Tamara Pringsheim, Asif Doja, Stacey Belanger, Scott Patten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic use in children is increasing. The purpose of the present article is to provide guidance to clinicians on the clinical management of extrapyramidal side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: Published literature, key informant interviews, and discussions with panel members and stakeholder partners were used to identify key clinical areas of guidance and preferences on format for the present recommendations. Draft recommendations were presented to a guideline panel...
October 2012: Paediatrics & Child Health
Ingrid Olsson, Susanna Danielsson, Anders Hedström, Claes Nordborg, Gerd Viggedal, Paul Uvebrant, Bertil Rydenhag
The aim of this study was to assess seizure outcome 2 years after epilepsy surgery in a consecutive series of paediatric patients, with special focus on children with learning disabilities and other neuroimpairments in addition to the epilepsy. Outcome 2 years after surgery was assessed in 110 of 125 children operated upon for drug resistant epilepsy in Gothenburg 1987-2006. More than half of the children had learning disabilities, 43% motor impairments and 30% a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of those with an IQ < 70 became seizure-free or had a >75% reduction in seizure frequency, and two thirds if the operation was a resection...
November 2013: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Roslyn N Boyd, Rachel Jordan, Laura Pareezer, Anne Moodie, Christine Finn, Belinda Luther, Evyn Arnfield, Aaron Pym, Alex Craven, Paula Beall, Kelly Weir, Megan Kentish, Meredith Wynter, Robert Ware, Michael Fahey, Barry Rawicki, Lynne McKinlay, Andrea Guzzetta
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determine the anatomical pattern and likely timing of the brain lesion...
2013: BMC Neurology
Marcel M M Bulder, Robert ten Houten, Catharina J M Klijn, Kees P J Braun
Diagnosing ischaemic stroke in children is often difficult. Post-varicella angiopathy (PVA) is a well-recognised and frequent cause of childhood ischaemic stroke, particularly affecting the basal ganglia. When a previously healthy child presents with unilateral abnormal involuntary movements, cerebral infarction should be included in the differential diagnosis and PVA should be considered, even when there is no recent history of rash and cerebrospinal fluid is normal. Medical history and intracranial vascular imaging are important for early diagnosis and treatment...
June 5, 2013: BMJ Case Reports
Cornelius Ani, Richard Reading, Richard Lynn, Simone Forlee, Elena Garralda
BACKGROUND: Little is known about conversion disorder in childhood. AIMS: To document clinical incidence, features, management and 12-month outcome of non-transient conversion disorder in under 16-year-olds in the U.K. and Ireland. METHOD: Surveillance through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. RESULTS: In total, 204 cases (age range 7-15 years) were reported, giving a 12-month incidence of 1...
June 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry
Fatema F Ghasia, Sharon F Freedman, Anand Rajani, Sandra Holgado, Sanjay Asrani, Mays El-Dairi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spectral-domain (SD)- Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can track eye movements, has faster acquisition time and higher resolution than time-domain(TD)-OCT. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of SD-OCT in paediatric glaucoma and determine its agreement with TD-OCT. METHODS: Children who had SD-OCT(Spectralis, Heidelberg-Engineering,Germany) were retrospectively and prospectively identified from Duke paediatric glaucoma clinic. The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and macular thickness and volume (MV) were compared amongst four groups: normal eyes, eyes with physiologic cupping (C:D >0...
July 2013: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Amy McTague, Richard Appleton, Shivaram Avula, J Helen Cross, Mary D King, Thomas S Jacques, Sanjay Bhate, Anthony Cronin, Andrew Curran, Archana Desurkar, Michael A Farrell, Elaine Hughes, Rosalind Jefferson, Karine Lascelles, John Livingston, Esther Meyer, Ailsa McLellan, Annapurna Poduri, Ingrid E Scheffer, Stefan Spinty, Manju A Kurian, Rachel Kneen
Migrating partial seizures of infancy, also known as epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, is a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor prognosis, presenting with focal seizures in the first year of life. A national surveillance study was undertaken in conjunction with the British Paediatric Neurology Surveillance Unit to further define the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features of this disorder. Fourteen children with migrating partial seizures of infancy were reported during the 2 year study period (estimated prevalence 0...
May 2013: Brain
Ioana Minciu
UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of persistent (but not necessarily unchanged), movement, posture, muscle tone and motor skills disorders non-progressive, with early onset, due to non-progressive impairments, occurring on an immature brain or a brain under development (prenatal, perinatal, postnatal during the first 3-4 years of life). It is associated to a variable extent with: cognitive disorders, epilepsy, sensory deficits, behaviour disorders...
December 2012: Mædica
Silvia Miano, Rosa Peraita-Adrados
INTRODUCTION. We present a series of children who underwent a video-polysomnographic recording at our Sleep and Epilepsy Unit, who received a diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). AIMS. To describe electroclinical and video polygraphic features of paediatric NFLE that differentiate this condition from other sleep disorders that overlap and mimic the sleep motor and autonomic events of NFLE. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The inclusion criterion was that the patients have their first video-EEG-PSG recording in our laboratory...
March 1, 2013: Revista de Neurologia
Laura Silveira-Moriyama, Alice R Gardiner, Esther Meyer, Mary D King, Martin Smith, Karl Rakshi, Alasdair Parker, Andrew A Mallick, Richard Brown, Grace Vassallo, Philip E Jardine, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Andrew J Lees, Henry Houlden, Manju A Kurian
AIM: To define better the phenotype and genotype of familial and sporadic cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) caused by mutations in the PRRT2 gene presenting in the paediatric age group. METHOD: We report the detailed clinical and molecular genetic features of 11 patients (six females, five males) with childhood-onset PRRT2-mutation-positive PKD. RESULTS: Mean age at disease onset was 8 years 7.5 months (range 5-11y), and clinical presentation was characterized by daily short paroxysmal episodes of dystonia/dyskinesia...
April 2013: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Razman Jarmin, Azlanuddin Azman, Razrim Rahim, Nik Ritza Kosai, Srijit Das
Intussusception is common cause of bowel obstruction in the paediatric age group compared to the elderly population. Many times, the diagnosis may be difficult because of asymptomatic nature of this bowel disorder. We hereby describe the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with lethargy, weakness, loss of movement in the joints and was found to be anemic. The haemoglobin level was low so he was transfused with packed cells. On gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, upper GI bleed was observed. A mass was observed beyond ampulla at the 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenal junction...
2012: Acta Medica Iranica
M Costacurta, P Maturo, R Docimo
AIM: The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns. METHODS: A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth...
January 2012: Oral & Implantology
Florian Obermayr, Ryo Hotta, Hideki Enomoto, Heather M Young
The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from neural crest-derived cells that migrate into and along the gut, leading to the formation of a complex network of neurons and glial cells that regulates motility, secretion and blood flow. This Review summarizes the progress made in the past 5 years in our understanding of ENS development, including the migratory pathways of neural crest-derived cells as they colonize the gut. The importance of interactions between neural crest-derived cells, between signalling pathways and between developmental processes (such as proliferation and migration) in ensuring the correct development of the ENS is also presented...
January 2013: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Boudien C T Flapper, Marina M Schoemaker
Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with SLI (43 boys, age 6.8±0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6±0.8). The prevalence of DCD was assessed using DSM-IV-TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000) operationally defined in the clinical practice guideline (CPG): movement ABC scores below 15th percentile, scores on DCDQ and/or MOQ-T below 15th percentile, absence of medical condition according to paediatric-neurological exam...
February 2013: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yael Hacohen, Sukhvir Wright, Patrick Waters, Shakti Agrawal, Lucinda Carr, Helen Cross, Carlos De Sousa, Catherine Devile, Penny Fallon, Rajat Gupta, Tammy Hedderly, Elaine Hughes, Tim Kerr, Karine Lascelles, Jean-Pierre Lin, Sunny Philip, Keith Pohl, Prab Prabahkar, Martin Smith, Ruth Williams, Antonia Clarke, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Angela Vincent, Ming J Lim
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and investigative features of children with a clinical diagnosis of probable autoimmune encephalopathy, both with and without antibodies to central nervous system antigens. METHOD: Patients with encephalopathy plus one or more of neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, movement disorder or cognitive dysfunction, were identified from 111 paediatric serum samples referred from five tertiary paediatric neurology centres to Oxford for antibody testing in 2007-2010...
July 2013: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Tamara Pringsheim, Asif Doja, Stacey Belanger, Scott Patten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic use in children is increasing. The purpose of the present article was to provide guidance to clinicians on the clinical management of extrapyramidal side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: Published literature, key informant interviews, and discussions with panel members and stakeholder partners were used to identify key clinical areas of guidance and preferences on format for the present recommendations. Draft recommendations were presented to a guideline panel...
November 2011: Paediatrics & Child Health
Russell C Dale, Vera Merheb, Sekhar Pillai, Dongwei Wang, Laurence Cantrill, Tanya K Murphy, Hilla Ben-Pazi, Sophia Varadkar, Tim D Aumann, Malcolm K Horne, Andrew J Church, Thomas Fath, Fabienne Brilot
Recent reports of autoantibodies that bind to neuronal surface receptors or synaptic proteins have defined treatable forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Despite these developments, many cases of encephalitis remain unexplained. We have previously described a basal ganglia encephalitis with dominant movement and psychiatric disease, and proposed an autoimmune aetiology. Given the role of dopamine and dopamine receptors in the control of movement and behaviour, we hypothesized that patients with basal ganglia encephalitis and other putative autoimmune basal ganglia disorders harboured serum autoantibodies against important dopamine surface proteins...
November 2012: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
P Walker, B Whitehead, M Rowley
AIMS: This study aimed to critically review our criteria for elective admission to the paediatric intensive care unit following adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 122 children electively admitted between 1997 and 2011. During this time, our criteria for admission evolved. RESULTS: In these 122 children, the respiratory disturbance index during rapid eye movement sleep ranged from 6 to 159 (mean, 83)...
January 2013: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Hendrik Rosewich, Holger Thiele, Andreas Ohlenbusch, Ulrike Maschke, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Birgit Zirn, Friedrich Ebinger, Hartmut Siemes, Peter Nürnberg, Knut Brockmann, Jutta Gärtner
BACKGROUND: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder characterised by early-onset episodes of hemiplegia, dystonia, various paroxysmal symptoms, and developmental impairment. Almost all cases of AHC are sporadic but AHC concordance in monozygotic twins and dominant transmission in a family with a milder phenotype have been reported. Thus, we aimed to identify de-novo mutations associated with this disease. METHODS: We recruited patients with clinically characterised AHC from paediatric neurology departments in Germany and with the aid of a parental support group between Sept, 2004, and May 18, 2012...
September 2012: Lancet Neurology
Jung Hye Lee, Hyoung Sub Shim, Kyung In Woo, Yoon-Duck Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate inferior oblique (IO) underaction related to orbital floor fracture and its management. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 137 patients with orbital floor fractures who had undergone surgical repair between July 2003 and August 2009. Review of clinical data, which included photographs and radiologic findings, was performed. IO underaction was diagnosed based on anomalous head position and which was confirmed with the Hess test and limitation of duction and version in the nine diagnostic positions of gaze...
November 2013: Acta Ophthalmologica
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