Sami Ullah, Sikandar Ali, Sundas Karimi, Umar Farooque, Manzoor Hussain, Faisal Qureshi, Sm Ismail Shah, Anoshia Afzal, Abubakar Tauseef, Muhammad Umair Khan
Introduction Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) has replaced open surgery for the treatment of kidney stones due to its less invasive nature. Bleeding still occurs due to renal vascular injuries, dependent upon the access route of the procedure. Several other factors are also related to the increased risk of bleeding. This study aims to find the association between blood transfusion and other factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), size of the stone, operative time, preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level, stone surface area, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus...
October 21, 2020: Curēus
Zach Edwards, Stephen DeMeo
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis commonly brings patients to the emergency department (ED). Patient outcomes can vary widely. In some cases, rare complications of sepsis such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia can occur. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old female presented with sepsis secondary to infected nephrolithiasis. The patient had signs and symptoms consistent with hemolysis upon arrival to the ED. Her hemolysis progressively worsened over a two-day period leading to a diagnosis of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia...
November 2020: Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine
Jared S Winoker, Kevin Koo, Mitchell M Huang, Yasin Bhanji, Brian Matlaga
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the quality of patient-oriented mobile health applications (apps) available for the medical management of kidney stone disease (KSD). METHODS: A systematic search was performed to identify apps from the Apple and Google Play app stores. Eligible apps were divided into two categories: (1) fluid apps and (2) dietary apps. Descriptive characteristics were summarized and app quality was independently evaluated on the basis of technical quality, usability, clinical value, and privacy/security...
November 19, 2020: Journal of Endourology
Adrian M Fernandez, Benjamin A Sherer, Stuart A Gansky, Jorge D Mena, Sudarshan Srirangapatanam, Scott V Wiener, Thomas Chi, Sunita P Ho, Marshall L Stoller
Background: Kidney stone formers (SFs) are at increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis of the carotid and coronary arteries. These cardiovascular and urologic pathologies can result from ectopic biomineral deposition. The objectives of this study are: (I) to evaluate risk factors for ectopic biomineralization, and (II) to characterize the overall burden of ectopic minerals in known SFs compared to non-stone formers (NSFs) matched for these risk factors. Methods: Presence and quantity of biominerals at eight anatomic locations (abdominal aorta, common iliac arteries, pelvic veins, prostate or uterus, mesentery, pancreas, and spleen) were determined in a case control study by retrospective analysis of clinical non-contrast computed tomography scans obtained from 190 SFs and 190 gender- and age-matched NSFs (renal transplant donors)...
October 2020: Translational Andrology and Urology
Parth M Patel, Alexander M Kandabarow, Eseosa Aiwerioghene, Enrique Blanco-Martinez, Spencer Hart, David J Leehey, Ahmer Farooq, Kristin G Baldea, Thomas M T Turk
INTRODUCTION: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of kidney stone formation, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. There is a paucity of literature evaluating the effects of PPIs on urinary metabolites and urine pH. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of nephrolithiasis patients treated at our institution and compared patients who were taking PPIs to those who were not at the time of their 24-h urine collections. Hierarchical multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the independent relationship between PPI use and urinary mineral composition...
November 18, 2020: International Urology and Nephrology
Michał Wasiak, Michał Popow, Magdalena Bogdańska, Aleksandra Starzyńska-Kubicka, Paweł Małdyk, Piotr Wasilewski
Brown tumours, known also as osteitis fibrosa cystica, are benign osteolytic lesions found in 5-15% of patients with hyperparathyroidism, and commonly located in mandibles, the shafts of long bones, the pelvis or ribs. As they compromise bone strength, pathological fractures can be a typical effect of their presence; but given the complex nature of the disease process in this case, such fractures require an interdisciplinary approach directed at orthopaedic treatment, plus management of the underlying hyperparathyroidism...
December 2020: Trauma Case Reports
Hannah R Moorman, Dakota Poschel, John D Klement, Chunwan Lu, Priscilla S Redd, Kebin Liu
OPN is a multifunctional phosphoglycoprotein expressed in a wide range of cells, including osteoclasts, osteoblasts, neurons, epithelial cells, T, B, NK, NK T, myeloid, and innate lymphoid cells. OPN plays an important role in diverse biological processes and is implicated in multiple diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, kidney, proinflammatory, fibrosis, nephrolithiasis, wound healing, and cancer. In cancer patients, overexpressed OPN is often detected in the tumor microenvironment and elevated serum OPN level is correlated with poor prognosis...
November 15, 2020: Cancers
Martin Bezdíčka, Jan Langer, Jaromír Háček, Jakub Zieg
Dent disease is an X-linked recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. Typical features include low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, rickets, and chronic renal failure. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with nephrotic proteinuria without hypoalbuminemia or edema. His renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), some of the glomeruli were globally sclerotic. Hypercalciuria was present intermittently and urine protein electrophoresis showed low molecular weight protein fraction of 50%...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jasper Bash, Sarah Hecht, Aaron Bayne, Casey Seideman
We report the case of a 4 year old female with severe traumatic brain injury who developed bilateral obstructing ureteral stones after hypertonic saline treatment. She developed calcium phosphate stones after two weeks of hypertonic saline therapy, and was successfully treated with ureteral stents and ureteroscopy. She has remained stone-free since that time. We postulate that an incomplete type 1 renal tubular acidosis made her intolerant to the acid and sodium load of the saline, and discuss other lithogenic factors of her presentation...
January 2021: Urology Case Reports
Sakdithep Chaiyarit, Visith Thongboonkerd
Mitochondrion is a pivotal intracellular organelle that plays crucial roles in regulation of energy production, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis), particularly calcium oxalate (CaOx; the most common type), has been shown to be associated with oxidative stress and tissue inflammation/injury. Recent evidence has demonstrated the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in CaOx crystal retention and aggregation as well as Randall's plaque formation, all of which are the essential mechanisms for kidney stone formation...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Wen-Rui Liu, Hong-Tao Lu, Ting-Ting Zhao, Jia-Rong Ding, Ya-Chen Si, Wei Chen, Jie-Bin Hou, Song-Yan Gao, Xin Dong, Bing Yu, Zhi-Yong Guo, Jian-Rao Lu
CONTEXT: Nephrolithiasis is a major public health problem worldwide and Fu-Fang-Jin-Qian-Cao granules (FFJQC) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that is used to treat nephrolithiasis. The main component of nephrolithiasis is calcium oxalate (CaOx) and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) shown to play a crucial role in CaOx-induced kidney injury. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of FFJQC on the CaOx-induced renal EMT is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the therapeutic benefits and mechanism of FFJQC in oxalate-induced kidney injury...
December 2020: Pharmaceutical Biology
So Young Kim, Woo Jin Bang, Chanyang Min, Hyo Geun Choi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the associations of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in patients with nephrolithiasis. DESIGN: A longitudinal follow-up study. SETTING: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (2002-2013) were retrieved to identify the occurrence of nephrolithiasis. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: In total, 19 103 patients with nephrolithiasis were matched at a 1:4 ratio with control participants for age, sex, income and region of residence...
November 14, 2020: BMJ Open
Tony H Kamel, Natallia Maroz
A 73-year-old Caucasian female with a history of obesity status post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery presented with generalized weakness and was found to have acute kidney injury (AKI) with a creatinine peak of 9.1 mg/dL above her baseline of 1.2 mg/dL, and anemia with hemoglobin 5.7 g/dl. Kidney biopsy revealed oxalate nephropathy likely related to gastric bypass surgery four years prior. RYGB is a strong risk factor for hyperoxaluria, nephrolithiasis, and oxalate nephropathy which often progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
October 7, 2020: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Linda My Huynh, Sharmin Dianatnejad, Sarah Tofani, Raymond Carrillo Ceja, Karren Liang, Shlomi Tapiero, Pengbo Jiang, Ramy F Youssef
BACKGROUND: Metabolic factors underlying the recent increase in stone prevalence over the past decades are not well understood. Herein, we evaluate temporal, geographic and gender-specific trends in metabolic risk factors in recurrent kidney stone formers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review of metabolic risk factors for stone formation was conducted, inclusive of the last four decades. Studies with inadequate 24 h urine metabolic data, pediatric or those with less than 50 patients were excluded...
November 13, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Tamara da Silva Cunha, Samirah Abreu Gomes, Ita Pfeferman Heilberg
Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are widely used for the management of hypercalciuria among stone-forming patients. Although the effects of different thiazides should be relatively similar in terms of prevention of stone recurrence, their potency and side effects may differ. However, there is scarce data concerning the metabolic and bone effects of these agents among recurrent nephrolithiasis patients with hypercalciuria. The aim of this update article was to compare our experience in the use of thiazide and thiazide- like diuretics with that of the current literature, concerning their anticalciuric properties and consequent reduction of recurrent stone formation...
November 11, 2020: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Adele Papetti, Raffaella Colombo, Barbara Mannucci, Mary Tolulope Olaleye, Akintunde Afolabi Akindahunsi
The phytochemical constituents in the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Triclisia gilletii responsible for its nephroprotective potentials against ethane-1,2-diol induced nephrolithiasis as previously investigated in our laboratory were elucidated. The extract was prepared using 80% aqueous methanol in 72 h, Phytochemical contents of aqueous methanolic extract of Triclisia gilletii (TGME) was identified using both a Thermo Scientific DSQII single quadrupole gas chromatography (GC) and a Thermo Scientific liquid chromatography (LCQ Fleet system) tandem mass spectroscopy...
November 12, 2020: Natural Product Research
Tsung-Hsin Chang, Wun-Rong Lin, Wei-Kung Tsai, Pai-Kai Chiang, Marcelo Chen, Jen-Shu Tseng, Allen W Chiu
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and clinical outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for patients with renal stones using pure fluoroscopy (FS) or ultrasound-assisted (USa) localization with two lithotripters. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 425 patients with renal calculi who underwent SWL with either a LiteMed LM-9200 ELMA lithotripter (209 cases), which combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic stone targeting or a Medispec EM-1000 lithotripter machine (216 cases), which used fluoroscopy for stone localization and tracking...
November 10, 2020: BMC Urology
Jasmeet Gill, Michael R Wiederkehr
Dent disease is an inherited proximal renal tubulopathy leading to low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, and progressive renal failure. Two genetic mutations have been identified. The disease usually presents in childhood or early adult life and may be associated with other proximal tubular defects, which can lead to significant morbidity, especially in children. The disorder can extend to interstitial and glomerular cells, which contributes to progression to end-stage kidney disease...
2020: Clinical Nephrology. Case Studies
M Ubetagoyena Arrieta, R Areses Trapote, J Mendia Ubetagoyena, M S Pérez Revuelta, M Letona Luqui
INTRODUCTION: Daily practice requires quick, simple and accessible methods to appropriately assess the urinary excretion of solutes in diagnostic or follow-up evaluations of children with renal lithiasis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to correlate urine elimination of substances related to renal lithiasis that depend on the volume of excreted urine in a unit of time with other parameters that are calculated by measuring the concentration of these substances in blood and urine, such as urinary ratios, fractional excretions and excretion rates...
November 4, 2020: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Naz Guleray Lafcı, Fatma Kurt Colak, Gulseren Sahin, Merve Sakar, Semra Çetinkaya, Senay Savas-Erdeve
BACKGROUND: Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency (OMIM #606003) is a rare autosomal recessive multi-systemic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. It has a vast phenotypic spectrum ranging from neonatal liver failure to slowly progressive liver cirrhosis and is characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, nephrolithiasis, and congenital heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a patient with a late-onset form of TALDO deficiency characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and slightly elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)...
November 7, 2020: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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