Functional neuroimaging

Lucina Q Uddin, B T Thomas Yeo, R Nathan Spreng
The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies aimed at characterizing the human connectome. These projects map the brain regions comprising large-scale systems underlying cognition using non-invasive neuroimaging approaches and advanced analytic techniques adopted from network science. While the idea that the human brain is composed of multiple macro-scale functional networks has been gaining traction in cognitive neuroscience, the field has yet to reach consensus on several key issues regarding terminology...
November 9, 2019: Brain Topography
Xavier Guell, Jeremy Schmahmann
The cerebellum is relevant for virtually all aspects of behavior in health and disease. Cerebellar findings are common across all kinds of neuroimaging studies of brain function and dysfunction. A large and expanding body of literature mapping motor and non-motor functions in the healthy human cerebellar cortex using fMRI has served as a tool for interpreting these findings. For example, results of cerebellar atrophy in Alzheimer's disease in caudal aspects of Crus I/II and medial lobule IX can be interpreted by consulting a large number of task, resting-state, and gradient-based reports that describe the functional characteristics of these specific aspects of the cerebellar cortex...
November 9, 2019: Cerebellum
Caitlin N Price, Claude Alain, Gavin M Bidelman
Difficulty understanding speech-in-noise (SIN) is a pervasive problem faced by older adults particularly those with hearing loss. Previous studies have identified structural and functional changes in the brain that contribute to older adults' speech perception difficulties. Yet, many of these studies use neuroimaging techniques that evaluate only gross activation in isolated brain regions. Neural oscillations may provide further insight into the processes underlying SIN perception as well as the interaction between auditory cortex and prefrontal linguistic brain regions that mediate complex behaviors...
November 6, 2019: Neuroscience
Kiwon Kim, Hong Jin Jeon
With vigorous researches related to novel treatment in psychiatric field, paradigm shift is emerging with its design and assessment. Comprehension of the psychiatric phenomenon expanded beyond disease model, with dimensional approach. Assessment of patients' clinical state includes subjective reports related to problematic symptoms, functional change, and quality of life. They also include objective findings collected from mobile e-wearable monitoring system and advanced neuroimaging modalities. Novel treatment protocols are not just limited to pharmacology itself or psychotherapy itself, but the approach is integrated with stratification; pharmacological treatment enhanced by cognitive behavioral management and psychotherapeutic intervention has been emerged and studied for its impact...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Soo-Hyun Paik, Dai-Jin Kim
This article gives an overview of the concept and brain mechanisms of Internet game and smartphone addiction and the applicability of precision medicine and smart healthcare system. Internet game and smartphone addiction are categorized as behavioral addictions, which share similar phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings with substance addictions. Neuroimaging studies revealed the alteration in the functional activity and structure of individuals with Internet game and smartphone addiction, which also can be potent biomarkers...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrea Insabato, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
Neuroimaging-based personalized medicine is emerging to characterize brain disorders and their evolution at the patient level. In this chapter, we present the most classic methods used to infer large-scale brain connectivity based on functional MRI. We adopt a modeling perspective where every connectivity measure is linked to a specific model that allows to interpret the connectivity estimate. This perspective allows to analyze the quality of retrieved connectivity profiles in terms of modeling error and estimation error...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrea G Dietz, Steven A Goldman, Maiken Nedergaard
The cellular neurobiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. We discuss neuroimaging studies, pathological findings, and experimental work supporting the idea that glial cells might contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Experimental studies suggest that abnormalities in the differentiation competence of glial progenitor cells lead to failure in the morphological and functional maturation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. We propose that immune activation of microglial cells during development, superimposed upon genetic risk factors, could contribute to defective differentiation competence of glial progenitor cells...
November 5, 2019: Lancet Psychiatry
Martin Diers
In this chapter, we provide an overview of neuroimaging studies in chronic pain. We start with an introduction about the phenomenology of pain. In the following section, the application of functional and structural imaging techniques is shown in selected chronic pain syndromes (chronic back pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), phantom limb pain, and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)), and commonalities and peculiarities of imaging correlates across different types of chronic pain are discussed. We conclude this chapter with implications for treatments, with focus on behavioral interventions, sensory and motor trainings, and mirror and motor imagery trainings...
June 2019: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
Andrew J Larner
In this special issue of Diagnostics , expert contributors have produced up-to-date research studies and reviews on various topics related to the diagnosis of dementia and cognitive impairment. The methods of the assessments discussed extend from simple neurological signs, which may be elicited in the clinical encounter, through cognitive screening instruments, to sophisticated analyses of neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of disease. It is hoped that these various methods may facilitate earlier diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes, and provide differential diagnosis of depression and functional cognitive disorders, as a prelude to meaningful interventions...
November 7, 2019: Diagnostics
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific novel future episodes) draws on some of the same neurocognitive processes that support episodic memory (i.e., recalling specific past episodes). Episodic retrieval supports the ability to simulate future experiences by providing access to episodic details (e.g., the people and locations that comprise memories) that can be recombined in new ways. In the current functional neuroimaging study, we test this hypothesis by examining whether the hippocampus, a region implicated in the reinstatement of episodic information during memory, supports reinstatement of episodic information during simulation...
November 7, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Xavier Guell, Anila M D'Mello, Nicholas A Hubbard, Rachel R Romeo, John D E Gabrieli, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Sheeba Arnold Anteraper
Anatomical connections link the cerebellar cortex with multiple sensory, motor, association, and paralimbic cerebral areas. The majority of fibers that exit cerebellar cortex synapse in dentate nuclei (DN) before reaching extracerebellar structures such as cerebral cortex, but the functional neuroanatomy of human DN remains largely unmapped. Neuroimaging research has redefined broad categories of functional division in the human brain showing that primary processing, attentional (task positive) processing, and default-mode (task negative) processing are three central poles of neural macroscale functional organization...
November 7, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
M Klabunde, H Juszczak, T Jordan, J M Baker, J Bruno, V Carrion, A L Reiss
In adults, interoception - the sense of the physiological condition of the body - appears to influence emotion processing, cognition, behavior and various somatic and mental health disorders. Adults demonstrate frontal-insula-parietal-anterior cingulate cortex activation during the heartbeat detection task, a common interoceptive measure. Little, however, is known about the functional neuroanatomy underlying interoception in children. The current pilot study examined interoceptive processing in children and adolescents with fMRI while using the heartbeat detection task...
November 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alexander S Weigard, K Sathian, Benjamin M Hampstead
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by subjective and objective memory impairments within the context of generally intact everyday functioning. Such memory deficits are typically thought to arise from medial temporal lobe dysfunction; however, differences in memory task performance can arise from a variety of altered processes (e.g., strategy adjustments) rather than, or in addition to, "pure" memory deficits. To address this problem, we applied the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA: Brown and Heathcote, 2008) model to data from individuals with MCI (n = 18) and healthy older adults (HOA; n = 16) who performed an object-location association memory retrieval task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 4, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Guangcheng Cui, Yifan Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Ping Li, Liangtang Zhang, Yu Guo, Yunhui Chen, Zhenghai Sun, Xin Meng
Major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by the lack of self-serving bias, which may inherently underlie the onset and maintenance of depression. Emerging neuroimaging evidences have indicated that the altered self-processing in MDD may be germane to the dysfunctional static resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although static RSFC studies provide tremendous amounts of evidences on functional changes in depression, explorations of dynamic RSFC among the PFC and other brain regions may elucidate the temporal changes of neural activities associated with depression...
November 4, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Xin Huang, Yan Tong, Chen-Xing Qi, Yang-Tao Xu, Han-Dong Dan, Yin Shen
Objective: There is increasing neuroimaging evidence that type 2 diabetes patients with retinal microvascular complications show abnormal brain functional and structural architecture and are at an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. However, changes in the topological properties of the functional brain connectome in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients remain unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the topological organization of the brain connectome in DR patients using graph theory approaches...
2019: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Brian R White, Lindsay S Rogers, Matthew P Kirschen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) suffer from a pattern of neurodevelopmental abnormalities including deficits in language and executive function. In this review, we summarize recent studies that examine these outcomes, their risk factors, possible biomarkers, and attempts to develop therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest literature has highlighted the role of genetics in determining neurologic prognosis, as we have increased our understanding of potentially modifiable perioperative risk factors...
December 2019: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jun Li, Qing Lu, Yalu Wen
MOTIVATION: The use of human genome discoveries and other established factors to build an accurate risk prediction model is an essential step towards precision medicine. While multi-layer high-dimensional omics data provide unprecedented data resources for prediction studies, their corresponding analytical methods are much less developed. RESULTS: We present a multi-kernel linear mixed model with adaptive lasso (MKpLMM), a predictive modeling framework that extends the standard linear mixed models widely used in genomic risk prediction, for multi-omics data analysis...
November 6, 2019: Bioinformatics
Brian D Berman, Christopher L Groth, Erica Shelton, Stefan H Sillau, Brianne Sutton, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measures brain activity by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation levels, are advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia. Neurobiological disturbances in dystonia, however, may affect neurovascular coupling and impact the interpretability of fMRI studies. We evaluated here whether the hemodynamic response patterns during a behaviorally matched motor task are altered in isolated cervical dystonia (CD). Twenty-five CD patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI scanning during a paced finger tapping task (nondystonic task in patients)...
November 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Paolo Bartolomeo
Color provides valuable information about the environment, yet the exact mechanisms explaining how colors appear to us remain poorly understood. Retinal signals are processed in the visual cortex through high-level mechanisms that link color perception with top-down expectations and knowledge. Here, we review the neuroimaging evidence about color processing in the brain, and how it is affected by acquired brain lesions in humans. Evidence from patients with brain-damage suggests that high-level color processing may be divided into at least three modules: perceptual color experience, color naming, and color knowledge...
November 6, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Pradyumna Lanka, D Rangaprakash, Michael N Dretsch, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas S Denney, Gopikrishna Deshpande
There are growing concerns about the generalizability of machine learning classifiers in neuroimaging. In order to evaluate this aspect across relatively large heterogeneous populations, we investigated four disorders: Autism spectrum disorder (N = 988), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (N = 930), Post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 87) and Alzheimer's disease (N = 132). We applied 18 different machine learning classifiers (based on diverse principles) wherein the training/validation and the hold-out test data belonged to samples with the same diagnosis but differing in either the age range or the acquisition site...
November 5, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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