Kamelia Krysiak, Brian Cleary, Naomi McCallion, Fiona O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Parenteral drug administration in the neonatal intensive care involves complex pharmacotherapy adjusted for the patient's weight, fluid allowance, and complex multi-infusion systems. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the delivery rate of a model drug through a multi-infusion system consisting of six intravenous infusions. METHODS: Delivery rate of the model drug was determined after infusion initiation and termination. Measurements were collected spectrophotometrically in real time...
December 2, 2023: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ana Alice de Araújo Damasceno, Alicia Matijasevich, Paola Soledad Mosquera, Maíra Barreto Malta, Marly Augusto Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are responsible for several maternal and fetal complications. This study investigated the occurrence of HDP, associated factors, and neonatal complications in women living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1521 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition in Acre birth cohort (MINA-Brazil study). All parturients with HDP (registered in the medical records) were identified...
December 2, 2023: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Ilari Kuitunen, Mikko Uimonen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the optimal postextubation respiratory support in pediatric cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Pediatric or neonatal intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: All aged children (<16 years) having cardiac surgery and postoperative invasive ventilation. INTERVENTION: Noninvasive respiratory support, including high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), conventional oxygen therapy (COT), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), continuous positive pressure (CPAP), and noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV)...
December 1, 2023: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Rui Wei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xiaoxiao Li, Jian Wen, Hongyang Liu, Jiqiang Fu, Li Li, Wenyi Zhang, Zhen Liu, Yang Yang, Kang Zou
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of pluripotent stem cells poses a major challenge to the clinical application, given ethical and biosafety considerations. While germline stem cells commit to gamete differentiation throughout life, studies demonstrated the spontaneous acquisition of pluripotency by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from neonatal testes at a low frequency (1 in 1.5 × 107 ). Notably, this process occurs without exogenous oncogenes or chemical supplementation. However, while knockout of the p53 gene accelerates the transformation of SSCs, it also increases risk and hampers their clinical use...
December 1, 2023: Cell & Bioscience
ZhiMeng Huang, JinZhun Wu, Yue Qiu, Jiayan Lin, Wanting Huang, Xiaohui Ma, Huifen Zhang, Xiaoqing Yang
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of orofacial Clefts (OFCs) is a congenital disease caused by many factors. According to recent studies, air pollution has a strong correlation with the occurrence of OFCs. However, there are still some controversies about the current research results, and there is no relevant research to review the latest results in recent years. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the correlation between ambient air pollution and the occurrence of neonatal OFCs deformity...
December 1, 2023: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Céline Best, Jean-Michel Hascoet, Elodie Jeanbert, Olivier Morel, Cédric Baumann, Emeline Renard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACS) on birth outcomes in term infants exposed during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Exposed newborns were compared with non-exposed controls in a 1 to 2 design. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of ACS exposure on neonatal outcomes. RESULT: 408 newborns were included (136 exposed to ACS, 272 non-exposed). Mean ± SD head circumference (HC) was 33...
December 1, 2023: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Shota Suzuki, Shota Tanaka, Yusuke Kametani, Ayaka Umeda, Kosuke Nishinaka, Kaho Egawa, Yoshiaki Okada, Masanori Obana, Yasushi Fujio
Though it is well known that mammalian cardiomyocytes exit cell cycle soon after birth, the mechanisms that regulate proliferation remain to be fully elucidated. Recent studies reported that cardiomyocytes undergo dedifferentiation before proliferation, indicating the importance of dedifferentiation in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Since Runx1 is expressed in dedifferentiated cardiomyocytes, Runx1 is widely used as a dedifferentiation marker of cardiomyocytes; however, little is known about the role of Runx1 in the proliferation of cardiomyocytes...
December 2023: Physiological Reports
Scott O Guthrie, J Jane Pillow, James J Cummings
Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) by nebulization to spontaneously breathing patients has been regarded as the Holy Grail since surfactant deficiency was first identified as the cause for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. It avoids neonatal endotracheal intubation, a procedure that is often difficult and occasionally harmful. Unapproved alternatives to endotracheal tube placement for liquid surfactant instillation, such as LISA (thin catheter intubation) and SALSA (supraglottic airway insertion) have significant merit but are still invasive, leaving nebulized SRT as the only truly non-invasive method...
November 22, 2023: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Angela Kribs, Kari D Roberts, Daniele Trevisanuto, Colm O' Donnell, Peter A Dargaville
Non-invasive modes of respiratory support have been shown to be the preferable way of primary respiratory support of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The avoidance of invasive mechanical ventilation can be beneficial for preterm infants in reduction of morbidity and even mortality. However, it is well-established that some infants managed with non-invasive respiratory support from the outset have symptomatic RDS to a degree that warrants surfactant administration. Infants for whom non-invasive respiratory support ultimately fails are prone to adverse outcomes, occurring at a frequency on par with the group intubated primarily...
November 22, 2023: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sanoj Km Ali, Amy H Stanford, Patrick J McNamara, Samir Gupta
Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has revolutionized the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants, leading to improved survival rates and decreased morbidity. SRT may, however, be associated with hemodynamic changes, which can have both positive and negative effects on the immature cardiovascular system, during the transitional adaptation from fetal to extrauterine environment. However, there is a relative paucity of evidence in this domain, with most of them derived from small heterogeneous observational studies providing conflicting results...
November 23, 2023: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Peter A Dargaville, Egbert Herting, Roger F Soll
Whilst exogenous surfactant therapy is central to the management of newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome, its use in other neonatal lung diseases remains inconsistent and controversial. Here we discuss the evidence and experience in relation to surfactant therapy in newborns with other lung conditions in which surfactant may be deficient or dysfunctional, including meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary haemorrhage. We find that, for all of these diseases, administration of exogenous surfactant as bolus therapy is frequently associated with transient improvement in oxygenation, likely related to temporary mitigation of surfactant inhibition in the airspaces...
November 23, 2023: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Arun Sett, Charles C Roehr, Brett J Manley
Drug delivery using a surfactant vehicle has the potential to prevent systemic side effects by delivering therapeutic agents directly to the respiratory system. The inherent chemical properties of surfactant allows it to readily distribute throughout the respiratory system. Therapeutic agents delivered by surfactant can primarily confer additional benefits but have potential to improve surfactant function. It is critically important that additional agents do not interefere with the innate surface tension lowering function of surfactant...
November 23, 2023: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ernesto Dominguez-Villegas
Injured, sick, and orphaned wildlife neonates arrive by the thousands to wildlife rehabilitation centers, veterinary hospitals, and wildlife hospitals in North America. With the ultimate goal of releasing them back into the wild, veterinarians need to know the ecology, biology, and specific problems encountered by the various species of wildlife.
November 30, 2023: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Nicole R Wyre
Ferrets are bred to be pets, utilized for hunting, and as laboratory models. Despite the fact that ferrets in some areas of the world are neutered by the breeder before entering the pet trade, the importance of pediatric management should not be overlooked. Pregnant, whelping, and lactating jills should be closely monitored and kept in a quiet, stress-free environment. Hand-rearing baby kits is very challenging due to their requirement for ferret milk. Minimizing maternal stress and disease can prevent the need to hand rear kits...
November 30, 2023: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Katherine A Lamont, Marcella H Boynton, Debra L Hickman, Craig A Fletcher, Morika D Williams
Neonatal rodents undergo anesthesia for numerous procedures and for euthanasia by anesthetic overdose. However, data regarding whether neonatal anesthesia is humane are limited. Hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is the most commonly used anesthetic protocol for neonatal rats 10 d of age or younger. However, hypothermia has recently been restricted in several countries due to perceived painful effects, including pain on rewarming. Minimizing the potential pain and distress of neonates in research is imperative, although very challenging...
December 1, 2023: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Hilal Berber Çiftci, Seyhun Topbaş, Ayhan Taştekin
AIMS: The effect of nonnutritive sucking (NNS) stimulation is unclear in infants with perinatal asphyxia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of NNS stimulation on oral intake, discharge time, and early feeding skills in infants with perinatal asphyxia. DESIGN: A randomized controlled study was conducted. METHOD: Of the 94 infants, 47 were included in the experimental group and given NNS stimulation once a day before tube feeding by a speech-language therapist (SLT) in addition to hypothermia treatment...
December 1, 2023: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Corina N Schoen, Sami Backley, Lauren Orr, Amrita Roy, Tiffany Corlin, Alexander B Knee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether induction of labor is associated with lower risk of cesarean section compared to expectant management in patients with isolated polyhydramnios. STUDY DESIGN: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients with pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios, documented between 34 and 38 weeks gestation, who were delivered between July 2012 and February 2020. The primary outcome was cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes included chorioamnionitis, endometritis, postpartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia/gestational hypertension, and composite neonatal morbidity...
November 22, 2023: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Frederick Rescorla, Bryan Dicken, Deborah Billmire, Brent Weil, Rebecca Stark, Arin Madenci, Akila Ramaraj
Sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common extragonadal germ cell tumor in the pediatric population, and accounts for approximately 70% of all teratomas in childhood.1 , 2 They present in two distinct phases, with most cases seen in neonates with large predominately exophytic tumors, often detected in utero on prenatal sonography or at birth. A smaller cohort presents in older infants and children with primarily hidden tumors in the pelvis which have a much higher rate of malignancy. The primary surgical objective is complete tumor resection without compromise to critical structures or function...
November 21, 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Xiaoli Yuan, Rui Chen, Gang Luo, Pin Sun, Xiaoxia Song, Jianmin Ma, Ruicong Sun, Tao Yu, Zhirong Jiang
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying formaldehyde (FA)-induced congenital heart disease (CHD) using in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Neonatal rat heart tissues and H9C2 cells were used for in vitro studies, while FA-exposed new-born rats were used for in vivo studies. TREATMENT: H9C2 cells were exposed to FA concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 μM/mL for 24 h. METHODS: Whole transcriptome gene sequencing identified differentially expressed miRNAs in neonatal rat heart tissues, while Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assessed miR-871-3p and Megf8 expression...
November 29, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Tamara Somborac, Güleycan Lutfullahoglu Bal, Kaneez Fatima, Helena Vihinen, Anja Paatero, Eija Jokitalo, Ville O Paavilainen, Svetlana Konovalova
Peroxisomes are membrane-enclosed organelles with important roles in fatty acid breakdown, bile acid synthesis and biosynthesis of sterols and ether lipids. Defects in peroxisomes result in severe genetic diseases, such as Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. However, many aspects of peroxisomal biogenesis are not well understood. Here we investigated delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Using glycosylation assays we showed that peroxisomal TA proteins do not enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both wild type (WT) and peroxisome-lacking cells...
2023: PloS One
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