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Peripheral nerve injury

Maxwell Modrak, Leigh Sundem, Ranjan Gupta, Michael J Zuscik, John Elfar
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve compression and entrapment can be debilitating. Using a validated animal model of peripheral nerve compression, we examined the utility of 2 drugs approved for other uses in humans, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and erythropoietin (EPO), as treatments for surgically induced ischemia and as adjuvants to surgical decompression. METHODS: Peripheral nerve compression was induced in wild-type mice by placing an inert silicone sleeve around the sciatic nerve...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kazuhide Inoue
Neuropathic pain is the most important type of chronic pain because it is refractory to available medications. Neuropathic pain occurs after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) or nerve damage by various reasons. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence shows that spinal microglia and P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptors, play a principal role in evoking this pain. Understanding the functions of microglial P2X4R in evoking this pain provides potential strategies for developing new treatments for neuropathic pain...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Tao Liu, Shuiqiang Qiu, Zhigang Xu, Jisheng Gu, Qiang Chen, Zhendong Luo, Desheng Wu
Objective: To explore the effect on sagittal spine-pelvis balance of different fusion segments in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: The clinical data of 326 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, treated by ACDF between January 2010 and December 2016, was retrospectively analysed. There were 175 males and 151 females with an average age of 56 years (range, 34-81 years). Fusion segments included single segment in 69 cases, double segments in 85 cases, three segments in 90 cases, and four segments in 82 cases...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Reut Guy, Frida Grynspan, Tali Ben-Zur, Avraham Panski, Ron Lamdan, Uri Danon, David Yaffe, Daniel Offen
The peripheral nervous system has an intrinsic ability to regenerate after injury. However, this process is slow, incomplete, and often accompanied by disturbing motor and sensory consequences. Sciatic nerve injury (SNI), which is the most common model for studying peripheral nerve injury, is characterized by damage to both motor and sensory fibers. The main goal of this study is to examine the feasibility of administration of human muscle progenitor cells (hMPCs) overexpressing neurotrophic factor (NTF) genes, known to protect peripheral neurons and enhance axon regeneration and functional recovery, to ameliorate motoric and sensory deficits in SNI mouse model...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Qingying Liu, Wen Chen, Xiaocen Fan, Jiaxin Wang, Su Fu, Shuang Cui, Feifei Liao, Jie Cai, Xinhong Wang, Yanhua Huang, Li Su, Lijun Zhong, Ming Yi, Fengyu Liu, You Wan
The T-type calcium channels Cav 3.2, one of the low voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels, have been found to play important roles in the neuronal excitability. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that accumulation of Cav 3.2 channels in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and sensory nerves contributes to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the regulation of Cav 3.2 channels by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in DRG neurons in neuropathic pain rats after spinal nerve ligation (SNL)...
March 11, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Nurten Gizem Töre, Mesken Gömüşsoy, Deran Oskay
Background/aim: The aim of this study was to determine validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS-T) Questionnaire. Materials and methods: The translation and back translation steps of the study were based on the Beaton guidelines. Sixty-eight patients between 18 and 65 years old with cold intolerance after amputation, replantation, multiple crush syndrome, and peripheral nerve injury were included in the study...
March 14, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas
PURPOSE: This study evaluated sacral neuromodulation's effectiveness for managing refractory neuropathic lower urinary tract dysfunction in children and adolescents. METHODS: Twenty-five children and adolescents underwent peripheral nerve evaluation test phase of sacral neuromodulation at our center. Thirteen (seven boys and six girls) cases suffered from neuropathic lower urinary tract dysfunction refractory to the maximum medical treatment. The test was done with temporary wire in all patients...
March 12, 2019: World Journal of Urology
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Maria Puigdomenech, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
Physical rehabilitation is one of the cornerstones for the treatment of lesions of the nervous system. After peripheral nerve injuries, activity dependent therapies promote trophic support for the paralyzed muscles, enhance axonal growth and also modulate the maladaptive plastic changes induced by the injury at the spinal level. We have previously demonstrated that an intensive protocol of treadmill running (TR) in rats reduces synaptic stripping on axotomized motoneurons, preserves their perineuronal nets (PNN) and attenuates microglia reactivity...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hiroko Kanemaru, Yurie Yamada, Atsushi Ohazama, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
Neuroma formation at sites of injury can impair peripheral nerve regeneration. Although the involvement of semaphorin 3A has been suggested in neuroma formation, this detailed process after injury is not fully understood. This study was therefore undertaken to examine the effects of semaphorin 3A on peripheral nerve regeneration during the early stage after injury. Immunohistochemistry for semaphorin 3A and PGP9.5, a general neuronal marker, was carried out for clarify chronological changes in their expressions after transection of the mouse inferior alveolar nerve thorough postoperative days 1 to 7...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yasmeen El Hajj Abdallah, Julie Beveridge, Ming Chan, Taha Deeb, Hani Mowafi, Saleem Al-Nuaimi, Abdulkader Saed Easa, Maher Saqqur
Background: Since 2011, hundreds of thousands of Syrians have been displaced and injured due to the ongoing Syrian civil war. In this study, we report the prevalence of neurologic injuries in a major rehabilitation center on the Turkish-Syrian border where death and injury tolls continue to rise. Method: Based on several on-site visits from 2013 to 2016, medical practitioners collected data from patients in the major rehabilitation center on the border of Turkey and Syria...
February 2019: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Sonia Chaudhry, Kyros R Ipaktchi, Ashley Ignatiuk
Radial nerve injuries are among the most common major traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Recent literature has updated our knowledge of aspects ranging from radial nerve anatomy to treatment options. Observation and tendon transfers were, and still are, the mainstays of management. However, the improved outcomes of nerve repair even 5 months after injury have changed the treatment algorithm. Nerve repair techniques using conduits, wraps, autograft, and allograft allow tension-free coaptations to improve success...
March 15, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Shota Date, Hiroshi Kurumadani, Manabu Yoshimura, Akiko Fukae, Koji Onishi, Junji Hayashi, Rikuo Shinomiya, Toru Sunagawa
The purpose of this study was to examine motor imagery ability in patients with peripheral nerve disorder using the hand mental rotation task. Five patients with left total avulsion brachial plexus palsy (BPP) and 16 healthy age-matched adults participated in this study. The mean±SD time from the injury was 103.6±49.7 months. Participants performed a hand mental rotation task as the motor imagery task; outcome measures included the reaction time from cognizing hand stimuli to the judgment of hand laterality (right or left) and the error rate...
March 5, 2019: Neuroreport
J Michael Hendry, M Cecilia Alvarez-Veronesi, Cameron Chiang, Tessa Gordon, Gregory H Borschel
BACKGROUND: Currently, assessment of unmyelinated axon regeneration is limited to electron microscopy (EM), which is expensive, time consuming and not universally available. This study presents a protocol to estimate the number of unmyelinated axons in a regenerating peripheral nerve without the need for electron microscopy. NEW METHOD: The common peroneal nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats was transected, repaired and regenerated for 4 weeks. Two distal adjacent segments of the regenerating nerve were then processed for either conventional histomorphometry using toluidine blue or immunolabeling of neurofilament protein...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Macarena S Arrázola, Cristian Saquel, Romina J Catalán, Sebastián A Barrientos, Diego E Hernandez, Alejandra Catenaccio, Felipe A Court
Axonal degeneration contributes to functional impairment in several disorders of the nervous system, constituting an important target for neuroprotection. Several individual factors and subcellular events have been implicated in axonal degeneration, but the identification of an integrative signaling pathway activating this self-destructive process has remained elusive. Through pharmacological and genetic approaches, we tested whether necroptosis, a regulated cell death mechanism, implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, is involved in axonal degeneration...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Femke Mathot, Alexander Y Shin, Andre J Van Wijnen
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have considerable translational potential in a wide variety of clinical disciplines and are the cellular foundation of individualized treatments of auto-immune, cardiac, neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases and disorders. While the cellular mechanisms by which MSCs exert their biological effects remain to be ascertained, it has been hypothesized that MSCs are supportive of local tissue repair through secretion of essential growth factors. Therapeutic applications of MSCs in peripheral nerve repair have recently been reported...
March 5, 2019: Gene
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
Paired associative stimulation (PAS), a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS), is emerging as a promising tool for alleviation of motor deficits in neurological disorders. The effectiveness and feasibility of PAS protocols are essential for their use in clinical practice. Plasticity induction by conventional PAS can be variable and unstable. Protocols effective in challenging clinical conditions are needed. We have shown previously that PAS employing 50 Hz PNS enhances motor performance in chronic spinal cord injury patients and induces robust motor-evoked potential (MEP) potentiation in healthy subjects...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Beh Suet Theng, Yu-Min Kuo, Wun-Shaing Wayne Chang, Einar Wilder-Smith, Chia-Hui Tsao, Chia-Hua Tsai, Li-Tzong Chen, Lun-De Liao
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a severe adverse effect that occurs secondary to anticancer treatments and has no known preventive or therapeutic strategy. Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to be effective in protecting against central and peripheral nervous system injuries. However, the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on CIPN have rarely been explored. We induced lower back hypothermia (LBH) in an established paclitaxel-induced CIPN rat model and found that the paclitaxel-induced impairments observed in behavioral, electrophysiological, and histological impairments were inhibited by LBH when applied at an optimal setting of 24°C to the sciatic nerve and initiated 90 min before paclitaxel infusion...
March 4, 2019: Pain
Steven D Bain, Philippe Huber, Brandon J Ausk, Ronald Y Kwon, Edith M Gardiner, Sundar Srinivasan, Ted S Gross
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the effects of neuromuscular dysfunction on hindlimb loading, muscle atrophy, and bone homeostasis. METHODS: We quantified changes to hindlimb loading, muscle atrophy, and bone morphology following either Botulinum toxin A (BTxA) induced muscle paralysis or peripheral nerve injury (PNI) in mice; two in vivo models that we anticipated would differently alter gait and mechanical loading patterns due to their distinct effects on neuromuscular signaling...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Sitao Zhang, Yaning Su, Zhengxin Ying, Dejia Guo, Chenjie Pan, Jia Guo, Ziye Zou, Lei Wang, Ze Zhang, Zhaodi Jiang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Xiaodong Wang
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many human diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We report here the findings of our study of the CNS demyelination process using immune-induced [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)] and chemical-induced [cuprizone (CPZ)] mouse models of demyelination. We found that necroptosis, a receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) kinase and its substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent cell death program, played no role in the demyelination process, whereas the MLKL-dependent, RIP3-independent function of MLKL in the demyelination process initially discovered in the peripheral nervous system in response to nerve injury, also functions in demyelination in the CNS in these models...
March 5, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rajiv Midha, Joey Grochmal
In this review article, the authors offer their perspective on nerve surgery for nerve injury, with a focus on recent evolution of management and the current surgical management. The authors provide a brief historical perspective to lay the foundations of the modern understanding of clinical nerve injury and its evolving management, especially over the last century. The shift from evaluation of the nerve injury using macroscopic techniques of exploration and external neurolysis to microscopic interrogation, interfascicular dissection, and internal neurolysis along with the use of intraoperative electrophysiology were important advances of the past 50 years...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
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