: Pediatric Transplantation
Po-Chien Chou-Wu, Paula Y Arnold
Novel allele, DPB1*1049:01, is a one nucleotide variant of DPB1*03:01:01:01 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 18, 2020: HLA
Adina Landsberg, Maziar Riazy, Tom D Blydt-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Due to a lack of consensus on SB for pediatric kidney transplant recipients, we evaluated the yield and clinical utility of SB findings at various time points post-transplant. METHODS: Patients transplanted at a single institution between 2014 and 2020 with at least one SB at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-transplant were included. Additional biopsies were done for indication (IB). TCMR was classified by Banff criteria (score ≥i1t1). RESULTS: Forty-seven patients had 142 biopsies (SB = 113, IB = 29); 19 (40...
October 19, 2020: Pediatric Transplantation
Karan Madan, Hariharan Iyer, Neha Kawatra Madan, Saurabh Mittal, Pawan Tiwari, Vijay Hadda, Anant Mohan, Ravindra M Pandey, Sushil K Kabra, Randeep Guleria
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Transesophageal Bronchoscopic Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) are established modalities for evaluation of mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy in adults. Limited literature is available on the utility of these modalities in the pediatric population. Herein, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the yield and safety of EBUS-TBNA and EUS-B-FNA in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases to extract the studies reporting the utilization of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-B-FNA in children (<18 years of age)...
October 19, 2020: Pediatric Pulmonology
Adam S Himebauch, Wai Wong, Yan Wang, Francis X McGowan, Robert A Berg, Christopher E Mascio, Todd J Kilbaugh, Kimberly Y Lin, Samuel B Goldfarb, Steven M Kawut, Laura Mercer-Rosa, Nadir Yehya
The importance of preoperative cardiac function in pediatric lung transplantation is unknown. We hypothesized that worse preoperative right ventricular (RV) systolic and worse left ventricular (LV) diastolic function would be associated with a higher risk of primary graft dysfunction grade 3 (PGD 3) between 48 and 72 hours. We performed a single center, retrospective pilot study of children (<18 years) who had echocardiograms <1 year prior to lung transplantation between 2006 and 2019. Conventional and strain echocardiography parameters were measured, and PGD was graded...
October 19, 2020: Pediatric Transplantation
Cozumel S Pruette, Sandra Amaral
It is well-recognized that adolescence and early adulthood are a high-risk period for non-adherence with treatment regimens in solid organ transplant recipients, leading to high rates of rejection and graft loss (Transplantation, 92, 2011, 1237; Pediatr Transplant, 9, 2005, 381; Transplantation, 77, 2004, 769). Preventing medication non-adherence is the holy grail of transplant adolescent care. If we can determine how best to support our patients in taking their daily medications as prescribed, we can improve long-term health, reduce need for re-transplantation, and reduce healthcare costs...
October 18, 2020: Pediatric Transplantation
Alice Zalan, Tara Maga, Melody Perpich, Natasha Pillay Smiley, Shelly Weiss McQuaid
Pediatric brain tumor survivorship populations have not been typically offered genetic services as part of routine care. Genetic services can be defined as family history collection, genetic risk assessment for a patient and family members, and coordination of genetic testing. Prior research has focused on the integration of genetic services in the general pediatric oncology survivorship population and found a need for these services to be implemented. Gathering a family history and providing a genetic risk assessment have previously been determined to be an integral step in determining if an individual's cancer was due to a hereditary predisposition...
October 18, 2020: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Eri Miyata, Takahiro Kudo, Tamaki Ikuse, Kazuhide Tokita, Nobuyasu Arai, Itsuhiro Oka, Reiko Kyodo, Masamichi Sato, Kenji Hosoi, Keisuke Jimbo, Yo Aoyagi, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes chronic gastritis, duodenal and to a lesser extent, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. Most H. pylori infections are acquired in childhood, and effective treatment of childhood infection is very important. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is useful for endoscopic diagnosis, mucosal tissue biopsy, and culture examination for H. pylori in children and adults. In this paper, we report results of susceptibility tests and eradication rates in H...
October 18, 2020: Helicobacter
Pedro J Alcalá Minagorre, Enrique Villalobos Pinto, José Miguel Ramos Fernández, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, Miguel Vázquez Ronco, Luis Escosa-García, Juan Ignacio Montiano Jorge, Juan José García García
SARS-CoV2 pandemic dimension has affected the Hospital Pediatrics Medicine assistance in our country. New challenges generated by COVID-19 require a series of proactive measures, based on existing scientific knowledge and standards of good practice, that allow the Pediatric Hospital services readiness and operability. Hospital Internal Pediatrics, as responsible of integral care of the hospitalized child, plays a leading role in the new hospital model emerging from this crisis. This review analyzes the impact of the current SARS-CoV2 epidemic on pediatric care, and perspective of new COVID-19 outbreaks in coexistence with other viral infections...
October 10, 2020: Anales de pediatría
Katrina Gleditsch, Jorge Peñas, Danielle Mercer, Ayesha Umrigar, James Briscoe, Matthew Stark, Fern Tsien, Andrew D Hollenbach
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by one of three translocation states: t (2;13) (q35;q14) producing PAX3-FOXO1, t (1;13) (p36;q14) producing PAX7-FOXO1, or translocation-negative. Tumors with t (2;13) are associated with greater disease severity and mortality than t (1;13) positive or translocation negative patients. Consistent with this fact, previous work concluded that a molecular analysis of RMS translocation status is essential for the accurate determination of prognosis and diagnosis...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Núria Balanza, Clara Erice, Michelle Ngai, Rosauro Varo, Kevin C Kain, Quique Bassat
Fever is one of the leading causes for pediatric medical consultation and the most common symptom at clinical presentation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Most febrile episodes are due to self-limited infections, but a small proportion of children will develop life-threatening infections. The early recognition of children who have or are progressing to a critical illness among all febrile cases is challenging, and there are currently no objective and quantitative tools to do so. This results in increased morbidity and mortality among children with impending life-threatening infections, whilst contributing to the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics, overwhelming health care facilities, and harm to patients receiving avoidable antimicrobial treatment...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Katsumi Akimoto, Mana Harada, Hisayuki Oda, Takeshi Furukawa, Ken Takahashi, Masahiko Kishiro, Toshiaki Shimizu, Keisuke Nakanishi, Shiori Kawasaki, Atsushi Amano
In recent years, >100 cases of coronary artery stenotic lesions due to Kawasaki disease were treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Surgical indications include stenosis of >75%, myocardial infarction history, electrocardiographic changes, and ischemia, as detected by myocardial scintigraphy and electrocardiography, due to drugs or exercise. Some centers have reported good patency rates, even in infants. The advantages of CABG in younger patients are minimal loss of left ventricular function, early elimination of post-operative ischemia risk, and improved quality of life...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Aditya Subramaniam, Ronald Ming Ren Tan, Derrick Chan, Zhi Min Ng, Chao Yan Dong, Jasmine Xun Yi Feng, Shu-Ling Chong
Background: Pediatric sports-induced concussions have become a topic of interest and concern in the scientific community. Already, the literature is rich with studies that have identified numerous short-term and long-term consequences of childhood sports-induced concussions. However, there are very few studies that have identified how well the students who participate in concussion-prone sports and their coaches understand these consequences and how they can be avoided. This study aimed to explore student athletes' and their coaches' understanding of the concept of concussion and how it is managed both immediately after the injury occurs and during long-term recovery...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Omri David Soffer, Angela Kim, Ellen Underwood, Anne Hansen, Laura Cornelissen, Charles Berde
Objective: To evaluate recovery from neuromuscular blockade in infants using Train-of-Four nerve stimulation. Study Design: Ulnar nerve stimulation was used to evoke thumb twitch and reported as Train-of-Four ratio. Thumb twitch was also recorded visually in real-time. Primary outcome was time to near recovery of muscle function (Train-of-Four ratio >70%). Secondary analyses were time to greater degrees of recovery (Train-of-Four ratio >80, 90%), sensitivity of accelerometry vs. visual thumb-twitch and clinical variates to assess safety...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Paola Midrio, Iris A L M van Rooij, Giulia Brisighelli, Aracelli Garcia, Maria Fanjul, Paul Broens, Barbara D Iacobelli, Carlos Giné, Gabriele Lisi, Cornelius E J Sloots, Francesco Fascetti Leon, Anna Morandi, Herjan van der Steeg, Stefan Giuliani, Sabine Grasshoff-Derr, Martin Lacher, Ivo de Blaauw, Ekkehart Jenetzky
Aim: Male patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) are classified according to presence and level of the recto-urinary fistula. This is traditionally established by a preoperative high-pressure distal colostogram that may be variably interpreted by different surgeons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intraobserver variation in the assessment by pediatric surgeons of preoperative colostograms with respect to the level of the recto-urinary fistula. Materials and Methods: Sixteen pediatric surgeons from 14 European centers belonging to the ARM-Net Consortium twice scored 130 images of distal colostograms taken in sagittal projection at a median age of 66 days of life (range: 4-1,106 days)...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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