Irfan Demir, Aysun Toker, Hulya Aksoy, Erkan Tasyurek, Selcuk Zengin
OBJECTIVE: Rotating shift is known to disrupt circadian rhythms. The 12/24 shift system, with frequent day-night rotations and the ergonomic shift system (ESS), with 90% less rotations were compared for their impacts on oxidative stress, inflammation, and platelet activation by using pentraxin 3 (PTX3), urinary 15-isoprostane F2t, and 11-dehydrotromboxane B2 (11-DTB2). METHODS: All tests were performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Unpaired t test and Pearson correlation analysis were employed...
March 1, 2021: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yana Litins'ka, Oleksandra Karpenko
COVID-19 became a stress-test for many legal systems because it required that a balance be found between rapid action to prevent the spread of the disease, and continued respect for human rights. Many states in Europe, including Ukraine, chose to enforce an obligation to self-isolate. In this article we review what the obligation to self-isolate entails in the case of Ukraine. We also analyse whether such an obligation should be viewed as a deprivation or a mere restriction of liberty, and if it is permissible under the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms...
August 13, 2020: European Journal of Health Law
Christina Dyar, Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb, Sarah W Whitton
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority women (SMW) are at heightened risk for problematic cannabis use compared to heterosexual women. Social learning theory posits that characteristics of one's cannabis use companions influence problematic use. However, most research on cannabis use among sexual minorities has focused on minority stress and not social learning theory. As such, the current study tested whether characteristics of one's cannabis use companions (gender and sexual orientation) were associated with changes in problematic use among cisgender SMW and non-binary individuals assigned female at birth...
February 22, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Iago Torres Cortês, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Luciana Aranha Berto, Myrella Léssio Castro, Denise Leda Pedrini, Alessandra Nogueira Porto, Karina Cogo-Müller, Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in vitro the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the biofilm formation on orthodontic brackets, acid production and expression of virulence genes of Streptococcus mutans UA159 (S. mutans). DESIGN: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was formed on orthodontic brackets under exposure to adrenaline (100 μM), noradrenaline (50 μM) or PBS solution (control group) in triptone-yeast extract with 1 % sucrose. After 24 h, biofilm formation was quantified through Colony Forming Units / mL (CFU/mL) and RNA was extracted to perform gene expression analysis through real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-qPCR)...
February 23, 2021: Archives of Oral Biology
Elsa T Rodrigues, Miguel A Pardal, Eduarda Pereira, Joana F Monteiro, Ana C Certal, Paulo J Oliveira
To overcome restrictions on the use of fish in toxicity testing, the present study proposes to compare the 50% growth inhibition potential (EC50 ) of four types of effluents on the rat cardiomyoblast H9c2(2-1) cell line by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell mass colorimetric assay, with the corresponding fish lethal test results. Our objective was to evaluate if H9c2(2-1) cells shows comparable sensitivities, in both relative and absolute terms, to those provided by fish. In parallel, this study also compared the results of the chemical characterization with the legislation in force for environmental protection against effluent release into the receiving environment...
February 24, 2021: Chemosphere
Wei Lin Toh, Denny Meyer, Andrea Phillipou, Eric J Tan, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Erica Neill, Susan L Rossell
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has necessitated many healthcare workers operating on the frontlines. Another segment of the population whose mental well-being is being tested are the 'other essential workers' (e.g. supermarket workers). The current study aimed to compare the mental health of healthcare versus other essential workers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. The COVID-19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy (COLLATE) project is a nationwide online mental health survey launched on 1 April 2020, aimed at identifying key mental health concerns...
February 24, 2021: Psychiatry Research
Breno Fiuza Cruz, Salvina Maria de Campos-Carli, Amanda Margarida de Oliveira, Camila Bernardo de Brito, Zélia Menezes Garcia, RaquelNascimento Duque do Arifa, Daniele da Glória de Souza, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, João Vinícius Salgado
INTRODUCTION: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition play a critical role in the functional impairment of patients with schizophrenia. Increased oxidative stress has been evidenced in schizophrenia. Increased oxidative stress can affect neuronal function and lead to impairments in neurocognitive functions (especially working memory) and social cognition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate deficits in neurocognition and social cognition and their potential association with oxidative stress biomarkers in schizophrenia...
February 23, 2021: Psychiatry Research
Zhang Guoqing, Li Junxin, Zhang Chengguang, Xie Juanjuan, Zhou Xiaoyu, Wang Anmin
To obtain high performance (matching, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility) of personalized biomechanical fixation-type tibial implants, three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using a combination of reverse and positive methods. The implant design was optimized using a topological optimization method, the shape-optimized B-unit structure was filled, and the performance was evaluated for implants prepared by direct forming technology of Selective Laser Melting (3D Printing). The results show obviously reduced weight of the tibial implant, increased stress and displacement, yet with a more uniform distribution...
February 24, 2021: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nesa Ahmadi, Samaneh Safari, Naser Mirazi, Seyed Asaad Karimi, Alireza Komaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the extracellular space causes a progressive reduction in cognitive performance. Aβ stimulates active oxygen species generation leading to oxidative stress and neural cell death. Vanillic Acid (VA) is the oxidant form of vanillin widely found in vanilla beans. VA has many properties, such as suppressing apoptosis and eliminating the harmful effects of oxidative stress in animal models. The VA effects on impaired learning and memory in Aβ rats were assessed...
February 27, 2021: Brain Research Bulletin
Ashley Rankin, Ray Garza, Jennifer Byrd-Craven
Friendships constitute important relationships, and often function to reduce stress, but have been under-studied. In mother-child dyads, infants coordinate their stress response with their caregivers without experiencing the stressor themselves. The current study used a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test to examine whether i) friends are physiologically attuned (i.e., cortisol and progesterone); ii) attunement differs as a function of social acceptance or rejection external to the dyad; and, iii) friends can 'catch' a stress response only through non-verbal cues...
February 27, 2021: Biological Psychology
Yoshinobu Nakayama, Nobuhiro Mukai, Bing F Wang, Kristen Yang, Parth Patwari, Richard N Kitsis, Jun Yoshioka
RATIONALE: Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) is a novel molecular target with translational potential in diverse human diseases. Txnip has several established cellular actions including binding to thioredoxin, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been long recognized from in vitro evidence that Txnip forms a disulfide bridge through cysteine 247 (C247) with reduced thioredoxin to inhibit the anti-oxidative properties of thioredoxin. However, the physiological significance of the Txnip-thioredoxin interaction remains largely undefined in vivo...
February 27, 2021: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Biruk Bayleyegn, Berhanu Woldu, Aregawi Yalew, Fikir Asrie
BACKGROUND: Isolated or multi lineage cytopenia are the most common clinicopathological features and independently associated with increased risk of disease progression and death among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. In the study area, there is scarcity of data about the magnitude of various cytopenia. OBJECTIVES: Aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of peripheral cytopenia among HIV infected children at the University of Gondar Specialized Referral Hospital ART clinic, Northwest Ethiopia...
2021: PloS One
Anthony D Horlock, Thomas J R Ormsby, Martin J D Clift, Jose E P Santos, John J Bromfield, I Martin Sheldon
Bovine granulosa cells are often exposed to energy stress, due to the energy demands of lactation, and exposed to lipopolysaccharide from postpartum bacterial infections. Granulosa cells mount innate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide, including the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and production of pro-inflammatory interleukins. Cellular energy depends on glycolysis, and energy stress activates intracellular AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which in turn inhibits mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin)...
March 1, 2021: Reproduction
Simran Pruthi, Karanpreet Kaur, Varinder Singh, Richa Shri
Memory disorders are a result of a number of factors, of which elevated brain oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity are significant hallmarks. A number of Citrus species have cognition-enhancing capacity mediated by their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities. This study was designed to assess the cognitive-enhancing, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of Citrus reticulata var. kinnow (CR) leaf extracts. CR extracts were examined by bioactivity guided fractionation using in-vitro DPPH and Ellman assays to determine antioxidant and AChE inhibitory capacity...
March 2, 2021: Metabolic Brain Disease
Georg Schlieper
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) display an increased cardiovascular comorbidity, which is often underdiagnosed. Thus, effective cardiovascular diagnostic testing is of particular importance for this group of patients. Data from prospective randomized trials with cardiovascular diagnostic testing in CKD patients and improved outcome are limited. Diagnostic stress testing for CKD patients requires special consideration. Guidelines recommend cardiovascular diagnostic testing for patients undergoing an evaluation before transplantation...
March 2, 2021: Herz
Leando de Moura Martins, Liliane Motta de Lima, Luciana Mendonça da Silva, Flávia Cohen-Carneiro, Pedro Yoshito Noritomi, Fabio Cesar Lorenzoni
PURPOSE: To compare the mechanical behavior (stress load dissipation and/or concentration) of posterior crowns made from Lava Ultimate (LU; 3M ESPE) and IPS e.max CAD (LD; Ivoclar Vivadent) using finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D model of a mandibular first molar was prepared by reducing the occlusal surface by 1 or 2 mm (according to group), the axial walls by 1.5 mm, and using a 0.8-mm-deep shoulder margin as a finish line. A convergence of 6 degrees between opposing walls was set...
February 26, 2021: International Journal of Prosthodontics
Francesco Dal Santo, Leticia González-Blanco, Julia Rodríguez-Revuelta, Pedro A Marina González, Gonzalo Paniagua, Leticia García-Álvarez, Lorena de la Fuente-Tomás, Pilar A Sáiz, María Paz García-Portilla, Julio Bobes
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) forced Spain to implement unprecedented lockdown restriction. In this context, different factors could worsen sleep quality, but the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on sleep is still mostly unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we describe self-reported sleep disturbances in people without mental health disorders from a large Spanish sample (n = 15,070). Methods: During the early phase of the lockdown (19-26 March), an online survey was launched using a snowball sampling method and included sociodemographic and clinical data along with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES)...
March 2, 2021: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Zahra Shams, Babak Akbari, Sarah Rajabi, Nasser Aghdami
Objective: Functional cardiac tissue engineering holds promise as a candidate approach for myocardial infarction. Tissue engineering has emerged to generate functional tissue constructs and provide an alternative means to repair and regenerate damaged heart tissues. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we fabricated a composite polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatine electrospun scaffold with aligned nanofibres. The electrospinning parameters and optimum proportion of the PCL/ gelatine were tested to design a scaffold with aligned and homogenized nanofibres...
April 2021: Cell Journal
Ana Corte-Real, Tiago Nunes, Catarina Caetano, Pedro A Almiro
E-learning is an educational method that improves knowledge innovation by sharing relevant images for advanced learning, especially in a pandemic state. Furthermore, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a method that gathers medical or dental diagnostic images. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of dental anatomy education through a CBCT technology tool, through teachers' and students' perspectives, adjusted according to the disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. A cohort study and longitudinal exploratory analysis were performed...
March 2, 2021: Anatomical Sciences Education
Yongpeng Wang, Lei Tian, Yudan Wang, Tianrui Zhao, Afsar Khan, Yifen Wang, Jianxin Cao, Guiguang Cheng
The tender leaves and buds of Vaccinium dunalianum Wight have been traditionally processed as folk tea, known as Que Zui tea (QT), with a wide range of benefits to humans. In this study, Que Zui tea hot-water extract (QTW) and aqueous-ethanol extract (QTE) were tested for their effectiveness to alleviate acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. QTW and QTE significantly inhibited the alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β levels in the serum...
March 2, 2021: Food & Function
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